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Effects of Calcium Powder Mixtures and Binding Ingredients as Substitutes for Synthetic Phosphate on the Quality Properties of Ground Pork Products

  • Cho, Min Guk;Jeong, Jong Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.1179-1188
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of using natural calcium mixtures and various binding ingredients as replacers for synthetic phosphate in ground pork products. We performed seven treatments: control (0.3% phosphate blend), treatment 1 (0.5% natural calcium mixtures [NCM, which comprised 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder] and 0.25% egg white powder), treatment 2 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% whey protein concentrate), treatment 3 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% concentrated soybean protein), treatment 4 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% isolated soybean protein), treatment 5 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% carrageenan), and treatment 6 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% collagen powder). All the treatment mixtures had higher pH and lower cooking loss than the control, which was treated with phosphate. We found that NCM and binding ingredients had no negative effects on the moisture content, lightness, and yellowness of the cooked ground pork products. Treatments 3 and 4 showed significantly lower CIE $a^*$ values than the control. Treatments 2 and 6 improved the textural properties of the products. In conclusion, the combination of NCM with whey protein concentrate or collagen powder could be suitable for producing phosphate-free meat products.

Recovery of Lithium and Leaching Behavior of NCM Powder by Carbon Reductive Treatment from Li(NCM)O2 System Secondary Battery Scraps (Li(NCM)O2계(係) 이차전지(二次電池) 공정(工程)스크랩의 탄소환원처리(炭素還元處理)에 의한 리튬회수(回收) 및 NCM 분말(粉末)의 침출거동(浸出擧動))

  • Kim, Dae Weon;Jang, Seong Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2013
  • A study on the recovery of lithium and leaching behavior of NCM powder by carbon reduction for NCM-system Li-ion battery scraps was conducted. First of all, the oxide powders of NCM-system with layer structure were decomposed by carbon, lithium was converted to lithium carbonate by carbon reaction at above $600^{\circ}C$. The lithium carbonate powders with 99% purity were manufactured by washing method with water and concentration process for NCM powder after carbon reduction. The reaction yield was approximately 88% at $800^{\circ}C$ by carbon reduction. At this time, leaching efficiency at 2M sulfuric acid concentration was over 99% for cobalt, nickel and manganese.

Accuracy of different electronic torque drivers: A comparative evaluation

  • Ko, Byeong-Dae;Son, KeunBaDa;Kang, Seok Hyon;Lee, Kyu-Bok
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.350-357
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    • 2019
  • PURPOSE. This study aims to evaluate the loosening torque on the implant fixture, and to assess the accuracy of difference electronic torque drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three electronic torque drivers were used to measure the loosening torque on the implant system (AnyOne; MegaGen). The implant fixtures were divided among the 3 electronic torque driver types (W&H, SAESHIN, and NSK group) and 9 for each group. The screws were fastened at the implant fixture by three electronic torque drivers using the tightening torques recommended by the manufacturers of the drivers. After 10 minutes, the screws were again fastened at the implant fixture with equal torque. Then, the loosening torques were measured with an MGT12 torque gauge (MARK-10, Inc.). This measurement procedure was repeated 10 times under loosening torques of 15 Ncm, 25 Ncm, and 35 Ncm. In the statistical analysis, all values of loosening torque were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05) for comparative evaluation. RESULTS. There were significant inter-group differences at loosening torques of 15 Ncm and 25 Ncm (P<.05). The accuracy of the NSK driver was the highest, followed by SAESHIN and W&H. There was no significant difference between NSK and W&H at 35 Ncm (P>.05). The SAESHIN driver showed the closest loosening torque at 35 Ncm. CONCLUSION. The most accurate loosening torques were SAESHIN at 35 Ncm, and NSK at 15 Ncm and 25 Ncm. Since the loosening torque may vary depending on the tightening torques and electronic torque drivers, periodic calibration of the electronic torque driver is recommended.

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Ni-rich NCM Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries (리튬이온전지 양극활물질 Ni-rich NCM의 합성과 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Soo Yeon;Choi, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Eun Joo;Kim, Jeom-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2017
  • Layered Ni-rich NCM cathode materials $Li[Ni_xCo_{(1-x)/2}Mn_{(1-x)/2}]O_2$ ($x{\geq}0.6$) have advantages of high energy density and cost competitive over $LiCoO_2$. The discharge capacity of NCM increases proportionally to the Ni contents. However, there is a problem that it is difficult to realize the stable electrochemical performance due to cation mixing. In this study, synthesis conditions for the layered Ni-rich NCMs are investigated to achieve deliver the ones having good electrochemical performances. Synthesis parameters are atmosphere, lithium source, synthesis time, synthesis temperature and Li/M (M=transition metal) ratio. The degree of cation mixing gets worse as the Ni content is increased from $Li[Ni_{0.6}Co_{0.2}Mn_{0.2}]O_2$ (NCM6) to $Li[Ni_{0.8}Co_{0.1}Mn_{0.1}]O_2$ (NCM8). It is confirmed that higher level of cation mixing affects negatively on the electrochemical performance of NCMs. Optimum synthesis conditions are explored for NCMx (x=6, 7, 8) in order to reduce the cation mixing. Under optimized conditions for three representative NCMx, a high initial discharge capacity and a good cycle life are obtained for $180mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 96.2% (50 cycle) in NCM6, $187mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 94.7% (50 cycle) in NCM7, and $201mAh{\cdot}g^{-1}$, 92.7% (50 cycle) in NCM8, respectively.

The effect of screw tightening techniques on the detorque value in internal connection implant superstructure (내부연결 임플란트 상부구조물에서 나사조임술식이 풀림토크값에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jung-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of different screw tightening sequences and methods on detorque values in a well-fitting implant superstructure. Materials and methods: A fully edentulous mandibular master model and a metal framework directly connected to four parallel implants (Astra Tech) with a passive fit to each other were fabricated. Six stone casts were made with a splinted impression technique to represent a 'well-fitting' situation with the metal framework. Detorque values were measured twice after screw tightening using 20 Ncm. Detorque values and minimum detorque values for three screw tightening sequences (1-2-3-4, 2-4-3-1, and 2-3-1-4) and for two tightening methods (two-step and one-step) were analyzed using multi-way analysis of variance and two-way analysis of variance, respectively, at a .05 level of significance. Results: The mean detorque values for screw tightening sequences ranged from 12.8 Ncm (2-4-3-1) to 13.1 Ncm (2-3-1-4), and for screw tightening methods were 13.1 Ncm (two-step) and 11.8 Ncm (one-step). The mean of mimimum detorque values for screw tightening sequences were 11.1 Ncm (1-2-3-4) and 11.2 Ncm (2-4-3-1 and 2-3-1-4), and for screw tightening methods were 11.2 Ncm (two-step) and 9.9 Ncm (one-step). No statistically significant differences among three screw tightening sequences were found for detorque values and for mimimum detorque values. But, statistically significant differences between two screw tightening methods were found for two values. Two-step screw tightening method showed higher detorque value (P = .0003) and higher minimum detorque value (P = .0035) than one-step method. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the screw tightening sequence was not a critical factor for the detorque values in a well-fitting implant superstructure by the splinted impression technique. But, two-step screw tightening method showed greater detorque values than one-step method.

Recovery of Lithium and Leaching Behavior of NCM Powder by Hydrogen Reductive Treatment from NCM System Li-ion Battery Scraps (NCM계(係) 리튬이온전지(電池) 공정(工程)스크랩의 수소환원처리(水素還元處理)에 의한 리튬회수(回收) 및 NCM 분말(粉末)의 침출거동(浸出擧動))

  • Kim, Dae Weon;Jang, Seong Tae;Baek, Kyung Min
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2013
  • A study on the recovery of lithium and leaching behavior of NCM powder by hydrogen reduction for NCM system Li-ion battery scraps was investigated. The reductive rate was about 93% at $800^{\circ}C$ by hydrogen treatment. The lithium carbonate with 99% purity was manufactured by using $CO_2$ gas and washing method with water for NCM powder after hydrogen reduction. As a result of comparing the powders before and after the hydrogen reduction treatment for acid leaching behavior we obtained 32% enhanced leaching rate of cobalt, 45% enhanced leaching rate of nickel and the 90% leaching effect for manganese by hydrogen reduction at 2M $H_2SO_4$ concentration condition.

Compatibility Evaluation between NCM-CV Cast Iron Brake Disk and Various Pads (NCM-CV 주철 제동디스크와 다양한 패드의 적합성 평가)

  • Gil, Hyeong-Gyeun;Ko, Tae-Whan;Cho, Dong-Hyun;Han, Seong-Ho;Seo, Sung-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2007
  • The research analyzed dynamo test results to evaluate compatibility between brake disk made of NCM-CV cast iron and various pads. The dynamo test was executed with one kind of resin pad and three kinds of sintered pads suitable for 200 km/h trains according to a program which refers to UIC 541-3. The thermocouples were established in specific location in order to measure the temperature of disk and pads. In addition, the thermal imaging camera was used for capturing the instantaneous thermal characteristic of disk. The research results may be utilized to use as basis data of pad development for NCM-CV brake disk hereafter.

Insertion and removal torques according to orthodontic mini-screw design (교정용 미니스크류의 디자인에 따른 식립 및 제거 토오크)

  • Cha, Jung-Yul;Yoon, Tae-Min;Hwang, Chung-Ju
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2008
  • Objective: This study was designed to analyze the primary and secondary stability characteristics of orthodontic mini-screws of tapered design when compared with the cylinder mini-screw. Methods: A total of 48 mini-screws were placed into the buccal alveolar bone of the mandible in 6 male beagle dogs. Comparison was made between tapered and cylinder type mini-screws (Biomaterials Korea, Seoul, Korea). Maximum insertion torque (MIT) was measured using a torque sensor (Mark-10, MGT 50, USA) during installation, and maximum removal torque (MRT) was recorded after 3 and 12 weeks of loading. Results: Taper mini-screws showed a higher MIT value of 22.3 Ncm compared with cylinder mini-screw showing 13.6 Ncm (p < 0.001). The MRT of the taper mini-screw showed a significantly higher value of 9.1 Ncm than those of cylinder mini-screw of 5.7 Ncm at 3-weeks after installation (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the MRT value between the taper and cylinder mini-screws at 12 weeks of loading. Conclusions: These results showed that the high insertion torque of the taper mini-screw design increases initial stability until 3 weeks of loading, but does not have any effect on the secondary stability at 12 weeks of loading.

THE EFFECT OF SCREW TIGHTENING SEQUENCE AND TIGHTENING METHOD ON THE DETORQUE VALUE IN IMPLANT-SUPPORTED SUPERSTRUCTURE (임플랜트 지지 상부구조물에서 나사조임순서와 조임방법이 풀림토크값에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jung-Han;Kim, Chang-Whe;Lim, Young-Jun;Kim, Myung-Joo;Lee, Seok-Hyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.653-664
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    • 2007
  • Statement of problem: The screw detorque value is a measure of the preload remaining in the screw just before detorquing. Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of different screw tightening sequences and tightening methods on detorque values for a well-fitting implant superstructure. Material and method: An implant superstructure that connected directly to four implants (Astra Tech) was fabricated on a fully edentulous mandibular acrylic resin model. Six well-fitting dental stone casts were made with a pickup impression of the superstructure from the acrylic resin model. To evaluate the effect of three screw tightening sequences (1-2-3-4, 2-4-3-1, and 2-3-1-4) and two tightening methods (2-step and 1-step) on the stability of screw joint, the detorque values for a well-fitting implant superstructure were measured twice after screw tightening using 20 Ncm. Detorque values were analyzed using multi-way analysis of variance and two-way analysis of variance at a .05 level of significance. Results: 1. The mean detorque values for three screw tightening sequences were 12.3 Ncm, 12.6 Ncm, and 12.0 Ncm, respectively. 2. The mean detorque values for two screw tightening methods were 12.0 Ncm, and 12.2 Ncm, respectively. 3. The mean of mimimum detorque values for three screw tightening sequences and for two tightening methods were 10.6 Ncm, 11.1 Ncm, 10.5 Ncm, and 9.8 Ncm, respectively. 4. No statistically significant differences among the variables of screw tightening sequence and tightening method were found (p>.05) for detorque values and for mimimum detorque values. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the screw tightening sequence and tightening method did not have a significant effect on the detorque values for a well-fitting implant superstructure.

Dominant Source Based Tree for Dynamic Multicasting (동적 멀티캐스트를 위한 주 송신원 기탄 트리)

  • 남홍순;김대영;이규욱
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.3 no.6
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    • pp.633-642
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    • 2000
  • This paper proposes a dominant source-based tree (DSBT) that constructs a localized multicast routing tree for dynamic multicasting without rerouting. To constrain end-to-end delays a multicast tree needs to be reconstructed when a new node joins the group due to additive tree constraint. In DSBT, a multicast group G is expressed by a (DS, NCM) pair, where DS is a dominant source address and NCM is a normalized cost margin. A node wishing to participate in a group selects a path that complies with NCM toward DS such that the end-to-end cost is constrained without any rerouting. Simulation results show that the proposed method performed better in terms of the overall tree cost compared with the Nave algorithm and in terms of the end-to-end delays between any two members compared with the Greedy algorithm.

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