• Title, Summary, Keyword: NGF

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The Role of nerve Growth Factor on Corneal Wound Healing in Dogs

  • 우흥명
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.418-423
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the modulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) during corneal epithelial wound healing and the effect of topical NGF on corneal epithelial wound healing in dogs. An axial epithelial defect was created in the right eye using 6mm axial corneal mechanical debridement while the left served as an unwounded control. The tears were collected from both eyes during 1 week and the corneal epithelium was processed for the measurement of NGF at day 0 and 7. The NGF content of tears and corneal epithelium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In another experiment, the animals were divided into 3 groups. The right eyes in each group were treated every six hours with 200 ug/ml of recombinant human (rh) NGF, murine NGF, or 600 ug/ml of anti-NGF blocking antibody. The left eye of each animal was treated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to serve as controls. Wound healing was analyzed using NIH image software. Tear NGF was markedly increased in the wounded eyes, relative to tears from control eyes during the early healing period. The NGF content of the corneal epithelium was elevated in the wounded eye (p=0.024). Time to wound closure and rate of epithelial migration were not significantly different between the NGF treated or the NGF antibody treated, and the control BSA treated eyes. Corneal epithelial wounding increased NGF content only on the wounded side during the early healing period. Neither topical recombinant human or murine NGF affected corneal epithelial wound healing in the normal dog.

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Preparation and Release Profile of N8f-loaded Polylactide Scaffolds for Tissue Engineered Nerve Regeneration (조직공학적 신경재생을 위한 NGF를 함유한 PLA 담체의 제조 및 방출)

  • 전은경;황혜진;강길선;이일우;이종문
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.893-901
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    • 2001
  • We developed the nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded poly (L - lactide) (PLA) scaffolds by means of emulsion freeze drying method to the possibility for the application of the nerve regeneration of spinal cord disease and the degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. The release amount of NGF from NGF loaded PLA scaffold were analyzed over a 4 week period in vitro at phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, at $37^{\circ}C$. It can be observed the open cell pore structure of porous scaffolds and can be easily controlled the pore structure by the controlling of formulation factors resulting in the controlling of the release rate and the release period. The stability of NGF during the preparation of PLA scaffold was evaluated by comparing the released amounts of total NGF, assayed NGF enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Released NGF has been found to enhance the neurite sprouting and outgrowth from pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. These results suggest that the released NGF from NGF loaded PLA scaffold such as conduit type can be very useful for the nerve regeneration in the neural tissue engineering area.

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Controlled Release of Nerve Growth Factor from Sandwiched Poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) Films for the Application in Neural Tissue Engineering

  • Gilson Khang;Jeon, Eun-Kyung;John M. Rhee;Lee, Ilwoo;Lee, Sang-Jin;Lee, Hai-Bang
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.334-340
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    • 2003
  • In order to fabricate new sustained delivery device of nerve growth factor (NGF), we developed NGF-loaded biodegradable poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, the mole ratio of lactide to glycolide 75:25, molecular weight: 83,000 and 43,000 g/mole, respectively) film by novel and simple sandwich solvent casting method for the possibility of the application of neural tissue engineering. PLGA was copolymerized by direct condensation reaction and the molecular weight was controlled by reaction time. Released behavior of NGF from NGF-loaded films was characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and degradation characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The bioactivity of released NGF was identified using a rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell based bioassay. The release of NGF from the NGF-loaded PLGA films was prolonged over 35 days with zero-order rate of 0.5-0.8 ng NGF/day without initial burst and could be controlled by the variations of molecular weight and NGF loading amount. After 7 days NGF released in phosphate buffered saline and PC-12 cell cultured on the NGF-loaded PLGA film for 3 days. The released NGF stimulated neurite sprouting in cultured PC-12 cells, that is to say, the remained NGF in the NGF/PLGA film at 37 $^{\circ}C$ for 7 days was still bioactive. This study suggested that NGF-loaded PLGA sandwich film is released the desired period in delivery system and useful neuronal growth culture as nerve contact guidance tube for the application of neural tissue engineering.

Expression of Nerve Growth Factor during Urinary Bladder Development (방광 발달과정에서 Nerve Growth Factor의 발현)

  • Lee, Kyoung Eun;Hong, Chang Hee;Kang, Hee Jung;Kim, Dug Ha
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.411-415
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : This study was performed to determine the developmental expression pattern of nerve growth factor(NGF) in the urine of healthy children. It was hypothesized that NGF may contribute to the development of the spinobulbospinal micturition reflex that represents the adult micturition pattern. Methods : Voided urine was collected in 60 healthy children during the first 5 years of life(0-1 month, n=10; 1 month-1 year, n=10; 2 years, n=10; 3 years, n=10; 4 years, n=10). The urinary NGF was analyzed by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results were normalized based on creatinine or total protein in urine. Results : NGF was significantly greater among neonates compared to other age groups(P<0.05). NGF levels declined during 1 month to 1 year and increased by age 2 years. NGF levels at age 3 years were less than in neonates examined. When comparing the NGF levels according to continence in children over 1 year old, NGF levels were significantly lower in children with continence than in children with incontinence(P<0.05). Conclusion : These data suggest that NGF is involved in the achievement of continence and in mechanisms of bladder nerve growth and in the reorganization of bladder reflex pathway.

Neural Growth Factor Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Derived-Neural Precursor/Stem Cells

  • Han, Youngmin;Kim, Kyoung-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.437-441
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    • 2016
  • Objective : Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neural growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of SC-NPSCs. Methods : NPSCs ($2{\times}10^4$) were suspended in $100{\mu}L$ of neurobasal medium containing NGF-7S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cultured in a 96-well plate for 12 days. NPSC proliferation was analyzed five times for either concentration of NGF (0.02 and 2 ng/mL). Sixteen rats after SCI were randomly allocated into two groups. In group 1 (SCI-vehicle group, n=8), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. In group 2 (SCI-NGF group, n=8), the animals received single doses of NGF (Sigma-Aldrich). A dose of 0.02 ng/mL of NGF or normal saline as a vehicle control was intra-thecally injected daily at 24 hour intervals for 7 days. For Immunohistochemistry analysis, rats were sacrificed after one week and the spinal cords were obtained. Results : The elevation of cell proliferation with 0.02 ng/mL NGF was significant (p<0.05) but was not significant for 2 ng/mL NGF. The optical density was increased in the NGF 0.02 ng/mL group compared to the control group and NGF 2 ng/mL groups. The density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group (p<0.05). High power microscopy revealed that the density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group. Conclusion : SC-NPSC proliferation is an important pathway in the functional recovery of SCI. NGF enhances SC-NPSC proliferation in vitro and in vivo. NGF may be a useful option for treatment of SCI patients pending further studies to verify the clinical applicability.

Effect of PUVA on Nerve Growth Factor Expression in Cultured Keratinocytes

  • Lee, Mu-Hyoung;Kim, Hwi-Jun;Lee, Jin-Woo;Kim, Young-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.275-279
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    • 2002
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important autocrine growth factor and also a survival factor for keratinocytes. NGF may act in the hyperproliferative condition, psoriasis. Clinically, the combination of psoralen and UVA (PUVA) has been used in the treatment of a wide variety of cutaneous disorders, such as psoriasis and vitiligo. However, the precise therapeutic mechanism of PUVA on the dermatologic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the expression of NGF in cultured keratinocytes is influenced by PUVA. Thus, normal human keratinocytes were isolated from neonatal foreskin, and the third to fifth-passaged cells were used in this study. The cells were exposed to various doses of UVA (30, 60, 120 $mJ/cm^2)$ after adding 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) to examine the expression of NGF mRNA. The RNA and protein of the cells were extracted at various time points (1, 8, 24 hours) after UVA irradiation to examine the expression of NGF mRNA and production of NGF protein. In keratinocytes, there were no differences in the expression of NGF mRNA between the different doses of UVA irradiation, however, the expression of NGF mRNA in UVA and PUVA groups tended to increase as the time increased. The expression of NGF mRNA was the highest in PUVA group, followed by UVA group and the lowest in 8-MOP group. The expressions of NGF protein at 1 and 8 hours after UVA irradiation were lower in the PUVA group than in the other groups. This study showed that the expression level of NGF protein in keratinocytes was relatively lower in the PUVA groups than in the other groups, suggesting that the therapeutic mechanism of PUVA in psoriasis is related to the decrease of NGF protein.

Enhancement of Neural Death by Nerve Growth Factor

  • Chung, Jun-Mo;Hong, Jin-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 1996
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is literally known to promote neural differentiation and survival in several peripheral and central neurons. Thus, it is Widely believed that NGF may serve as a therapeutic agent for many types of neuronal diseases. One of the mechanisms suggested to explain the protective role of NGF is that the trophic factor can prevent the increase of intracellular calcium ions which might be responsible for neural death. To examine whether or not the calcium hypothesis works even under pathological conditions, we applied NGF to cultures deprived of glucose. Surprisingly, what was observed here is that NGF rather promoted cell death under a glucose-deprived condition. What we call the NGF paradox phenomenon occurred in a calcium concentration-dependent manner, indirectly suggesting that NGF might increase intracellular calcium ions in cells deprived of glucose. This suggestion is further supported by the fact that nifedipine, a well-known L-type calcium channel blocker, could block the cell death potentiated by NGF. Here it is still premature to propose the complete mechanism underlying the NGF paradox phenomenon. However, this study certainly indicates that NGF as a therapeutic agent for neuronal diseases should be carefully considered before use.

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Mouse Nerve Growth Factor Facilitates the Growth of Interspinal Schwannoma Cells by Activating NGF Receptors

  • Liu, Shu Yi;Liu, Sheng Ze;Li, Yu;Chen, Shi
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.62 no.6
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    • pp.626-634
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    • 2019
  • Objective : Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro. Methods : ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor ($p75^{NTR}$) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth. Results : ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of $p75^{NTR}$ demonstrated no difference among groups. Conclusion : From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and $p75^{NTR}$. In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.

Controlled release of nerve growth factor from heparin-conjugated fibrin gel within the nerve growth factor-delivering implant

  • Lee, Jin-Yong;Kim, Soung-Min;Kim, Myung-Jin;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Although nerve growth factor (NGF) could promote the functional regeneration of an injured peripheral nerve, it is very difficult for NGF to sustain the therapeutic dose in the defect due to its short half-life. In this study, we loaded the NGF-bound heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) gel in the NGF-delivering implants and analyzed the time-dependent release of NGF and its bioactivity to evaluate the clinical effectiveness. Materials and Methods: NGF solution was made of 1.0 mg of NGF and 1.0 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Experimental group A consisted of three implants, in which $0.25{\mu}L$ of NGF solution, $0.75{\mu}L$ of HCF, $1.0{\mu}L$ of fibrinogen and $2.0{\mu}L$ of thrombin was injected via apex hole with micropipette and gelated, were put into the centrifuge tube. Three implants of experimental group B were prepared with the mixture of $0.5{\mu}L$ of NGF solution, $0.5{\mu}L$ HCF, $1.0{\mu}L$ of fibrinogen and $2.0{\mu}L$ of thrombin. These six centrifuge tubes were filled with 1.0 mL of PBS and stirred in the water-filled beaker at 50 rpm. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days, 1.0 mL of solution in each tubes was collected and preserved at $-20^{\circ}C$ with adding same amount of fresh PBS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done to determine in vitro release profile of NGF and its bioactivity was evaluated with neural differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Results: The average concentration of released NGF in the group A and B increased for the first 5 days and then gradually decreased. Almost all of NGF was released during 10 days. Released NGF from two groups could promote neural differentiation and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and these bioactivity was maintained over 14 days. Conclusion: Controlled release system using NGF-HCF gel via NGF-delivering implant could be an another vehicle of delivering NGF to promote the nerve regeneration of dental implant related nerve damage.

Characteristics of Antidiabetic Effect of Dioscorea rhizoma(2) - Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy by NGF Induction - (산약의 항당뇨 특성 연구(2) - NGF 유도 신경병증예방 -)

  • Kang, Tong-Ho;Choi, Sang-Zin;Lee, Tae-Ho;Son, Mi-Won;Park, Ji-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yeou
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.430-435
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    • 2008
  • The main cause of diabetic neuropathy, one of the most debilitating complications, is the chronic hyperglycemia, the increase sorbitol or the decrease of nerve growth factor(NGF). NGF, a protein, plays a major role in the development and maintenance of peripheral nervous system. Systemic administration of NGF prevents manifestations of neuropathy in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. In the previous investigation, we report the hypoglycemia effect of Dioscorea rhizoma extract(DRE) in diabetic mice. The present study shows protective effect of DRE on diabetic neuropathy by induction of NGF protein. We investigated the NGF level in salivary gland and sciatic nerve of normal mouse and the effect of DRE on sciatic nerve conductivity and thermal hyperalgesia test in Type 2 db/db mouse. DRE increased endogenous NGF level in salivary gland and sciatic nerve of mouse. And sensory nerve conductivity velocity(SNCV), motor nerve conductivity velocity(MNCV) and thermal hyperalgesia increased in DRE treatment mice compared with control group. On the basis of our results, we conclude that DRE increase induction of endogenous NGF level and have protective effect on diabetic neuropathy by induction of NGF. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of DRE might help prevention of diabetes-associated complication; diabetic neuropathy.