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Rice Quality Characterization According to Damaged Low Temperature in Rice Plant (벼 냉해 발생시 피해정도에 따른 쌀 품질 특성 구명)

  • Kim, Deog-Su;Song, Jin;Lee, Jung-Il;Chun, A-Reum;Jeong, Eung-Gi;Kim, Jung-Tae;Hur, On-Sook;Kim, Sun-Lim;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.452-457
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to provide fundamental data on breeding cultivar and cultural technique to identify quality characterization according to damage degrees in rice when are damaged at low temperature. For induction of cold damage, we treated the irrigation water at $17^{\circ}C$ from the panicle formation stage to the heading date. The rice products were harvested by grades according to the sterility ratio and investigated 5 items of quality analysis including ripened grain ratio, brown/rough rice ratio, 1000 grain weight of brown rice, protein content, and amylose content. The quality analysis were characterized by each items according to the sterility ratio. As a result, the ripened grain ratio was y=1.0444x-7.6597($R^2=0.9874^{**}$), protein content was y=-0.046x+10.875 ($R^2=0.6973^*$), and head rice ratio was y=-0.2306x+104.32 ($R^2=0.634^*$), but the amylose content, brown/rough rice ratio and the milled/brown rice ratio were not significant. The rice plants, which injured by the low temperature, had bad influence in the yield and quality. Consequently, the breeding of rice cultivar and development of cultural technique are required to improve its cold tolerance.

Antioxidative and Biological Activites of Extracts of Sweetpotato Tips (고구마 끝순 추출물의 항산화 및 생리활성)

  • Lee, Joon-Seol;Park, Yang-Kyun;Ahn, Young-Sup;Kim, Hag-Sin;Chung, Mi-Nam;Jeong, Byeong-Choon;Bang, Jin-Ki
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.228-238
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to increase sweetpotato utilization and to determine the vegetative value of sweetpotato tips by investigating the phenolic compounds, antioxidative effect in oil, electron donating ability, nitrite scavenging effect and ACE inhibition activities. The phenolic compounds present in sweetpotato tips are the gallic, chlorogenic, gentisic, caffeic, couramic and ferulic acid, which are 16-122 times higher compared to other vegetables such as spinach, soybean sprout, and perilla leaves. In each solvent extract, the total phenolic compounds (175.8mg/g) was composed of 55% EtOAc extraction and 39% BuOH extract, respectively. The results of induction period using the Rancimat method showed that the antioxidant activity of SP tips was higher than the tocopherol or BHT. The relative levels of each solvent extract in SP tips were as follows: EtOAc>BHT>BuOH>Tocopherol>Water>$CHCl_3$>Hexane. The peroxide value was measured every 5 days for 25 days during storage and results showed that the peroxide value, the tips, tuberous root and tocopherol were lower compared to spinach, soybean sprout and perilla leaves. Nitrite scavenging effects were excellent in sweetpotato tips, perilla leaves and soybean sprout, especially, inhibition rate of perilla leaves (72%) were superior to the others. In process of solvent extraction, activity of BuOH and water extractions were the best. ACE inhibition activity in sweetpotato tips was 1.5 times higher than in tuberous roots and $1.9{\sim}3.7$ times higher than in spinach, soybean sprout, perilla leaves.

The Growth Phase and Yield Difference of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) on Soil Salinity in Reclaimed Land (간척지에서 토양 염농도별 케나프의 생육반응 및 수량성)

  • Kang, Chan-Ho;Choi, Weon-Young;Yoo, Young-Jin;Choi, Kyu-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Song, Young-Ju;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2014
  • Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) was recognized as a potential source of forage. To reduce the production cost, we should insure large cultivation area. The one of the best candidate places to expand the useful kenaf production was 'Saemangeum' reclaimed land. To confirm the possibility of kenaf growth in reclaimed land, we seeding and cultivated the kenaf in 'Saemangeum'. The germination percentage of kenaf on 5.0 dS/m soil salinity was 18%. It is less 66% than that of 4.0 dS/m soil salinity and at 6.0 dS/m, the germination percentage of kenaf was under 10%. The growth and development of kenaf in reclaimed land grew worse with increasing soil salinity. The stem diameter which the most important factor that decide the value and yield of product was upper 2.6 cm when soil salinity maintained under 4.0 dS/m, but if soil salinity marked over 4.0 dS/m, the stem diameter of kenaf was drop under 2.0 cm and it deteriorate the number of leaves per plant by 20~46%. The necrosis on older tip and marginal leaves were noted approximately first month after seeding which was correlated directly with the salinity levels of reclaimed soil. Reduction of total yield was coincide with increasing levels of EC. If soil salinity over 5.0 dS/m, the amount of decreased by soil salinity was 51% than that of non-reclaimed region. The allowable soil salinity level of which could be maintained within 20% reduction rate was 4.2 dS/m. Consequently kenaf can be grown successfully with moderately saline soil condition. However, salt levels in excess of 4.2 dS/m severely have restricted plant growth and development and will result in significant yield reduction.

Effect of Pre-Germination by Treatment of Soaking on Germination of Soybean (콩의 발아 전 침종처리가 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Seong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Sun;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Roy, Swapan Kumar;Lee, Chul-Won;Kim, Hong-Sig;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.123-137
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of pre-germination soaking on germination in 90 Korean soybean varieties and identification of protein in seeds of 7 soybean varieties. The results obtained that germination rate of soybean seeds was decreased as amount of soaking water and soaking duration in number of days. Difference in germination rate of soybean seeds was significant at three days soaking with water volume of 90 ml. Water absorption of seeds was rapidly increased during the first 6 hours, followed by slow increase until 24 hours and then decreased 24 to 48 hours after soaking soybean varieties for bean sprout soaked the lowest amount of water, while soybean varieties for cooking with rice showed the lowest seed water content. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in soaking water was rapidly decreased during the first 3 hours after soaking, and then slowly decreased. Soybean varieties for vegetable and early maturity showed the lowest DO during early soaking periods, but showed higher DO after 24 hours than other groups of soybean varieties. Electrical conductivity and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) were increased as number of soaking days increased. Soybean varieties for vegetable and early maturity showed the highest electrical conductivity and TDS, followed by those for sauce and paste or cooking with rice, while showed the lowest electrical conductivity and TDS, varieties for bean sprout. Among 90 Korean soybean varieties, varieties which showed the highest germination rate were Jangsu-kong for sauce and paste, Sobaegnamul-kong for bean sprout, Seonheuk-kong for cooking with rice, Seunnokkong for vegetable and early maturity. On the ather hand varieties which showed the lowest germination rate were Iksan and Songhak-kong for sauce and paste, Pangsa-kong for bean sprout, Jinyeul-kong for cooking with rice, Sinlok-kong for vegetable and early maturity. Germination rates of soybean seeds were higher when electrical conductivity, TDS and water absorption of seeds were lower. There were negative correlations between electrical conductivity, TDS and water absorption of seeds and germination rate, while there were positive correlations among electrical conductivity, TDS and soybean seed weight.

Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Effects of Sweetpotato Tips Extract (고구마 끝순 추출물의 항균 및 항돌연변이 효과)

  • Lee, Joon-Seol;Shin, Mee-Jin;Park, Yang-Kyun;Ahn, Young-Sup;Chung, Mi-Nam;Kim, Hag-Sin;Kim, Jeong-Mok
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2007
  • Sweetpotato shoot tops (leaves, tips and petioles) are known to be very useful parts as vegetables because of their high nutritive values and great biomass yield. In this study, the phenolic compound contents, antibacterial activity, mutagenic activity, and antimutagenic activity were investigated in sweetpotato tips that were 10-15cm of shoot top including stems, petioles and tender leaves after sprout of storage roots. The study was done by extracting sweetpotato tips with 80% ethanol and the ethanol fraction was re-extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. In ethyl acetate and butanol fractions, total phenolic compounds contained 95. 6mg/g extract and 69.3 mg/g extract, respectively, The antibacterial activity was measured using the paper disk method with concentrations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/disk of butanol and ethyl acetate fractions against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium strains. Higher doses of solvent extracts showed the higher antibacterial activities. In addition, 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL of the extracts were tested to determine the antibacterial activity in liquid culture. The sweetpotato leaf extract by ethyl acetate showed 1 log reduction compared to control after 24 hrs on Listeria monocytogenes, but 20 mg/ml of butanol extract completely inhibited the growth of the pathogen after 12 hrs. The extracts from ethyl acetate or butanol on Salmonella Typhimurium did less than 1 log reduction during cultivation compared to control. The numbers of S. Typhimirium TA98 and TA100 revertant colonies were 29-33 and 159-188 CFU/plate, respectively, indicating that solvent extracts were no mutagenic activity. The antimutagenic test was performed by adding direct mutagen 2-NF and MMS, and butanol and ethyl acetate showed antimutagenic effect. Thus, this study showed that sweetpotato tips had high phenolic contents and both antimicrobiol and antimutagenic properties. Sweetpotato tips would be good nutritive source because of their high nutrient content without any toxicity in consuming.

Antioxidative and Biological Activites of Extracts of Sweetpotato Tips (고구마 끝순 추출물이 알코올 투여 흰쥐의 항산화 효소계 및 지질과산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Joon-Seol;Park, Yang-Kyun;Ahn, Young-Sup;Kim, Hag-Sin;Chung, Mi-Nam;Jeong, Byeong-Choon;Bang, Jin-Ki
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.411-420
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to increase sweetpotato utilization and to determine the vegetative value of sweetpotato tips by investigating the phenolic compounds, antioxidative effect in oil, electron donating ability, nitrite scavenging effect and ACE inhibition activities. The phenolic compounds present in sweetpotato tips are the gallic, chlorogenic, gentisic, caffeic, couramic and ferulic acid, which are 16-122 times higher compared to other vegetables such as spinach, soybean sprout, and perilla leaves. In each solvent extract, the total phenolic compounds(175.8 mg/g) was composed of 55% EtOAc extraction and 39% BuOH extract, respectively. The results of induction period using the Rancimat method showed that the antioxidant activity of SP tips was higher than the tocopherol or BHT. The relative levels of each solvent extract in SP tips were as follows: EtOAc>BHT>BuOH>Tocopherol>Water>$CHCl_3$>Hexane. The peroxide value was measured every 5 days for 25 days during storage and results showed that the peroxide value, the tips, tuberous root and tocopherol were lower compared to spinach, soybean sprout and perilla leaves. Nitrite scavenging effects were excellent in sweetpotato tips, perilla leaves and soybean sprout, especially, inhibition rate of perilla leaves(72%) were superior to the others. In process of solvent extraction, activity of BuOH and water extractions were the best. ACE inhibition activity in sweetpotato tips was 1.5 times higher than in tuberous roots and $1.9{\sim}3.7$ times higher than in spinach, soybean sprout, perilla leaves.

Comparison in Seed and Sprout Quality under Different Cropping Patterns in Mungbean (재배방식에 따른 녹두 종실과 나물의 품질변화)

  • Kim, Dong-Kwan;Son, Dong-Mo;Choi, Jin-Gyung;Shin, Hae-Ryong;Chon, Sang-Uk;Lee, Kyung-Dong;Jung, Ki-Yeol;Rim, Yo-Sup
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to determine the relative quality of mungbeans harvested in bulk after applying a labor-saving cultivation (LSC) method, compared to mungbeans harvested three different times under the conventional cultivation condition. There was no significant difference in starch, crude protein, and vitexin or isovitexin content of seed according to the cropping system or harvest time. The mungbeans grown under the LSC method had the highest crude fat content, followed by mungbeans from the third-, the second- and the first-harvest mungbeans under the conventional cultivation. No significant difference was found in the composite ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids according to cropping system or harvest time. The second-harvest mungbeans grown under the conventional cultivation condition had 17 different types of fatty acids, while the third-harvest mungbeans grown under the conventional cultivation and those grown under the LSC condition had the fewest types of fatty acids with 12. Of the major saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid and arachidonic acid had the highest composite ratio in the first conventional cultivation followed by the second, the third and the LSC. However, stearic acid showed the opposite tendency. Of the major unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid had the highest composite ratio in the first conventional cultivation, followed by the second and third conventional cultivation and the LSC. Amylogram characteristics of the mungbeans were significantly different according to cropping system and harvest times. The mungbeans harvested after the first conventional cultivation had significantly higher pasting temperature, peak viscosity, holding strength viscosity, final viscosity and breakdown, while mungbeans harvested after the third conventional cultivation had significantly higher setback viscosity. In contrast, the mungbeans harvested under the LSC methods had a significantly lower amylogram value. When harvest rate, color values and amino acid content of sprout were measured, mungbeans grown under the LSC conditions had a low harvest rate of sprout, but had Hunter's color values and amino acid content of sprout similar to those of mungbeans grown under the conventional cultivation condition.

Effects of Hairy Vetch and Rye Cover on Weed Occurrences and Minor Cereal Growth (피복작물처리에 따른 잡곡의 생육과 잡초발생)

  • Jeon, Seung-Ho;Lee, Se-Hun;Oh, Se-Yun;Kim, Young-Ju;Kim, Kyung-Moon;Kim, Seok-Hyun;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Yoon, Seong-Tak;Shim, Sang- In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the weed suppressing effects of two winter cover crops, hairy vetch and rye in foxtail millet and sorghum fields in 2010. Crop growth and development and weed occurrences in the fields were examined to know the efficiency of proposed cropping system. In hairy vetch treated plots, heading of minor cereals occurred early. The heading date was earlier by 1 day and 2 days in sorghum and foxtail millet, respectively. However, rye treatment delayed heading by 12 days and 8 days in sorghum and foxtail millet, respectively. Besides he effect of cover crop on ear emergence of crops, the Besides changed growth-related characteristics. Plant height, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum ere increased in hairy vetch treatment by 46.4% 88.7% and 7.9%, respectively. In foxtail millet, the characteristics ere also increased by 45.6%, 50.9% and 37.8%, respectively, s compared to control. Yields of sorghum and foxtail millet were increased by 105.1% and 135% as compared o control by hairy vetch treatment, respectively. However, he yields of cereal crops were decreased by rye cover crop treatment, the yields of sorghum and foxtail millet were decreased by 25.8% and 119.1%, respectively. Rye cover crop treatment inhibited crop growth suggesting nitrogen starvation in rye treated plots. In rye treatment, plant height, chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum ere slightly decreased by 7.1%, 10.8% and 10.8%, respectively, as compared to control whereas the inhibitory effects were greater in foxtail millet. Weed occurrences based n weed number in hairy vetch and rye plots were reduced n weed number in hairy vetch and rye plots were reduced y 27% and 20%, respectively. The smothering effect was weakened or disappeared after heading of crops. Weed number and dry weight in hairy vetch plot were increased by 159% and 55.2%, respectively, as compared to control. The results implied that weed suppressing of cover crops could be reduced drastically after heading of crops.

Variation of Seed Characteristic, Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Sunflower Germplasm (해바라기 유전자원의 종실특성과 지방함량 및 지방산조성 변이)

  • Lee, Yun-Ho;Song, Hang-Lin;Piao, Xiang-Min;Park, Kyeong-Ho;Nam, Sang-Young;Kim, In-Jae;Choi, Sung-Yeol;Jang, Young-Seok;Kim, Hong-Sig
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to obtain the basic informations on variability of germplasm and cultivation practice for the production of biodiesel in sunflower. A total of 275 accessions obtained from the National Agrobiodiversity Center (34 landraces from Korea, 219 and 22 introductions from America and other countries, respectively) were screened to evaluate variations of seed characteristics, oil content and fatty acid composition. Seed types were classified into 4 types (broad ovoid, narrow ovoid, rounded and elongated). The broad ovoid type was the highest proportion of 40.4%, while the elongated type was the lowest proportion of 5.0% among accessions. Also, the seed colors were classified into 4 colors (gray, brown, black and white). Gray and brown seed color showed the highest distribution and white seed color showed the lowest among accessions, respectively. Hundred and one liter seed weight ranged 2.9~15.5g and 178~439g with averages of 6.3g and 322.0g, respectively. Oil content ranged from 11.7% to 45.6% with an average of 25.5%. The frequency distribution of oil content showed the highest in range of 22~28% and the lowest in range of over 40%. Three promising accessions with higher oil content than 40.0% were IT031967, IT031970 and IT031965 introduced from America. Palmitic and stearic acid contents, saturated fatty acid, ranged 3.1~7.6% and 1.3~4.1% with averages of 4.7% and 2.2%, respectively, and a total content of saturated fatty acid ranged 5.4~9.4% with an average of 6.9%. Oleic and linoleic acid contents, unsaturated fatty acid, ranged 18.1~75.7% and 18.1~74.1% with averages of 55.2% and 38.0%, respectively. Five accessions, IT031831, IT031669, IT031895, IT031938 and IT031694, showed higher oleic acid content than 70%. A total content of unsaturated fatty acid ranged 89.6~94.8% with an average of 93.0%.

Variation in Pod Shattering in a RIL Population and Selection for Pod Shattering Tolerance in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] (콩 RIL 집단의 내탈립성 변이 탐색 및 유망계통 선발)

  • Seo, Jeong Hyun;Kang, Beom Kyu;Kim, Hyun Tae;Kim, Hong Sik;Choi, Man Soo;Oh, Jae Hyeon;Shin, Sang Ouk;Baek, In Youl;Kwak, Do Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.414-421
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    • 2019
  • Pod shattering during the maturing stage causes a serious yield loss in soybean. It is the main limiting factor of soybean cultivation and mechanization. It is important to develop varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting and to develop energy-efficient agricultural machinery to save labor and costs. 'Daewonkong,' developed by the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 1997, is an elite cultivar that occupies more than 80% of the soybean cultivation area in Korea because of its strong tolerance to pod shattering. The objectives of this study were to investigate the variation in pod shattering degree in a RIL population developed from a 'Daewonkong' parent and to select promising lines with pod shattering tolerance. 'Daewonkong' demonstrated a high level of tolerance to pod shattering compared to the 'Tawonkong' and 'Saeolkong' varieties, with no shattered pods after 72 hours of drying. Screening of pod shattering showed a clear distinction between the tolerant and susceptible varieties. Also, the distribution of shattering pod ratio in the two populations showed a similar pattern for three years. The promising lines with pod shattering tolerance included 27 lines in the 'Daewonkong'×'Tawonkong' population and 21 lines in the 'Daewonkong'×'Saeolkong' population. The promising lines are expected to be widely used as breeding parents for creating soybean cultivars with pod shattering tolerance.