• Title, Summary, Keyword: NPB

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The effect of NPB morphology on OLEDs optoelectronic characteristics

  • Jiang, Yurong;Xue, Wei
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.602-604
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    • 2004
  • NPB surface morphologies deposited on different temperature substrates were investigated using atomic force microscopy(AFM). It has been found that the NPB morphology turned from island morphology at high temperature(100$^{\circ}C$) to grain morphology at room temperature. To characterize the effect of NPB surface morphology, the devices with the structure of Glass/ITO/NPB/$Alq_3$/Al were fabricated using NPB films deposited at different substrate temperature and their performances were compared.

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TPS Analysis of NPB organic thin film for Belt Source Evaporation in AMOLED Manufacturing

  • Hwang, Chang-Hun
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1600-1602
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    • 2007
  • TPS (Temperature Programmed Sublimation) technology is known to research for the plane evaporation of the organic film.[5] Using TPS technology, the plane source evaporation of NPB organic film has been studied for the first time. The NPB organic film consists of nano scale film phase and bulk phase on a substrate. The 400 ${\AA}$ in film phase thickness of NPB sublimates at the $175^{\circ}$ of the Ta made metal plate. It was proved that the sublimation temperature of the organic film has much lower than that of the organic powder. ($130^{\circ}$ is lower for Alq3 and $90^{\circ}$ is lower for NPB.)

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진공에서의 Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)용 유기재료의 상전이 측정

  • Sim, Seop;Kim, Jin-Tae;Sin, Jae-Su;Gwon, O-Hyeon;Yun, Ju-Yeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.147.2-147.2
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    • 2014
  • Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)에 사용되는 유기재료 N,N.-diphenyl-N,N.-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4"-diamine(NPB)의 상전이 특성을 여러 진공도에서 평가하였다. 압력, 온도제어가 가능한 진공시스템을 사용하여 여러 진공도에서 NPB의 상전이 온도를 측정하였고, 본 연구에 사용된 진공시스템의 신뢰성을 검증하기 위해 상압에서 측정한 NPB의 melting temperature를 Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC) data와 비교하였다. 또한 각 압력($10^{-7}{\sim}760Torr$)에서 측정한 상전이 온도를 바탕으로 최종 결과물인 NPB의 Phase diagram을 얻어냄으로써 일정 압력, 일정 온도에서의 NPB의 상거동을 예측할 수 있었다. 이러한 결과는 기존의 DSC열분석으로는 확인하기 어려웠던 진공에서의 유기재료의 상전이를 관측하였다는데 큰 의미가 있다. 향후, 이러한 방법을 활용한 진공에서의 유기재료의 상전이 특성 관측은 유기재료를 이용한 진공 증착공정방법의 최적화와, 다양한 유기재료의 열안정성 특성 파악에 도움이 될 것으로 기대가 된다.

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Emission Characteristics of White OLEDs with Various Hole Transport Layers (정공수송층에 따른 백색 OLED의 발광 특성)

  • Lim, Byung-Gwan;Seo, Jung-Hyun;Ju, Sung-Hoo;Paek, Kyeong-Kap
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.983-987
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    • 2010
  • In order to investigate the emission characteristics of the phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) according to various hole transport layers (HTLs), PHWOLEDs composed of HTLs whose structure are NPB/TCTA, NPB/mCP and NPB/TCTA/mCP, two emissive layers (EMLs) which emit two-wavelengths of light (blue and red), and electron transport layer were fabricated. The applied voltage, power efficiency, and external quantum efficiency at a current density of $1 mA/cm^2$ for the fabricated PHWOLEDs were 7.5 V, 11.5 lm/W, and 15%, in case of NPB/mCP, 5 V, 14.8 lm/W, and 13.7%, in case of NPB/TCTA, and 5.5 V, 14.6 lm/W, and 15%, in case of NPB/TCTA/mCP in the hole transport layer, respectively. High emission efficiency can be obtained when the amount of hole injection from anode is balanced out by the amount of electron injection from the cathode to EML by using NPB/TCTA/mCP structured HTL.

Doping control of Belt Source Evaporation Techniques for Large Size AMOLED

  • Hwang, Chang-Hun
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.930-932
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    • 2007
  • In order to understand the doping control for the belt source evaporation, the Alq3 and NPB were codeposited on the Ta plate to re-sublimate. The very slow heating $(0.1^{\circ}C/s)$ of the Ta plate shows the separated rate signals of Alq3 and NPB sublimated from the Alq3-mixed NPB organic film on Ta plate. The ratio of the vapor rates of Alq3 and NPB was measured as same as that of each sublimation rates. Therefore, the doping control of the belt source evaporation is of the ratio of the vaporization rates of host and dopants.

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The Real Role of 4,4'-Bis[N-[4-{N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)amino}phenyl]-N-phenylamino] biphenyl (DNTPD) Hole Injection Layer in OLED: Hole Retardation and Carrier Balancing

  • Oh, Hyoung-Yun;Yoo, Insun;Lee, Young Mi;Kim, Jeong Won;Yi, Yeonjin;Lee, Seonghoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.929-932
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    • 2014
  • We explored interfacial electronic structures in indium tin oxide (ITO)/DNTPD/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer stack in an OLED to clarify the real role of an aromatic amine-based hole injection layer, DNTPD. A hole injection barrier at the ITO/DNTPD interface is lowered by 0.20 eV but a new hole barrier of 0.36 eV at the DNTPD/NPB is created. The new barrier at the DNTPD/NPB interface and its higher bulk resistance serve as hole retardation, and thus those cause the operation voltage for the ITO/DNTPD/NPB to increase. However, it improves current efficiency through balancing holes and electrons in the emitting layer.

전하생성층을 사용하여 제작한 백색유기발광소자의 발광 메커니즘과 색안정성에 대한 연구

  • Jo, In-Hwan;Jeon, Yeong-Pyo;Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.143.2-143.2
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    • 2015
  • 백색유기발광소자는 저전력, 높은 명암비 및 빠른 응답속도와 넓은 시야각 등의 장점을 가지고 있어 대형 디스플레이, 모바일 디스플레이, 백색 광원 등에 사용되는 차세대 광원으로써 각광 받고 있고 이를 상용화하기 위해 많은 연구가 진행되고 있다. 하지만 다층 발광층을 가지는 백색유기발광소자는 발광층에 지역이 인가된 전압에 의해 바뀌어 색안정성이 떨어진다는 단점을 가지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 백색유기발광소자의 발광 메커니즘 규명하고 색안정성을 고찰하였다. 이 백색유기발광 소자는 indium-tin-oxide (ITO) 양극전극에 진공 증착 방법을 통해 전하생성층으로 tungsten oxide(WO3)층과 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene(rubrene)가 도핑된 N,N',-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl1-1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine(NPB)층을 사용하여 제작되었다. ITO를 양극으로, NPB를 정공수송층으로, DPVBi를 발광층으로, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline(BPhen)을 전자수송층으로, WO3와 0, 1, 2, 또는 3 wt% rubrene 도핑된 NPB를 전하생성층으로, Liq를 전자주입지연층으로, Al을 음극 전극으로 각각 사용하였다. 전하생성층으로 사용한 NPB층의 rubrene 도핑농도가 변화하여 백색유기발광소자의 발광 메커니즘을 규명하였다. rubrene 도핑된 NPB층에서 발광하는 노란빛과 발광층에서 발생하는 파란빛에 의해 백색광을 방출, NPB층에 도핑된 rubrene 도핑 농도가 증가할수록 소자의 전류밀도와 밝기가 증가했다.

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Recycling of Organic Materials Using Purification by Recrystallization for Solution-Processed OLEDs (재결정화법에 의한 유기물 재활용 및 이를 이용한 습식 OLED 제작)

  • Lee, Jin-Hwan;Hong, Ki-Young;Shin, Dong-Kyun;Lee, Jin-Young;Park, Jong-Woon;Seo, Hwa-Il;Seo, Yu Seok
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2016
  • We have investigated the possibility of recycling of an organic material that is wasted during thermal evaporation. To this end, we have collected a wasted organic material (N,N'-diphenly-N,N'-bis(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine(NPB)) from a vacuum chamber, purified it by recrystallization, and fabricated bilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the recycled NPB. It is found that the surface roughness of thin films coated with the purified NPB is much enhanced. OLEDs fabricated by thermal evaporation of the purified NPB show lower device efficiency than OLEDs with the original NPB. However, the power efficiency of OLED fabricated by spin coating of the purified NPB is comparable with that of OLED with the original NPB. Therefore, such a recycling method by recrystallization would be more suitable for solution-processed OLEDs.

Effect of Temperature and Gas Permeability of Functional Packing Films on Storability of Fresh-cut Salicornia herbacea Classified by Size (저장온도와 기능성 필름의 기체 투과도가 다양한 크기의 퉁퉁마디 신선편이의 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, Jun Pill;Lee, Han Jong;Choi, In-Lee;Jung, Hyun Jin;Son, Jin Sung;Kim, Il Seop;Jeong, Cheon Soon;Kang, Ho-Min
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2013
  • These studies were identified the effect of four types of non-perforated breathable (NPB) packing film and three sizes on storage ability of fresh-cut for ready to eat packaging at $5^{\circ}C$ for 25 days and $10^{\circ}C$ for 15 days storage in Salicornia herbacea. The fresh weight loss was less than 2% in every films at $5^{\circ}C$ condition after 25 days storage, and the $10^{\circ}C$ also had same result on 15 days storage except 100,000 cc NPB film. Compare with storage after 15 days, storage condition at $5^{\circ}C$ had shown better result under the 1% fresh weight loss rate. The 5,000 cc and $5^{\circ}C$ condition had been shown the characteristics of MA packaging in carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations. The ethylene concentration in vacuum film was higher 10 to 100 times than in NPB film treatments during storage. But ethylene concentration was not statistically significant differences among size treatments. Every conditions had been measured the anti-oxidant activity by DPPH method after storage at $5^{\circ}C$ for 25 days and $10^{\circ}C$ for 15 days. S. herbacea at $5^{\circ}C$ had been more than twice of activity compare with that at $10^{\circ}C$. 100,000 cc NPB film had been higher contents of anti-oxidant activity at $5^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$. As the fresh-cut sizes, 3 cm and 5 cm sizes had changed depending on film types but 10 cm were not effected by the film types in the DPPH activity. When panel test had been tried to measure the visual quality and off-flavor after storage, $5^{\circ}C$ with a filme of 5,000 cc treatment had established higher value than other treated conditions. As these results, it's may be suggested that the $5^{\circ}C$ with 5,000 cc non-perforated breathable film for MA storage in Salicornia herbacea at fresh cut distribution system. Fresh cut size 10 cm with 100,000 cc NPB film also had the good quality for 15 dyas storage at $10^{\circ}C$, and this result can be applied for short term distribution system in Korea.

Highly Efficient Three Wavelength WOLEDs by Controlling of Electron-Transfer

  • Park, Ho-Cheol;Park, Jong-Wook;Oh, Seong-Geu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.2299-2302
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    • 2009
  • By controlling the number of electrons transferred to the emitting layer, highly efficient three-wavelength WOLEDs were fabricated. Such WOLEDs are different from those made using simple stacking of RGB emitting layers in that the movement distribution of electrons transferred to emitting layer could be adjusted using the difference in LUMO energy level and that lights of all 3 wavelengths could be emitted through appropriate arrangement of RGB emitting layers. WOLED device with the structure of m-MTDTA (40 nm)/NPB (10 nm)/ Coumarin6 doped $Alq_3$ (3%) (8 nm)/ Rubrene doped NPB (5%) (15 nm)/NPB (2 nm)/ DPVBi (20 nm)/$Alq_3$ (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) showed high luminance efficiency of 8.9 cd/A and color purity of (0.31, 0.40). In addition, WOLED device with the thickness of non-doped NPB layer increased from 2 nm to 3 nm to increase blue light emission showed a luminance efficiency of 7.6 cd/A and color purity of (0.28, 0.36).