• Title, Summary, Keyword: NaCl

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Effect of NaCI Concentration on Germination and Seedling Growth of Italian Ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum L.) (NaCl 농도가 이탈리안 라이그래스의 발아와 유묘생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이강수;최선영;최철원
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.340-350
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to obtain the basic information for the salt stress of Italian Ryegrass. Fourteen cultivars including 7 diploid and 7 tetraploid were subjected to eight levels of NaCl treatments during germination and early seedling stages. Germination percentage decreased remarkably over 300mM of NaCl concentration. The NaCl concentration that inhibited germination of 50% of the viable seeds in the cultivars was 344mM. The decreasing degree of germination percentage was higher in tetraploid type than in diploid type. The varietal difference of germination percentage was shown to be very conspicuous as the NaCl concentration increased. Top dry weight in 166 mM NaCl was decreased by 50% compared with that of control. Inhibition of NaCl appeared to be more in early seedling stage than in germination stage. Top dry weight of cultivars in NaCl stress was not related with germination capacity. Root dry weight in 148mM NaCl decreased by 50% compared with that of control. Root dry weight of cultivars was significantly correlated with top dry weight in NaCl treatment. Top dry weight and root dry weight was higher in diploid type than in tetraploid type at each 8 levels of NaCl concentration. Total chlorophyll content increased with the increase of NaCl concentration and the degree of increase in chlorophyll a was higher than that in chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a was higher in tetraploid type than in diploid type. But chlorophyll b was higher in diploid type than in tetraploid type. There were significant correlation between chlorophyll a and top dry weight of cultivars over 150mM of NaCl concentration. Free proline content accumulated remarkably in NaCl treatment compared with control and was not difference between diploid type and tetraploid type. Free proline content of cultivars was not related with top dry weight in NaCl treatment.

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Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthesis, Free Proline Content and Ion Content in Tobacco. (염스트레스가 담배식물의 광합성, proline 및 이온함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Gak;Shin, Ju-Sik;Seok, Yeong-Seon;Bae, Gill-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of NaCl concentration on photosynthetic rate, free proline content and ion content in tobacco. As NaCl concentration was increased growth was retarded. The decrease growth characteristics(shoot/root ratio was 2.0) at 90mM NaCl indicated that this concentration could be a limiting level. As NaCl concentration was increased photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency were decreased. Photosynthetic rate was highly decreased at 60mM NaCl. There was no significant difference between transpiration rate and water use efficiency. Leaf water potential was decreased as NaCl concentration was increased, in that twice lower at 30mM than that of control and drop largely at 120mM NaCl. Free proline content was increased as NaCl increased until 120mM NaCl and drop at 150mM NaCl. The $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, and $K^+$ contents were increased until NaCl concentration was 120mM. The $Na^{2+}$ content was slowly increased as NaCl concentration increased until 120mM NaCl, and largely increased at 150mM NaCl. There was no significant difference between $Cl^-$ and NaCl treatments except 30 mM NaCl in which $Cl^-$ content was higher than that of control. As NaCl concentration was increased $K^+/Na^+$ ratio was decreased. The negative correlation between $K^+$ and $Na^+$, and positive correlation between $K^+/Na^+$ and protein content were found.

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Effect of Partial Replacement of Sodium Chloride on Quality of Ground Pork Patties (돈육식품의 품질에 미치는 Chloride Salts의 대치 효과)

  • 박영숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 1994
  • The ground pork patties were made to add two level of sodium chloride(2.5%, 3.0%) and replace part(50%) of the sodium chloride(NaCl) with either potassium chloride(KCl), magnesium chloride(MgCl2) or calcium chloride(CaCl2). These samples were analyzed for their chemical composition, VBN value, TBA value, microbial counts, and cooking loss. The ground pork with NaCl 2.5% was more desirable in saltness than the ground pork with NaCl 3.0%. Replacing 50% of the sodium chloride with potassium chloride was more desirable to flavor, color, juiciness, and overall acceptability than replacing 50% of the sodium chloride with either magnesium chloride or calcium chloride. The ground pork with NaCl 2.5% or NaCl 1.25% +KCI 1.60% had higher pH value than the ground pork with NaCl 1.25% +MgCl2 0.67% or NaCl 1.25% +CaCl2 0.79%. The ground pork with the ground pork with NaCl 2.5% had lower VBN value than the ground pork with either NaCl 1.25%+KCI 1.60%, NaCl 1.25% + MgCl2 0.67%, or NaCl 1.25% +CaCl2 0.79%. The ground pork with NaCl 1.25% + CaCl2 0.67% had higher increase in total colony count than the ground pork with NaCl 2.5% or NaCl 1.25% + CaCl2 0.79%. Cooking loss of ground pork with NaCl 2.5% was lowest and cooking loss of ground pork with NaCl 1.25% + KCl 1.60% was highest. Potassium chloride would not be a substitute for sodium chloride in cooking loss and total colony count but potassium chloride more closely approximated the sensory properties of sodium chloride than either magnesium chloride or calcium chloride.

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Interaction of NpO+2 with Cl- in Na-Ca-Cl-type solutions at ionic strength of 6M: Effect of presence of Ca ion on interaction

  • Nagasaki, Shinya;Saito, Takumi;Tsushima, Satoru;Goguen, Jared;Yang, Tammy
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.1778-1782
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    • 2017
  • The interaction of $NpO^+_2$ with $Cl^-$ was studied using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy in $NaCl-Ca-Cl_2-NaClO_4$, $NaCl-NaClO_4$, and $CaCl_2-NaClO_4$ solutions with ionic strength (I) of 6M. The spectra of $NpO^+_2$ around 980 nm varied with $Cl^-$ concentration in the $NaCl-CaCl_2-NaClO_4$ and $NaCl-NaClO_4$ solutions at [$Cl^-$] ${\geq}3.5M$, but not in the $CaCl_2-NaClO_4$ solution. Assuming the 1:1 interaction between $NpO^+_2$ and $Cl^-$, the apparent equilibrium constants at I = 6M were evaluated. The presence of $Ca^{2+}$ was found to destabilize overall interaction between $NpO^+_2$ and $Cl^-$. The observations were consistent with the density functional theory calculation.

Growth and Histological Characteristics of Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) Seedling to NaCl Stress (NaCl Stress에 따른 보리 유묘의 생육특성 및 세포학적 반응)

  • Cho, Jin-Woong;Kim, Choong-Soo;Lee, Sok-Young;Park, Ki-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to determine the morphological responses of barley seedlings to NaCl stress and to investigate histological changes of cells with transmission electron microscope(TEM) after NaCl stress. Plant height and root length of 10-day old barley seedlings with NaCl stress were reduced and inhibition level was found to be more severe in the plant height than in the root length. The leaf length, leaf width and leaf area were shorter as well with NaCl stress than without NaCl stress. However, there was no difference in the number of roots between NaCl treatments. The weight of dry matter decreased at higher NaCl concentrations, especially at 100mM NaCl. The water content of shoots tend to decrease at higher NaCl concentrations, but there was no difference in the water content of roots, The reduced sugar content was greatly increase than starch. Cellulose content was higher in NaCl stressed-plant than control, and tended to decreased at higher NaCl concentrations. Lignin content also decreased NaCl stressed-plant but there was no tendency at NaCl stress concentrations. Electric conductivity of cell sap with seedlings was high with NaCl stressed-plant. Amount of cell sap gradually increased with time in the roots than in the shoots, The grana of chloroplasts was changed by 150mM NaCl concentration. The christe of mitochondria in root meristematic sells ruined in structure and cell wall of leaf and root was also ruined by NaCl stress.

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Cultural characteristics and selection of saline tolerant Pleurotus ostreatus at different NaCl concentration medium (NaCl 함량에 따른 내염성 느타리버섯 선발과 재배적 특성)

  • Choi, Jong-In;Chi, Jeong-Hyun;Ha, Tai-Moon;Ju, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to select oyster mushroom strains tolerant to salinity and characteristic cultivation by different NaCl concentration. Among the 64 strains, Kimjae-10ho, Nongki-2-1ho, Myungyul, Byungneutari-1ho, Bupyungsoyae-1ho, Sambok and Chunchu-2ho resulted in higher mycelial growth and density on PDA medium containing NaCl. The maxium NaCl concentration possible to fruit body formation was 0.5% NaCl in Myungyul, 1.0% NaCl in Kimjae-10ho and Bupyungsoyae-1ho, 1.5% NaCl in Nongki-2-1ho, Byungneutari-1ho, Sambok and Chunchu-2ho, respectively. Increased NaCl concentration on sawdust medium prolonged culture period, while decreased total quantity and come to be short and thin in Length and thickness of stipe. Higher NaCl concentration in the medium decreased the uptake rate of $K_2O$ and CaO, whereas increased the NaCl uptake rate.

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Effect of Zn/NaCl ratios on the charge/discharge performance in Na-ZnCl2 battery (Na-ZnCl2 전지에서 Zn/NaCl 비율이 충방전 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Heon-Tae;Kim, Seong-In;Choi, Hee-Lack;Park, Won-Il;Kim, Chang-Sam
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.74-79
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    • 2015
  • $Na-ZnCl_2$ battery, which operates as the same mechanism of $Na-NiCl_2$ battery using solid-electrolyte, is able to reduce its material cost by 40 % comparing to the $Na-NiCl_2$ battery. It has been known that the $Na-ZnCl_2$ battery produces $Na_2ZnCl_4$ as an intermediate phase during charge/discharge process. Therefore, the redox process is divided into four steps having the voltage range of 1.92~2.13 V. However, effects of the critical factors such as the composition of cathode materials, depth of charge and discharge, and additives have not been reported yet. We examined the effect of the Zn/NaCl ratios and revealed that its optimum ratio was in the range of 1.3~1.7.

Effect of Jasmonic Acid and NaCl on the Growth of Spearmint(Mentha spicata L.) (Jasmonic Acid 및 NaCl 처리가 스피아민트의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Young;Chiang, Maehee
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effects of NaCl and jasmonic acid (JA) on the growth and physiological responses of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Spearmint was hydroponically grown for 3 weeks in modified Hoagland solution containing 0 (untreated control), JA ($20{\mu}M$ JA pretreatment), NaCl (50 mM NaCl treatment) and JA + NaCl ($20{\mu}M$ JA pretreatment + 50 mM NaCl treatment). Growth characteristics, chlorophyll, vitamin C, proline contents, DPPH scavenging activity and inorganic ion contents were evaluated. As a results, there were significant decreases in the plant height, leaf length, leaf width, and fresh weight of plants, treated with NaCl compared with control. On the other hand, the dry matters of shoot and root treated with JA + NaCl combination were better than control or NaCl treatment. Chlorophyll a and b contents in JA treatment was the highest. Vitamin C, antioxidant activity, and proline content in shoot were increased in NaCl treatment which showed low level of growth rate. The K/Na ratio, which is known to indirectly reflect the balance of ion uptake, was higher in a single treatment of JA than the control group, while lower in salt treatment (NaCl and JA + NaCl) because of high $Na^+$ absorption. In conclusion, these results showed that moderate stress treatment such as low level salt treatment and plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) application would be potential strategies to improve the quality of spearmint by inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites containing high antioxidant activity and essential oil.

Study of the Effects of Sodium Chloride on Segregation-Distorter Action in D. melanogaster: 4. Treatment of Sodium Chloride on the Pupal Stages

  • Chung, Yong-Jai;Kang, Moon-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1971
  • In order to see if NaCl affected the the emergence rate and the SD action when treated it at the pupal stage of Drosophila melanogaster, an experiment was performed in which the resistibility to NaCl at the pupal stage was examined by the emergence rate and the effects of NaCl on the SD action was studied by k values. The four SD strains and two other strains (cn bw and Oregon-R) were used and NaCl media were prepared by adding NaCl at a concentration of 0.0M, 0.1M, 0.3M, 0.5M, 0.7M, and 1.0M to the standard media for the present experiment. The following conclusions were established: 1. The emergence rate (resistibility to NaCl) when treated NaCl at the pupal stage is significantly different not only among the strains but also among concentrations of NaCl. 2. The emergence rate decreases as concentration of NaCl increases but the rate of decrease shows rather constant so that the curves of decrease are not steep. 3. The emergence rate of the cn bw and Oregon-R strains shows higher value than of the four SD strains, implying that the resistibility to the NaCl is lower in the SD strains than in the two strains; not a few flies are emerged from the media of 1.0M of NaCl. 4. The difference in k values is not significant among concentrations of NaCl but among strains, the k values of the original SD strains are rather higher and constant but those of the recombinant SD strains are rather low and unstable. 5. The SD action is not affected by NaCl as far as once emerged from the culture media whether containing NaCl or not in any developmental stage. Thus such an experiment on NaCl effect is of little value to analyze the mechanism of the SD action in D. melanogaster.

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Cellular Structural Change of Barley Seedling on Different Salt Concentration under Hydroponic Culture (보리 유묘의 염농도에 따른 세포의 형태반응)

  • 이석영;김충수
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.481-486
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    • 1995
  • The salt stress at seedling stage of winter barley was examined in different concentrations of NaCl containing 1/2 Hoagland solution. Fresh weight of seedling at 30 days after seeding was highest at 25mM of NaCl concentration containing 1/2 Hoagland solution but if the NaCl concentration was more than 50mM it began to decrease seriously. Water content in plant was decreased according to increase of NaCl concentration in 1/2 Hoagland solution, so physiological mechanism of NaCl in barley was different from saline plant. Stoma number per cm$^2$ of first leaf was higher than that of control in case of stressed by NaCl but in that case the leaf length was decreased so the number of stoma per first leaf was slightly decreased. Chloroplast shape was not changed by 75mM of high NaCl contained 1/2 Hoagland solution but cell division at root growing point was inhibited by 75mM of NaCl. As the result of salt stress mitochondria was ruined in structure and irregular solid was found to be transfered from the cytoplasm to the cell wall in root growing point.

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