• Title, Summary, Keyword: Napier Grass Silage

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NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM SCHUM.) SILAGE ENSILED WITH MOLASSES BY GOATS

  • Yokota, H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1992
  • Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) harvested at an early growth stage was ensiled with 4% of molasses in a polyethylene bag silo which contained 15 kg of chopped forage each. Dry matter (DM) content of the silage was so low as 14.75%, although chemical quality of the silage was very high. Ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen was 6.59%, and the pH value of the silage was 3.79. Nutritive value of the silage was estimated using goats and compared to that of a timothy hay as a reference ration. Feeding level of each rations was adjusted to a level of nitrogen (N) recommendation. DM and N digestibilities of the silage were 65.0 and 54.5%, respectively, but those of the timothy hay were 37.6 and 37.2%. Feeding of the napier grass silage maintained body weight and kept positive N retention. Ammonia N concentration in the rumen fluid in goats fed the napier grass silage increased after feeding, but blood urea concentration was constant. Feeding of the timothy hay did not increase ammonia N concentration in the rumen fluid, but increased blood urea concentration. These facts indicated that the napier grass silage had enough digestible DM and N for maintenance ration to goats.

Comparative analysis of silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of tropical grass prepared with Acremonium and Tricoderma species producing cellulases

  • Khota, Waroon;Pholsen, Suradej;Higgs, David;Cai, Yimin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1913-1922
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To find out ways of improving fermentation quality of silage, the comparative analysis of fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of tropical grasses silage applied with cellulases produced from Acremonium or Tricoderma species were studied in Thailand. Methods: Fresh and wilted Guinea grass and Napier grass silages were prepared with cellulases from Acremonium (AC) or Trichoderma (TC) at 0.0025%, 0.005%, and 0.01% on a fresh matter (FM), and their fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. Results: All silages of fresh Napier grass were good quality with lower pH, butyric acid, and ammonia nitrogen, but higher lactic acid content than wilted Napier grass and Guinea grass silage. Silages treated with AC 0.01% had the best result in terms of fermentation quality. They also had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility at 6 and 48 h after incubation than other silages. Silages treated with lower levels at 0.005% or 0.0025% of AC and all levels of TC did not improve silage fermentation. Conclusion: The AC could improve silage fermentation and in vitro degradation of Guinea grass and Napier grass silages, and the suitable addition ration is 0.01% (73.5 U) of FM for tropical silage preparation.

Nutritional Quality of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Silage Supplemented with Molasses and Rice Bran by Goats

  • Yokota, H.;Fujii, Y.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.697-701
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    • 1998
  • In order to improve silage quality and utilization of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) by goats, the grass was ensiled with molasses (MOL) and/or defatted rice bran (DRB). Napier grass was harvested at the growing stage in July and cut into 3 cm length. The grass was mixed with 4% MOL and/or 15% DRB, ensiled 15 kg each into plastic bags and stored for 9 months. Dry matter content of the silage ensiled with MOL (MOL-silage) was 13.4%, but increased to 20% with DRB addition. The addition of MOL decreased pH value and ammonia nitrogen content, but increased lactic acid content. MOL-silage contained about 6% spoilage, but addition of DRB decreased spoilage to less than 1%. Goats were fed the silage at a level of 2.25% (DM basis) of their body weight. Goats fed DRB- or MOL/DRB-silages maintained nitrogen retention, but goats fed MOL-silage did not. The rumen fluid of goats fed DRB-silage tended to be higher in acetic acid and lower in propionic acid than those fed the other silages. Ammonia in the rumen fluids, urea nitrogen in the blood and the urinary nitrogen excretion were the lowest in goats fed MOL/DRB-silage. As the result, the ratio of retained nitrogen to nitrogen intake was the highest in goats fed MOL/DRB-silage. In conclusion, addition of DRB to napier grass increased DM of silage and decreased the volume of spoilage. The combination of MOL and DRB can improve the fermentation quality and thus enhance the utilization of the silage by goats, more than the MOL or DRB being as a single treatment.

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

  • Bureenok, Smerjai;Yuangklang, Chalermpon;Vasupen, Kraisit;Schonewille, J. Thomas;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1248-1254
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    • 2012
  • The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen ($NH_3$-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

The Intake and Palatability of Four Different Types of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Silage Fed to Sheep

  • Manyawu, G.J.;Sibanda, S.;Chakoma, I.C.;Mutisi, C.;Ndiweni, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.823-829
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    • 2003
  • Four different types of silage from new cultivars of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cv. NG 1 and NG 2, were fed to eight wethers in order to evaluate their preference and intake by sheep. The silages were prepared from direct-cut NG 1 herbage; pre-wilted NG 1 herbage; NG 1 herbage with maize meal (5% inclusion) and NG 2 herbage with maize meal (5% inclusion). All silages were palatable to sheep. Maize-treated silage had high quality fermentation, characterized by high Fleig scores and low pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammoniacal nitrogen contents. The pH, Fleig score, in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOMD) and ammoniacal-N contents for maize-treated cv. NG 1 silage were 3.7, 78, $540g\;kg^{-1}$ dry matter (DM ) and $0.18g\;kg^{-1}$ DM whereas, in maize-treated cv. NG 2 they were 3.6, 59, $^458g\;kg{-1}$ DM and $0.18g\;kg^-1$ DM, respectively. The superior quality of maize-treated silages made them more preferable to sheep. Among the maize-fortified silages, palatability and intake were significantly (p<0.001) greater with cv. NG 1. Although direct-cut silage had better fermentation quality compared to wilted silage, wilted silage was significantly (p<0.001) more preferable to sheep. However, there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the levels of preference and intake of wilted silage compared to maize-treated cv. NG 2 silage, even though the latter tended to be more palatable. There were indications that high pH (4.6 vs 3.5) and IVDOMD content (476 vs $457g\;kg^{-1}%$ DM) of wilted silage contributed to higher intake, compared to direct-cut silage. It was generally concluded that pre-wilting and treatment of Napier grass with maize meal at ensiling enhances intake and palatability.

Effluent and Aerobic Stability of Cellulase and LAB-Treated Silage of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum)

  • Zhang, J.;Kumai, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1063-1067
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    • 2000
  • The effects of acremonium cellulase (AC) additive and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant on effluent production and aerobic stability of silage were investigated. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) was treated with AC at the rates of 0.05 ($AC_1$) and 0.1 g/kg $(AC_2)$ and/or with LAB at the rate of $1.0{\times}10^8cfu/kg$ fresh grass at ensiling. The treatments of LAB, $AC_1$, $AC_2$, $LAB+AC_1$ and $LAB+AC_2$ significantly (p<0.01) decreased pH and contents of volatile basic nitrogen and butyric acid, and significantly (p<0.01) increased lactic acid content compared with the control. All treated silages were well preserved with pH of lower than 4.2. There were no significant differences in fermentation quality between the application rates of AC ($AC_1$ and $AC_2$) and between the mixtures ($AC_1+LAB$ and $AC_2+LAB$). AC ($AC_1$ and $AC_2$) and AC plus LAB ($AC_1+LAB$ and $AC_2+LAB$) resulted in more silage effluent than the control and LAB inoculant alone. When the experimental silos were opened, the silages treated with AC and/or LAB were not as stable as the control silage, as shown by pH increase and lactic acid decomposition.

EFFECT OF HARVEST INTERVALS ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) SILAGES FOR GOATS

  • Yokota, H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.591-596
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    • 1994
  • Chemical composition and nutritive values of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) silages subjected to two cutting intervals were studies; 1st harvest in July (A), and 2nd (B) and 1st (C) harvests in November. Each forage was ensiled with 4% molasses in plastic bags and stored for 5 or 9 months. A feeding experiment with castrated goats was conducted from April to June of the following year. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) content of the harvests varied from 9.5 to 22.8% and 6.6 to 13.6% of DM, respectively. The dry matter content of the silages fed to the goats were 13.0 to 24.4%, because some effluent was removed from each silage before the feeding trial. The pH values of the silages were between 4.03 and 4.29. Goats were given sufficient silage to meet maintenance nitrogen requirements from napier grass silage. Silage C was not completely consumed, and the silage had low digestibilities of DM, CP, hemicellulose and cellulose. Nitrogen balance was slightly positive for goats consuming silage B and was negative for goats consuming silages A and C. Nitrogen utilization was discussed in terms of ruminal $NH_3-N$ and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen fluids. It is concluded that goats could not maintain N-equilibrium not only when a younger forage was consumed at a level of N requirement by a restricted feeding, but also when an older forage could not be consumed enough for N requirement because of feed intake limitation.

Effect of Additives, Storage Temperature and Regional Difference of Ensiling on the Fermentation Quality of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Silage

  • Tamada, J.;Yokota, H.;Ohshima, M.;Tamaki, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 1999
  • The effects of addition of celulases (A cremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma viride, CE), a commercial inoculum containing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, LAB), fermented green juice (macerated napier grass with water was incubated anaerobically with 2% glucose for 1 day, FGJ) and glucose (G), and regional difference of ensiling on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) silage were studied by using 900 ml laboratory glass bottle silos under 30 and $40^{\circ}C$ storage conditions in 1995 and 1996. Experiment 1 was carried out to compare the addition of CE, LAB, FGJ and the combinations. Silages were stored for 45 days after ensiling. Experiment 2 studied the effects of applications of CE, LAB, FGJ and G. Experiment 3 was carried out using the similar additives as experiment 2 except for LAB. Silages were stored for 60 days in the experiments 2 and 3. Experiments 1 and 2 were done in Nagoya, and experiment 3 in Okinawa. Sugar addition through CE or G improved the fermentation quality in all the experiments, which resulted in a greater decrease in the pH value and an increased level of lactic acid, while butyric acid contents increased under $30^{\circ}C$ storage condition in CE addition. LAB and FGJ additions hardly affected the silage fermentation quality without additional fermentable carbohydrate. But the combination of LAB, FGJ and glucidic addition (CE and G) improved the fermentation quality. The effect of the regional difference of ensiling between temperate (Nagoya; $35^{\circ}$ N) and subtropical (Okinawa; $26.5^{\circ}$ N) zones on silage fermentation quality was not shown in the present study.

NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WILTED NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) ENSILED WITH OR WITHOUT MOLASSES

  • Yokota, H.;Kim, J.H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the effects of molasses addition at ensiling on nutritional quality of wilted napier grass, chemical quality and nutrient composition of the silages, digestibility and nitrogen retention at feeding trials were analysed using 4 goats in a cross over design. The results are as follows : 1. Molasses addition at ensiling decreased pH value (3.99) and ammonia nitrogen, and increased lactic acid content by 285% compared to non-additive silage (83.5 g/kg dry matter). 2. There were no differences in digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and cellulose between the silage ensiled with molasses (MS silage) and the silage ensiled without molasses (WS silage). Urinary nitrogen excretion, however, significantly (p<0.05) decreased in goats fed the MS silage, and nitrogen retention was positive in goats fed the MS silages, but negative in goats fed the WS silage. 3. Acetic acid concentration in remained fluids in goats fed the MS silage was lower and propionic and butyric acid concentrations were higher than those in goats fed the WS silage. As water soluble carbohydrate content was higher in the MS silage than in the WS silage, a part of added molasses was still remained in the silage at the feeding trials and could be utilized for energy sources by the goats. Nitrogen may be also effectively utilized in goats fed the MS silage, because the silage were inhibited in proteolysis during ensiling.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE AND ADDITION OF MOLASSES ON THE QUALITY OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM SCHUM.) SILAGE

  • Yokota, H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.377-382
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    • 1991
  • The effect of molasses addition and hot temperature on the ensiling characteristics of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) were studied. Napier grass was harvested five times at intervals from 22 to 39 days and each harvest was divided into two equal portions. The half portion was ensiled directly and the other half was ensiled after mixing with molasses into polyethylene bag silos of 15 kg capacity. Molasses was added at the rate of 4% of fresh weight of the grass. One half of the each treatment was conserved at a room of $40^{\circ}C$ for a month and then moved to an ambient temperature room. The other half was kept at ambient temperature for the whole experimental duration. The silages were opened 3 to 7 months after ensiling. Addition of molasses enhanced lactic acid fermentation by increasing lactic acid content and reducing pH value, ammonia nitrogen and acetic, propionic and butyric acid contents of the silages in both temperature treatments. Enhanced temperature increased pH value and decreased acetic, propionic and butyric acids.