• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nasality

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Acoustic Characteristics of Patients' Speech Before and After Orthognathic Surgery (부정교합환자의 수술전.후 발음변화에 관한 음향학적 특성)

  • Jeon, Gyeong-Sook;Kim, Dong-Chil;Hwang, Sang-Joon;Shin, Hyo-Keun;Kim, Hyun-Gi
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.93-109
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    • 2007
  • It is reported that the orthognathic patients suffer from not only aesthetic problems but also resonance disorder and articulation disorder because of the abnormality of the oral cavity. This study was designed to investigate the resonance of nasality and the intelligibility of speech for acoustic characteristics of patients' speech before and after orthognatic surgery. 8 orthognathic patients participated in the study. The nasality of words containing Korean consonants, Korean consonants and frequency and intensity of the fricative /s/ were measured using Nasometer and CSL (Computerized Speech Lab). Results were as follows: First, the nasality of post orthognathic surgery patients decreased in spontaneous speech. There was a significant difference in the nasality for all words between pre and post orthognatic surgery patients. Second, the nasality of each Korean consonant phoneme of post orthognathic surgery patients decreased. There was also a significant difference of the nasality for each Korean consonant phoneme between pre and post orthognatic surgery patients. Third, the decreased nasality for Korean consonant phonemes showed in plosives, affricates, fricatives, liquids, and nasals after surgery. But the significant difference showed only in plosives and fricatives. Finally, frequency and intensity for the fricative /s/ of post orthognathic patients increased.

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A Diachronic Study of Japanese Dakuon - through the Analysis of Korean Source-Materials in the 15-18th Centuries - (일본어 탁음의 비음성의 변천 과정 - 15-18세기의 일본어 전사 자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Jin Nam-Taek
    • MALSORI
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    • no.48
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    • pp.35-55
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study is to clarify the process of the sound changes of Japanese consonants (Dakuons) in the analysis of the transcriptions of Korean Source-Materials (i.e. Japanese textbooks for Korean and the records of travel in Japan) written in the 15-l8th centuries with the Korean writing system. Especially these records of travel in Japan are meaningful in that the process of change of Dakuon is shown in detail. The results are as follows. 1) In the 15th century, all Dakuons /g d z b/ had nasality. 2) The nasality of /z/ and /b/ disappeared in the 16th century. 3) The nasality of /d/ disappeared in the late 17th century.

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The Acoustic Changes of Voice after Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (구개인두성형술 후 음성의 음향학적 변화)

  • Hong, K.H.;Kim, S.W.;Yoon, H.W.;Cho, Y.S.;Moon, S.H.;Lee, S.H.
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.23-37
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    • 2001
  • The primary sound produced by the vibration of vocal folds reaches the velopharyngeal isthmus and is directed both nasally and orally. The proportions of the each component is determined by the anatomical and functional status of the soft palate. The oral sounds composed of oral vowels and consonants according to the status of vocal tract, tongue, palate and lips. The nasal sounds composed of nasal consonants and nasal vowels, and further modified according to the status of the nasal airway, so anatomical abnormalities in the nasal cavity will influence nasal sound. The measurement of nasal sounds of speech has relied on the subjective scoring by listeners. The nasal sounds are described with nasality and nasalization. Generally, nasality has been assessed perceptually in the effect of maxillofacial procedures for cleft palate, sleep apnea, snoring and nasal disorders. The nasalization is considered as an acoustic phenomenon. Snoring and sleep apnea is a typical disorders due to abundant velopharynx. The sleep apnea has been known as a cessation of breathing for at least 10 seconds during sleep. Several medical and surgical methods for treating sleep apnea have been attempted. The uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(UPPP) involves removal of 1.0 to 3.0 cm of soft palate tissue with removal of redundant oropharyngeal mucosa and lateral tissue from the anterior and sometimes posterior faucial pillars. This procedure results in a shortened soft palate and a possible risk following this surgery may be velopharyngeal malfunctioning due to the shortened palate. Few researchers have systematically studied the effects of this surgery as it relates to speech production. Some changes in the voice quality such as resonance (nasality), articulation, and phonation have been reported. In view of the conflicting reports discussed, there remains some uncertainty about the speech status in patients following the snoring and sleep apnea surgery. The study was conducted in two phases: 1) acoustic analysis of oral and nasal sounds, and 2) evaluation of nasality.

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A Study of Nasalance for Normal Korean Children Using Nasometer II (정상 소아의 비음도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seong-Il;Jo, Sang-Ki;Ko, Seung-O;Shin, Hyo-Keun
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2000
  • The perceptual judgement of nasality is still used in the assessment of velopharyngeal incompetence, but it should not be the sole criterion for speech nasality. Objective procedures may be used to assess velopharyngeal function, for example, nasometer, aerodynamics, x-ray, electromyography, nasoendoscopy, and videofluoroscopy can be utilized. The nasometer employs noninvasive measurement methods and measures with high levels of accuracy. The aim of this study was to obtain comprehensive nasalance data for Korean children, aged 7 years, and to investigate any gender differences within that age group. The results were as follow: 1. Statistically, gender has no significant effect on the nasalance of vowels /a/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /je/, /wi/) but the nasalance of the vowels /e/, /ja/) was higher in males (p<0.05). 2. There was no statistically significant effect of gender in plosives /p/, /ph/, /p'/, /t/, /th/, /t'/, /k/, /kh/, /k'/), affricatives /c/, /ch/, /c'/), and fricatives /s/, /s'/, /$\int$/). 3. The nasalance of the nasal consonants, /m/, /n/, /an/) is higher in males and only /n/, /an/ were statistically significant (p<0.05).

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A Study of Nasalance for Normal Korean Children using Nasometer II (정상 소아의 편도 형태에 따른 비음도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Seong-Il;Jo Sang-Ki;Ko Seung-O;Shin Hyo-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Cleft Lip And Palate
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2000
  • Assessment of speech nasality provides important information for the treatment of velopharyngeal incompetence. The perceptual judgement of nasality is still used in assessment of velopharyngeal incompetence, but it should not be the sole criterion for speech nasality. Objective procedures may be used to assess velopharyngeal function, in examples nasometer, aerodynamics, x-ray, electromyography, nasoendoscopy and videofluoroscopy etc, The aim of this study was to obtain comprehensive nasalance data for the Korean children, aged 7 years and to investigate any tonsil differences within that age group. The results were as follow: The nasalance of the children in respect of the tonsil was higher in grade III than grade I in vowels (/i/, /u/, /wi/), plosives (/p'/, /t'/, /k'/), affricatives (/c'/) and fricatives (/s/, /∫/). (p<0.05)

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The Effects of CPAP Therapy Program on Hypernasality in Preschool Children with Cleft Lips and Palates (CPAP(Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) 치료 프로그램이 취학 전 구순.구개열 아동의 과대비성 개선에 미치는 효과)

  • Jo, Sung-Mi;Jeong, Ok-Ran;Han, Ki-Hwan
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy on the treatment of hypernasality in patients with cleft lips and palates. 7 preschool children with severe hypernasality participated in the study. Acoustic measurements of nasality were done by using the NasalView (version 1.31). Results showed that the nasalance values were reduced linearly in both vowels according to the treatment period. The sharp treatment effect was observed at the beginning stage. The nasality values of the vowel /i/ showed a sharp decrease at the Evaluation Phase 1 and 2 and a small increase at the Phase 4 followed by a drop in the end. Further studies would be desirable for various patients with different disorder types.

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Speech Outcomes of Submucous Cleft Palate Children With Double Opposing Z-Plasty Operation (Double Opposing Z-Plasty 수술 후의 점막하 구개열 아동의 말소리 개선에 관한 연구)

  • 최홍식;홍진희;김정홍;최성희;최재남;남지인
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2002
  • Background and Objectives : The operation Double Opposing Z-Plasty, has been used for improving VPI function in the submucous cleft palate. However, few reports on the effects of the speech change were presented. The purpose of this study is to compare the difference of nasality and nasalance, parents satisfaction between before and after this operation and to consider how much improvement in speech. Materials and Methods : Ten submucous cleft palate children who underwent double opposing Z-plasty were analyzed. We retrospectively studied nasalance, auditory perception (nasality) with hypernasality, patients satisfaction, speech evaluation by using charts review, video tape, telephone interview. Results : In 8 patients of 10 submucous cleft palate, hypernasality reduced and speech intelligibility was higher and mean 0.35 point was increased in the velum length after operation. After operation, nasality was improved (2.0 point) and level of nasal emission decreased. Regarding satisfaction of this operation, scale was mean 2.8 (5 point-scale) : 8 parents were satisfied in the resonance, 3 parents were satisfied articulation. The reason of dissatisfaction was mostly compensatory articulation. Conclusion : To improve of speech in the submucous cleft palate, speech therapy afterthis operation as well as successful surgery should be considered.

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Acoustic Characteristics of Nasal Consonants and the Change of Nasalance according to the Sites of Nasal Obstruction (비폐색 부위에 따른 비강자음의 음향학적 특성 및 비음도의 변화)

  • 손영익;정유석;이은경;정원호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1998
  • Nasal sounds include nasalized vowels and consonants. Nasal cavity is important for the acoustics of nasal sounds. Evaluating the effects of site-specific nasal obstruction on nasal sound will help us to understand the importance of nasal geometry for the nasal sound and to foretell voice change after nasal surgery This study was designed to analyze the change of nasality and formant characteristics of nasal sound by obstructing different sites around the ostiomeatal unit(OMU). Ten adult male and female volunteers participated. The nasal formants and bandwidths of nasal consonant /n/ were checked in various conditions of nasal obstruction. The nasalance of rabbit, baby, and mama passages were compared in each conditions. Nasalance of all passages decreased when anterior portion of OMU was obstructed. Center frequency of first nasal formant(NF1) of /n/ has decreased in the order of anterior, inferior obstruction. The bandwidth of NF1 decreased in female with anterior obstruction. Anterior portion of OMU is most critical to the change of nasality and acoustics of nasal consonant. When anterior portion of OMU is obstructed, the shift of NF1 to a lower frequency and the narrowing of NF1 bandwidth are the major acoustic changes of nasal consonant /n/.

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The Study of Tonsil Affected Voice Quality after Tonsillectomy (편도적출술로 음성변화가 올 수 있는 편도 상태에 관한 연구)

  • 안철민;정덕희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 1998
  • Tonsillectomy is the one of operation that is performed the most commonly in otolaryngology field. Many changes that include range of voice, tone, voice quality and resonance were made by tonsillectomy. Sometimes, any patients taken tonsillectomy has suffer from these voice problem after tonsillectomy. However there are less study for these problems until now. Then, we studied to find the anatomical findings that affected the voice quality when tonsillectomy was performed. We evaluated the voice in 2 groups, one is the group showed the normal pharyngeal space by using the transnasal fiberscopy, the other is group showed medially bulging tonsil at pharyngeal cavity by using same method, with perceptual evaluation, nasalance score, nasality, oral formant and nasal formant. We used the computerized speech analysis system, the nasometer and the spectrogram in the CSL program. We could not find any differences in perceptual evaluation between two groups. But objective measures were provided. Nasalance score and nasality on the nasometric analysis were increased significantly and oral formant on the spectrogram was changed singnificantly after tonsillectomy in Group 2. Authors thought medially bulging tonsil in the pharynx is able to affect the voice quality after tonsillectomy when we evaluted through the nasal cavity by the using of fiberscopy and this evaluation would be important especially in singers.

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