• Title, Summary, Keyword: Native Breeds

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Characteristics of Seven Japanese Native Chicken Breeds Based on Egg White Protein Polymorphisms

  • Myint, Si Lhyam;Shimogiri, Takeshi;Kawabe, Kotaro;Hashiguchi, Tsutomu;Maeda, Yoshizane;Okamoto, Shin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1137-1144
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    • 2010
  • In this study, to examine genetic variability within a breed and genetic relationships between populations/breeds, we genotyped 606 birds from seven Japanese native chicken breeds at seven polymorphic loci of egg white proteins and compared those with Asian native chicken populations and commercial breeds. Genotyping of the Japanese native breeds showed that ovalbumin, two ovoglobulins and ovotransferrin were polymorphic, but ovomacroglobulin, ovoflavoprotein and lysozyme were monomorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci ($P_{poly}$) and average heterozygosity ($\bar{H}$) within a population ranged from 0.286 to 0.429 and from 0.085 to 0.158, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation ($G_{ST}$) was 0.250 in the Japanese native chicken breeds. This estimate was higher than that of Asian native chicken populations ($G_{ST}$ = 0.083) and of commercial breeds ($G_{ST}$ = 0.169). Dendrogram and PCA plot showed that Satsuma-dori, Jitokko, Amakusa-daio and Hinai-dori were closely related to each other and grouped into Asian native chickens and that Tsushima-jidori, Nagoya and Chan (Utaichan) were ramified far from other Japanese native chicken breeds. The egg white protein polymorphisms demonstrated that the population differentiation of the seven Japanese native chicken breeds was relatively large.

Genetic diversity of Saudi native chicken breeds segregating for naked neck and frizzle genes using microsatellite markers

  • Fathi, Moataz;El-Zarei, Mohamed;Al-Homidan, Ibrahim;Abou-Emera, Osama
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1871-1880
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in conservation of native genetic resources of chicken on a worldwide basis. Most of the native chicken breeds are threatened by extinction or crossing with ecotypes. Methods: Six Saudi native chicken breeds including black naked neck, brown frizzled, black, black barred, brown and gray were used in the current study. The aim of the current study was to evaluate genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of Saudi native chicken breeds based on 20 microsatellite markers. Results: A total of 172 alleles were detected in Saudi native chicken breeds across all 20 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per breed ranged from 4.35 in gray breed to 5.45 in normally feathered black with an average of 8.6 alleles. All breeds were characterized by a high degree of genetic diversity, with the lowest heterozygosity found in the brown breed (72%) and the greatest in the frizzled and black barred populations (78%). Higher estimate of expected heterozygosity (0.68) was found in both black breeds (normal and naked neck) compared to the other chicken populations. All studied breeds showed no inbreeding within breed (negative inbreeding coefficient [$F_{IS}$]). The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed three main clusters, with naked neck and gray breeds in one cluster, and brown and frizzled in the second cluster leaving black barred in a separate one. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the genetic information derived from the current study can be used as a guide for genetic improvement and conservation in further breeding programs. Our findings indicate that the Saudi native chicken populations have a rich genetic diversity and show a high polymorphism.

Genetic Variation and Relationships of Korean Native Chickens and Foreign Breeds Using 15 Microsatellite Markers

  • Kong, H.S.;Oh, J.D.;Lee, J.H.;Jo, K.J.;Sang, B.D.;Choi, C.H.;Kim, S.D.;Lee, S.J.;Yeon, S.H.;Jeon, G.J.;Lee, H.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1546-1550
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variation and establish the relationship amongst breeds and strains using 15 chicken specific microsatellite markers. A total of 285 unrelated DNA samples from four Korean native chicken strains (Black strain of Korean native chicken; KL, Red Brown strain of Korean native chicken; KR, Ogol strain of Korean native chicken; KS and Yellow Brown strain of Korean native chicken; KY) and three introduced chicken breeds (F strain of White Leghorn; LF, K strain of White Leghorn; LK, Rhode Island Red; RC and Cornish; CN) were genotyped to estimate within and between breed genetic diversity indices. All the loci analyzed in 15 microsatellite markers showed a polymorphic pattern and the number of alleles ranged from 5 to 14. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of UMA1019 was the highest (0.872) and that of ADL0234 was the lowest (0.562). The expected total heterozygosity (He) within breed and mean number of observed alleles ranged from 0.540 (LF) to 0.689 (KY), and from 3.47 (LK) to 6.07 (KR), respectively. The genetic variation of KR and KY were the highest and the lowest within Korean native strains, respectively. The genetic distance results showed that Korean native chicken strains were separated with the three introduced chicken breeds clustered into another group. The lowest distance (0.149) was observed between the KR and KL breeds and the highest distance (0.855) between the KR and LK breeds. The microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for assessing the genetic relationship between Korean native strains and other foreign breeds.

Genetic Relationship among the Korean Native and Alien Horses Estimated by Microsatellite Polymorphism

  • Cho, G.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.784-788
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    • 2006
  • Microsatellite polymorphism and the genetic relationship were estimated using genotype information of 305 horses from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds, Korean native horse (102) and Jeju racing horse (56) together with Japan Hokkaido horse (5), Mongolian horse (19), Thoroughbred horse (108), Quarter horse (11) and Przewalskii horse (4). Allelic frequencies, the number of alleles per locus were estimated by direct counting from observed genotype, and genetic variability was computed using the CERVUX software and DISPAN. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 (HMS6) to 18 (ASB17) with an average value of 10.45 in horse breeds. The expected total heterozygosity ($H_T$) and coefficient of gene differentiation ($G_{ST}$) ranged 0.764-0.921 (the average value was 0.830) and 0.102-0.266 (the average value was 0.180) in horse breeds, respectively. Four populations (Przewalskii horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, Quarter horse, Thoroughbred horse) showed lower heterozygosity than the average value (the average value was 0.710). The expected heterozygosity within breed ($H_S$) and mean no. of observed alleles ranged from $0.636{\pm}0.064$ (Japan Hokkaido horse) to $0.809{\pm}0.019$ (Mongolian horse), and from 2.73 (Przewalskii horse) to 8.27 (Korean native horse), respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.490 (Przewalskii horse) to 0.761 (Mongolian horse) with an average value of 0.637 in horse breeds. The results showed three distinct clusters with high bootstrap support: the Korean native horse cluster (Korean native horse, Mongolian horse), the European cluster (Przewalskii horse, Thoroughbred horse), and other horse cluster (Jeju racing horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, and Quarter horse). A relatively high bootstrap value was observed for the Korean native horse cluster and European cluster (87%), and the Korean native horse and Mongolian horse (82%). Microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native horse and other horse breeds, and also be applied for parentage testing in those horse breeds.

Determination of Phylogenetic Relationships of Turkish Native Cattle Breeds with Other Cattle Breeds Using Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequence Polymorphism

  • Ozdemir, Memis;Dogru, Unsal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.955-961
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to determine the specific polymorphic sites in cattle breeds and inter- and interbreed genetic variation among breeds and to develop a databank of Turkish native cattle mtDNA using sequence analysis. The entire D-loop region was analyzed based on DNA sequences in Turkish Grey, East Anatolian Red, South Anatolian Red, and Anatolian Black native breeds. In total, 68 nucleotide differences were observed at 26 different sites. The variable positions consisted of 22 transitions, two transversions, and two insertions, but no deletions. Haplotype number, haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, and mean number of pairwise difference values were found to be 17, 0.993, 0.00478, and 4.275, respectively. In addition, a phylogeny was developed by comparison among cattle populations for which the entire D-loop sequence was available. A high level of genetic variation was observed within and among the native cattle breeds.

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

  • Jeong, Hyeon-Soo;Kim, Dae-Won;Chun, Se-Yoon;Sung, Samsun;Kim, Hyeon-Jeong;Cho, Seoae;Kim, Heebal;Oh, Sung-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1394-1398
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    • 2014
  • Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

Analysis of Microsatellite DNA Polymorphisms in Five China Native Cattle Breeds and Application to Population Genetics Studies

  • Jin, Hai-Guo;Zhao, Yu-Min;Zhou, Guo-li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1700
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    • 2005
  • Five China native cattle breeds have been characterized by using 10 microsatellite DNA markers. The studied populations can be divided into five groups: Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle, Qinchuan cattle and Yanbian cattle. Allele frequencies were calculated and used for the characterization of the breeds and the study of their genetic relationships. Heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, the effective number of alleles was calculated. Nei' standard genetic distance (1978) was calculated and used for a neighbor-joining tree construction. NJ tree showed that Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle are closely related, whereas Yanbian cattle are clearly distinct from other four populations. The genetic relationship of five breeds corresponds to their history and geographic origins. This work analyzes the recent origin of these populations and contributes to the knowledge and genetic characterization of China native breeds.

Genetic Diversity of mtDNA D-loop and Maternal Origin of Three Chinese Native Horse Breeds

  • Zhang, Tao;Lu, Hongzhao;Chen, Chen;Jiang, Hai;Wu, Sanqiao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.921-926
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    • 2012
  • In order to protect the genetic resource of native horse breeds, the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of three native horse breeds in western China were investigated. Forty-three 600 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed by PCR and sequencing techniques, 33 unique haplotypes with 70 polymorphic sites were detected in these horses, which account for 11.67% of 600 bp sequence analyzed, showing the abundant genetic diversity of the three native horse breeds in western China. The Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree based on 247 bp of 43 D-loop sequences demonstrated the presence of seven major lineages (A to G), indicating that the three native horse breeds in western China originated from multiple maternal origins. Consistent with the front, the NJ phylogenetic tree based on 600 bp of mtDNA D-loop sequences of 43 Chinese western native horses and 81 sequences of six horse breeds from GenBank indicated that the three horse breeds had distributed into the seven major lineages (A to G). The structure of the phylogenic tree is often blurred because the variation in a short segment of the mitochondrial genome is often accompanied by high levels of recurrent mutations. Consequently, longer D-loop sequences are helpful in achieving a higher level of molecular resolution in horses.

Chinese Holstein Cattle Shows a Genetic Contribution from Native Asian Cattle Breeds: A Study of Shared Haplotypes and Demographic History

  • Ferreri, Miro;Gao, Jian;Wang, Zhi;Chen, Liben;Su, Jingliang;Han, Bo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1048-1052
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    • 2011
  • The Chinese Holstein cattle breed, an introduced breed in China, has been crossbred with native cattle breeds. We hypothesised that the Chinese Holstein local population in Beijing share haplotypes with native Asian cattle breeds, the result of a sudden population expansion in the recent past. We also hypothesised that crossbreeding and population expansion left traces that shaped the genetic makeup of the breed. Evaluation of this was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of Chinese Holstein cattle from Beijing (n = 41) and a comparison of them with the published mtDNA sequences (n = 293) of 14 Asian breeds with an emphasis on Chinese native cattle breeds. Three shared common haplotypes between Chinese Holstein cattle and native Asian cattle were found. Moreover, a high level of haplotype diversity in Chinese Holstein cattle (h = 0.9557) and low nucleotide diversity (${\pi}$ = 0.0052) was found, indicating a past population bottleneck followed by rapid population growth. These findings are supported by the significantly negative deviation of Tajima's D (-1.82085), the star-like pattern of dominant haplotypes and the pairwise mismatch distribution analysis, which showed a unimodal pattern.

Quality Characteristics of Korean Native Chicken Meat (한국산 토종 닭고기의 품질 특성)

  • 권연주;여정수;성삼경
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.223-223
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    • 1995
  • A study was conducted to compare the quality characteristics among commercial broiler, Wangchoo (imported dual purpose breed) and Korean native chicken(KNC). Thigh and breast meat of the broiler(7-wk old), Wangchoo(15-wk old), and Korean native chicken(15-wk old) stored for 24 h at 5t were used to analyze chemical composition, physico-chemical characteristics, textural traits and sensory evaluation test. Crude fat and moisture contents in broiler meat and crude protein content in KNC were significantly(P<.05) higher than those in the other breeds regardless of parts of the body. Total collagen content in broiler meat was significantly higher than those of the other breeds, however, the heat-soluble and the acid-soluble collagen content in Wangchoo were significantly lower than those of the other breeds. Water-holding capacities of KNC in breast meat, and of broiler in leg meat were significantly higher than that of the other breeds, while the results of the water-holding capacity and the cooking loss were reversed. Myofibrillar fragmentation index in broiler meat was significantly higher than that in the other breeds regardless of body parts. Hardness, elasticity and cohesiveness in Wangchoo were significantly higher than those in the other breeds. The prominent fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids and run up to 79.03~83.82 %, regardless of breeds and parts. The sensory evaluation score of tenderness, taste and preference in Wangchoo were lower compared to the broiler and KNC, however, they were not significantly different between broiler and KNC. In conclusion, the quality characteristics of KNC were excellent compared to Wangchoo.

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