• Title/Summary/Keyword: Nattokinase

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Effects of Nattokinase fibrinol supplementation on Fibrinolysis and Atherogenesis (Nattokinase fibrinol의 섭취가 혈전 용해능 및 동맥경화에 미치는 영향)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Park, Chong-Mu;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Shin, Jin-Hyuk;Cho, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2009
  • Effects of Nattokinase fibrinol (NKF), defined as a fibrinolytic product, on fibrinolytic and atherogenetic markers were studied for healthy adults (20-31 years old), who is smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Subjects were divided into 29 for NKF group and 10 for placebo group in a short term study. They were given 2 tablets of NKF (4,000 unit) or placebo tablet and thereafter blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4 hr prerid. For a 4-week long term study, 15 subjects for NFK group and 10 subjects for placebo group were supplemented one tablet of each NKF (2,000 unit) and placebo per day, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4 weeks later. The short-term experimental trial showed that NKF remarkably increased fibrinolytic activity at 2hr after consumption, which was maintained up to 4 hr, relative to that of placebo, while NKF reduced the euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and retarded the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), as compared to placebo group. NKF supplementation for 4 weeks elevated fibrinolytic activity, shortened ECLT and retarded aPTT. Furthermore, NKF supplementation increased anti-atherogenic index by decreasing triglyceride (TG) and elevating high-density lipiprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. These results indicate that NKF supplementation for short term or long term might have beneficial effects on preventing and treating cardiovascular disease by increasing fibrinolytic activity and improving atherogenic markers such as hyperlipidemia.

Cloning and Expression of a Alkaline Protease from Bacillus clausii I-52 (Bacillus clausii I-52로부터 alkaline protease 유전자의 클로닝 및 발현)

  • Joo, Han-Seung;Choi, Jang Won
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.201-212
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    • 2011
  • The alkaline protease gene was cloned from a halo-tolerant alkalophilic Bacillus clausii I-52 isolated from the heavily polluted tidal mud flat of West Sea in Inchon Korea, which produced a strong extracellular alkaline protease (BCAP). Based on the full genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis, PCR primers were designed to allow for the amplification and cloning of the intact pro-BCAP gene including promoter region. The full-length gene consists of 1,143 bp and encodes 381 amino acids, which includes 29 residues of a putative signal peptide and an additional 77-amino-acid propeptide at its N-terminus. The mature BCAP deduced from the nucleotide sequence consists of 275 amino acids with a N-terminal amino acid of Ala, and a relative molecular weight and pI value was 27698.7 Da and 6.3, respectively. The amino acid sequence shares the highest similarity (99%) to the nattokinase precursor from B. subtilis and subtilisin E precursor from B. subtilis BSn5. The substrate specificity indicated that the recombinant BCAP could hydrolyze efficiently the synthetic substrate, N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA,and did not hydrolyze the substrates with basic amino acids at the P1 site. The recombinant BCAP was strongly inhibited by typical serine protease inhibitor, PMSF, indicating that BCAP is a member of the serine proteases.

Purification and Characteristics of Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Chongkukjang

  • Yang, Jeong-Lye;Kim, Hee-Sook;Hong, Jeong-Hwa;Song, Young-Sun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2006
  • Bacillus sp. strain K-l, which produces a strong fibrinolytic enzyme, was isolated from chongkukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. The fibrinolytic enzyme was purified from chongkukjang base by using ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographic techniques. Purified enzyme, CK K-1 was demonstrated to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, and has molecular mass of a 12.4 kDa and a pI of 8.0. The optimal reaction pH value and temperature were 8.0 and $40^{\circ}C$, respectively. Phenyl-methyl-sulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF; serine protease inhibitor), ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA; metallo protease inhibitor), copper ion, ferric ion and lead ion inhibited the enzyme activity. These results indicated that the fibrinolytic enzyme is a metallo-serine protease and different from nattokinase and chongkukjangkinase.

Screening of Fibrinolytic Enzymes from Soil Metagenome Library (토양 metagenome library로부터 혈전용해효소의 탐색)

  • Lee Sun-Yi;Kim Bo-Hye;Kang Ju-Hyung;Cho Hyo-Jin;Kong Eun-Hee;Moon Sang-Wook;Kim Yeong-Jin;Ahn Soon-Cheol
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.2 s.75
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    • pp.360-364
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    • 2006
  • Fibrin clots of blood vessels are one of the serious factor caused cardiovascular disease. The development of a antithrombotic and thrombolysis solvent is necessary to prevent and treat these diseases. It has been reported that a strong fibrin-specific fibrinolytic enzyme was produced from a Korean fermented soybean paste similar to Japanese miso. We have been screened the known or novel fibrinolytic enzymes by activity-based and sequence-based screening from soil DNA metagenome library containing all kinds of environmental genomic DNA. The activity-based screening was determined the protease activity on 0.5% skim milk. For sequence-based screening, we designed a set of primer expanding gene sequence of fibrinolytic enzyme, performed PCR and selected clones showing the expected size of amplicons from metagenome library. Transformation of the gene encoding fibrinolytic enzyme was carried out with commercial vectors and their transformants were selected. Finally, we found 15 positive clones from metagenome library. Then each of sequences were analyzed and identified as similar or known the clones of nattokinase. We are going to perform full sequence of each clones, ligate with expression vector, transform into competent cells and then determine activity of expressed enzymes.

Screening and Characterization of Microorganisms with Fibrinolytic Activity from Fermented Foods

  • Yoon, Seon-Joo;Yu, Myeong-Ae;Sim, Gwan-Sub;Kwon, Seung-Taek;Hwang, Jae-Kwan;Shin, Jung-Kue;Yeo, In-Hyun;Pyun, Yu-Rang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.649-656
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    • 2002
  • Fibrinolytic microorganisms were screened from 42 samples of Korean fermented food (7 kinds of Chungook-jang, 14 kinds of commercial Doen-Jang, 5 kinds of home-made Doen-jang, and 16 kinds of Jeot-gal), 15 samples of Japanese fermented food (5 kinds of home-made soybean paste, and 10 kinds of Natto), and 19 samples of Indonesian fermented food (Tempe) as well as starters of Meju (500 microflora from Korea, and 22 from China). Initially, 11 isolates with strong fibrinolytic activity were selected for further characterization. The fibrinolytic activity of the 11 isolates ranged from 89 to 199% of standard plasmin. Four strains, M5l from Korean fermented food (Meju), I 1-1, I 1-4, and I 5-1 from Indonesian fermented food (Tempe), were chosen based on the degree of activity and reproducibility, and identified as Staphylococcus sciuri, Citrobacter or Enterobacter, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The first two isolates are pathogenic stains while the latter two are considered as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe). Fibrinolytic activity of E. faecalis, characterized and designated as BRCA-5, reached a maximum, when the producer was cultivated in Ml7 broth supplemented with 1.0% glucose for 5 h at 37$^{\circ}C$ with shaking at 180 rpm. Compared to commercial fibrinolytic enzymes, the cell-free culture supernatant of 5. faecaiis BRCA-5 showed stronger activity than plasmin and streptokinase, but similar degree of specific activity as nattokinase and urokinase, aud it also demonstrated anticoagulant and antiplatelet activity ex vivo. These features of E. faecalis make it an attractive agent as a biomaterial for health-promoting foods.

Enhancement of the Thermostability of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51이 생산하는 혈전용해효소의 열안정성 개선)

  • Kim, Jieun;Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Kim, Jeong Hwan;Song, Young-Sun;Cha, Jaeho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2013
  • AprE51 from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CH51 is a 27 kDa subtilisin-like protease with fibrinolytic activity. AprE51-6 showing increased catalytic activity was produced previously. To enhance the thermostability of AprE51-6, 2 residues, Gly-166 and Asn-218 based on B. subtilis subtilisin E were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The results of the mutational analysis showed that substitution of arginine for Gly-166 (AprE51-7) increased the fibrinolytic activity 1.8-fold. An N218S mutant (AprE51-8) also increased the fibrinolytic activity up to 4.5-fold in a fibrin plate assay. Purified AprE51-7 and AprE51-8 mutants had a 1.9- and a 2.5-fold higher $k_{cat}$, respectively, and a 2.1-1.9-fold lower $K_m$, respectively. This resulted in a 3.8- and a 4.7-fold increase in catalytic efficiency ($k_{cat}/K_m$), respectively, relative to that of wild-type AprE51. AprE51-8 had a broader pH range than AprE51-6 and nattokinase, especially at an alkaline pH value. In addition, AprE51-8 showed higher thermostability than AprE51-6 at $60^{\circ}C$. The half-lives of AprE51-7 and AprE51-8 at $50^{\circ}C$ were 21.5 and 27.3 min, respectively, which are 2.0 and 2.6 times longer, respectively, than that of the wild-type AprE51.