• Title, Summary, Keyword: Need for Cognitive Closure

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A Study on the Effect of POP Message Framing of Discount Stores and PB Fashion Product Types of Cognitive Need for Closure on Preference of Consumers (할인점 PB패션제품의 제품유형, POP 메시지 프레이밍, 인지종결욕구가 소비자의 호의도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyoung Jin;Hwang, Sun-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.67 no.1
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    • pp.22-39
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    • 2017
  • This study intended to empirically verify the effect of message framing, cognitive need for closure, and type of fashion products on purchasing attitude of PB fashion products in discount stores. The design consisted of three-mixed design of 2(POP(Point of Purchase)message framing: benefit message vs. loss message) ${\times}2$(cognitive need for closure: high vs. low) ${\times}2$(PB fashion product type: utilitarian vs. hedonic). Survey of this study was conducted on 330 men and women in 20~50's in Seoul and Gyeong-gi, and a total of 287 data were analyzed. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 program, and three-way ANOVA, simple interaction effects and simple main effects analysis were conducted. The results of this study are as follows: First, it was identified that the framing type of POP message of discount store, cognitive need for closure, and PB fashion product type had significant effect on preference and purchase intention. Secondly, it was identified that consumers with both high and low cognitive need for closure had high preference level and purchase intention when they encountered the benefit message framing than the loss message framing. Thirdly, the benefit message framing was more effective than the loss message framing for hedonic PB fashion products in discount stores, but utilitarian PB fashion products did not get affected by the message framing. Fourthly, it was identified that groups with both high and low cognitive need for closure preferred hedonic PB fashion products. Lastly, it was verified that benefit message framing POP advertisement on a group with high cognitive need for closure was effective for Hedonic PB fashion products in discount stores, and utilitarian PB fashion products showed no difference in purchase intention according to the POP message framing type and cognitive need for closure.

Effect of Individual Differences on Online Review Perception and Usage Behavior: The Need for Cognitive Closure and Demographics

  • Ma, Yoon Jin;Hahn, Kim;Lee, Hyun-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1270-1284
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    • 2012
  • This article examines how individual differences on the need for cognitive closure and demographics influence consumer perception and the usage of consumer reviews in online shopping. Data were randomly collected from 2,381 U.S. online consumer review users through an online survey. The findings from multiple regression analyses revealed the different effects of the need for cognitive closure dimensions (i.e., preference for order and structure, preference for predictability, discomfort with ambiguity, closed-mindedness, and decisiveness) and demographic characteristics on consumer attitudes, perceived online review influence, benefits, persuasiveness, and review usage behavior. Finally, practical implications and prospects for future research are discussed.

Validation of the Need for Closure Scale-Short Form (단축형 종결 욕구의 타당화)

  • Kim, Eunkyung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.166-173
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of the present study was to validate the Need for Closure Scale-Short Form (NFCS-SF), which measures the need for cognitive closure. Participants completed questionnaires regarding need for cognitive closure, intolerance of uncertainty, depression, and anxiety. Of the 536 data collected between May and July 2017, data from a total of 495 participants were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and M-Plus. The results of the study are as follows. First, a 15-item selection comprised three items from each facet scale via exploratory factor analysis. Second, the NFCS-SF demonstrated good internal consistency (Study 1, Cronbach's α=.85; Study 2, Cronbach's α=.84). Third, the results of the confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor model (χ2(80)=178.34, p<.001; CFI=.87, TLI=.83, RMSEA=.07, SRMR=.08). Fourth, the NFCS-SF showed significant correlation with the measures of intolerance of uncertainty (r=.58, p<.01), depression (r=.16, p<.05), and anxiety (state anxiety, r=.31, p<.01; trait anxiety, r=.29, as well as the NFCS (r=.86, p<.01). Based on these findings, significance and limitations of the results as well as suggestions for further study are discussed.

Factors Affecting the Delay of the Final Purchase Decision in Online Shopping: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Need for Cognitive Closure (온라인 쇼핑에서 최종 구매결정 지연 발생의 영향요인: 인지적 종결욕구의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Ae Ri;Kim, Dohoon;Kim, Kyung Kyu
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.658-669
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    • 2017
  • While online shopping has been increased expeditiously, a significant portion of purchasing intention has not been converted into actual purchasing behavior without delay in online space. This study investigates the factors causing a delay in online purchasing decision even after purchasing intention has been formed. It identifies the uncertainty variables (information, psychological, and preference uncertainties) related to consumer needs and the situational variables (time pressure and past purchase experience) surrounding the purchasing transaction. Furthermore, the need for cognitive closure is proposed to moderate the relationships between uncertainty/situational variables and the purchasing behavior. The results show that the uncertainties and situational factors significantly influence purchasing delay. Also, the need for cognitive closure indeed works as a moderator between the uncertainty variables and the purchasing behavior. Practical and academic implications of these findings are also discussed.

The Differential Effects of Cultural Disposition and Need for Cognitive Closure on Framing Effects (문화성향과 종결욕구에 따른 틀효과에서의 차이)

  • Joo, Mijung;Lee, Jaesik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.173-201
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to investigate the differential effects of individual's cultural disposition (individualism-collectivism or horizontal-vertical thinking) and need for cognitive closure(NFC) on framing effects. For this purpose, the participants were divided into 4 different cultural disposition groups based on Singelis et al.'s[1] INDCOL scale, and 2 different NFC groups based on Lee's[2] NFC Scale, and then asked to respond on 5 decision making scenarios. The results can be summarized as followings. First, participants preferred risk-avoidant option in gain frame, whereas risk-seeking option in loss frame. Second, there are no difference of cultural disposition on framing effects, but high NFC group showed larger framing effects than low NFC group in loss frame. Third, collectivism and vertical thinking in high NFC condition showed larger framing effects than low NFC condition.

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The Impacts of Need for Cognitive Closure, Psychological Wellbeing, and Social Factors on Impulse Purchasing (인지폐합수요(认知闭合需要), 심리건강화사회인소대충동구매적영향(心理健康和社会因素对冲动购买的影响))

  • Lee, Myong-Han;Schellhase, Ralf;Koo, Dong-Mo;Lee, Mi-Jeong
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.44-56
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    • 2009
  • Impulse purchasing is defined as an immediate purchase with no pre-shopping intentions. Previous studies of impulse buying have focused primarily on factors linked to marketing mix variables, situational factors, and consumer demographics and traits. In previous studies, marketing mix variables such as product category, product type, and atmospheric factors including advertising, coupons, sales events, promotional stimuli at the point of sale, and media format have been used to evaluate product information. Some authors have also focused on situational factors surrounding the consumer. Factors such as the availability of credit card usage, time available, transportability of the products, and the presence and number of shopping companions were found to have a positive impact on impulse buying and/or impulse tendency. Research has also been conducted to evaluate the effects of individual characteristics such as the age, gender, and educational level of the consumer, as well as perceived crowding, stimulation, and the need for touch, on impulse purchasing. In summary, previous studies have found that all products can be purchased impulsively (Vohs and Faber, 2007), that situational factors affect and/or at least facilitate impulse purchasing behavior, and that various individual traits are closely linked to impulse buying. The recent introduction of new distribution channels such as home shopping channels, discount stores, and Internet stores that are open 24 hours a day increases the probability of impulse purchasing. However, previous literature has focused predominantly on situational and marketing variables and thus studies that consider critical consumer characteristics are still lacking. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study builds on this third tradition of research and focuses on individual trait variables, which have rarely been studied. More specifically, the current study investigates whether impulse buying tendency has a positive impact on impulse buying behavior, and evaluates how consumer characteristics such as the need for cognitive closure (NFCC), psychological wellbeing, and susceptibility to interpersonal influences affect the tendency of consumers towards impulse buying. The survey results reveal that while consumer affective impulsivity has a strong positive impact on impulse buying behavior, cognitive impulsivity has no impact on impulse buying behavior. Furthermore, affective impulse buying tendency is driven by sub-components of NFCC such as decisiveness and discomfort with ambiguity, psychological wellbeing constructs such as environmental control and purpose in life, and by normative and informational influences. In addition, cognitive impulse tendency is driven by sub-components of NFCC such as decisiveness, discomfort with ambiguity, and close-mindedness, and the psychological wellbeing constructs of environmental control, as well as normative and informational influences. The present study has significant theoretical implications. First, affective impulsivity has a strong impact on impulse purchase behavior. Previous studies based on affectivity and flow theories proposed that low to moderate levels of impulsivity are driven by reduced self-control or a failure of self-regulatory mechanisms. The present study confirms the above proposition. Second, the present study also contributes to the literature by confirming that impulse buying tendency can be viewed as a two-dimensional concept with both affective and cognitive dimensions, and illustrates that impulse purchase behavior is explained mainly by affective impulsivity, not by cognitive impulsivity. Third, the current study accommodates new constructs such as psychological wellbeing and NFCC as potential influencing factors in the research model, thereby contributing to the existing literature. Fourth, by incorporating multi-dimensional concepts such as psychological wellbeing and NFCC, more diverse aspects of consumer information processing can be evaluated. Fifth, the current study also extends the existing literature by confirming the two competing routes of normative and informational influences. Normative influence occurs when individuals conform to the expectations of others or to enhance his/her self-image. Whereas informational influence occurs when individuals search for information from knowledgeable others or making inferences based upon observations of the behavior of others. The present study shows that these two competing routes of social influence can be attributed to different sources of influence power. The current study also has many practical implications. First, it suggests that people with affective impulsivity may be primary targets to whom companies should pay closer attention. Cultivating a more amenable and mood-elevating shopping environment will appeal to this segment. Second, the present results demonstrate that NFCC is closely related to the cognitive dimension of impulsivity. These people are driven by careless thoughts, not by feelings or excitement. Rational advertising at the point of purchase will attract these customers. Third, people susceptible to normative influences are another potential target market. Retailers and manufacturers could appeal to this segment by advertising their products and/or services as products that can be used to identify with or conform to the expectations of others in the aspiration group. However, retailers should avoid targeting people susceptible to informational influences as a segment market. These people are engaged in an extensive information search relevant to their purchase, and therefore more elaborate, long-term rational advertising messages, which can be internalized into these consumers' thought processes, will appeal to this segment. The current findings should be interpreted with caution for several reasons. The study used a small convenience sample, and only investigated behavior in two dimensions. Accordingly, future studies should incorporate a sample with more diverse characteristics and measure different aspects of behavior. Future studies should also investigate personality traits closely related to affectivity theories. Trait variables such as sensory curiosity, interpersonal curiosity, and atmospheric responsiveness are interesting areas for future investigation.

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Differential Effects of Recovery Efforts on Products Attitudes (제품태도에 대한 회복노력의 차별적 효과)

  • Kim, Cheon-GIl;Choi, Jung-Mi
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.33-58
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    • 2008
  • Previous research has presupposed that the evaluation of consumer who received any recovery after experiencing product failure should be better than the evaluation of consumer who did not receive any recovery. The major purposes of this article are to examine impacts of product defect failures rather than service failures, and to explore effects of recovery on postrecovery product attitudes. First, this article deals with the occurrence of severe and unsevere failure and corresponding service recovery toward tangible products rather than intangible services. Contrary to intangible services, purchase and usage are separable for tangible products. This difference makes it clear that executing an recovery strategy toward tangible products is not plausible right after consumers find out product failures. The consumers may think about backgrounds and causes for the unpleasant events during the time gap between product failure and recovery. The deliberation may dilutes positive effects of recovery efforts. The recovery strategies which are provided to consumers experiencing product failures can be classified into three types. A recovery strategy can be implemented to provide consumers with a new product replacing the old defective product, a complimentary product for free, a discount at the time of the failure incident, or a coupon that can be used on the next visit. This strategy is defined as "a rewarding effort." Meanwhile a product failure may arise in exchange for its benefit. Then the product provider can suggest a detail explanation that the defect is hard to escape since it relates highly to the specific advantage to the product. The strategy may be called as "a strengthening effort." Another possible strategy is to recover negative attitude toward own brand by giving prominence to the disadvantages of a competing brand rather than the advantages of its own brand. The strategy is reflected as "a weakening effort." This paper emphasizes that, in order to confirm its effectiveness, a recovery strategy should be compared to being nothing done in response to the product failure. So the three types of recovery efforts is discussed in comparison to the situation involving no recovery effort. The strengthening strategy is to claim high relatedness of the product failure with another advantage, and expects the two-sidedness to ease consumers' complaints. The weakening strategy is to emphasize non-aversiveness of product failure, even if consumers choose another competitive brand. The two strategies can be effective in restoring to the original state, by providing plausible motives to accept the condition of product failure or by informing consumers of non-responsibility in the failure case. However the two may be less effective strategies than the rewarding strategy, since it tries to take care of the rehabilitation needs of consumers. Especially, the relative effect between the strengthening effort and the weakening effort may differ in terms of the severity of the product failure. A consumer who realizes a highly severe failure is likely to attach importance to the property which caused the failure. This implies that the strengthening effort would be less effective under the condition of high product severity. Meanwhile, the failing property is not diagnostic information in the condition of low failure severity. Consumers would not pay attention to non-diagnostic information, and with which they are not likely to change their attitudes. This implies that the strengthening effort would be more effective under the condition of low product severity. A 2 (product failure severity: high or low) X 4 (recovery strategies: rewarding, strengthening, weakening, or doing nothing) between-subjects design was employed. The particular levels of product failure severity and the types of recovery strategies were determined after a series of expert interviews. The dependent variable was product attitude after the recovery effort was provided. Subjects were 284 consumers who had an experience of cosmetics. Subjects were first given a product failure scenario and were asked to rate the comprehensibility of the failure scenario, the probability of raising complaints against the failure, and the subjective severity of the failure. After a recovery scenario was presented, its comprehensibility and overall evaluation were measured. The subjects assigned to the condition of no recovery effort were exposed to a short news article on the cosmetic industry. Next, subjects answered filler questions: 42 items of the need for cognitive closure and 16 items of need-to-evaluate. In the succeeding page a subject's product attitude was measured on an five-item, six-point scale, and a subject's repurchase intention on an three-item, six-point scale. After demographic variables of age and sex were asked, ten items of the subject's objective knowledge was checked. The results showed that the subjects formed more favorable evaluations after receiving rewarding efforts than after receiving either strengthening or weakening efforts. This is consistent with Hoffman, Kelley, and Rotalsky (1995) in that a tangible service recovery could be more effective that intangible efforts. Strengthening and weakening efforts also were effective compared to no recovery effort. So we found that generally any recovery increased products attitudes. The results hint us that a recovery strategy such as strengthening or weakening efforts, although it does not contain a specific reward, may have an effect on consumers experiencing severe unsatisfaction and strong complaint. Meanwhile, strengthening and weakening efforts were not expected to increase product attitudes under the condition of low severity of product failure. We can conclude that only a physical recovery effort may be recognized favorably as a firm's willingness to recover its fault by consumers experiencing low involvements. Results of the present experiment are explained in terms of the attribution theory. This article has a limitation that it utilized fictitious scenarios. Future research deserves to test a realistic effect of recovery for actual consumers. Recovery involves a direct, firsthand experience of ex-users. Recovery does not apply to non-users. The experience of receiving recovery efforts can be relatively more salient and accessible for the ex-users than for non-users. A recovery effort might be more likely to improve product attitude for the ex-users than for non-users. Also the present experiment did not include consumers who did not have an experience of the products and who did not perceive the occurrence of product failure. For the non-users and the ignorant consumers, the recovery efforts might lead to decreased product attitude and purchase intention. This is because the recovery trials may give an opportunity for them to notice the product failure.

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