• Title, Summary, Keyword: Neurotransmitters

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The Change of Plasma Neurotransmitters Concentration after Aromatherapy in Dementia Patients (라벤더향 흡입 후 치매환자의 혈장 중 신경전달물질의 농도변화)

  • Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kang, Young-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.86-91
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study is to examine how different concentration of neurotransmitters in plasma between patients with dementia and normal people regarding the inhalation of lavender oil. This study subjects were 9 elderly patients with dementia who live in nursing home and 9 normal women. Before and after inhalation, they were collected blood sample. Norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and r-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration analysis were performed. Before inhalation, dementia patients were significantly different with the normal group in GABA and DA, NE. Following inhalation in experimental group, dementia patients and normal group were only significantly increased in 5-HT. But it did not significantly change in the other neurotransmitters. After inhalation, dementia patients were significantly different with the normal group in GABA and 5-HT. This result suggests that the increase of 5-HT release by the inhalation of lavender oil related to reduce the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

Improvement of Memory by Dieckol and Phlorofucofuroeckol in Ethanol-Treated Mice: Possible Involvement of the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase

  • Myung Chang-Seon;Shin Hyeon-Cheol;Bao Hai Ying;Yeo Soo Jeong;Lee Bong Ho;Kang Jong Seong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.691-698
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    • 2005
  • Phlorotannins, the polyphonic compounds found in brown Eisenia and Ecklonia algae, have several pharmacologically beneficial effects such as anti-inflammation. In addition, our recent data show that these compounds may improve the cognitive functions of aged humans suggesting the potential ability to enhance memory in several neurodegenerative disorders. To examine the experimental hypothesis that two effective components of Ecklonia cava, dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol (PFF), have memory-enhancing abilities, both were administered orally to mice before a passive avoidance test. The repeated administration of either dieckol or PFF dose-dependently reduced the inhibition of latency by the administration of ethanol. To investigate the mode of memory-enhancing actions, the levels of major central neurotransmitters in three different regions (striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex) of the mouse brain were measured. The levels of some of the neurotransmitters were significantly changed by ethanol. Both dieckol and PFF altered the levels of some neurotransmitters modified by the ethanol treatment. It is noteworthy that both dieckol and PFF increased the level of acetylcho-line, and they exerted anticholinesterase activities. Overall, the memory-enhancing abilities of dieckol and PFF may result from, at least in part, the increment of the brain level of acetylcho-line by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.

Impact of High Fat Diet-induced Obesity on the Plasma Levels of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in C57BL/6 Mice

  • Kim, Minjeong;Bae, SeungJin;Lim, Kyung-Min
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.476-480
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    • 2013
  • Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in developed countries. It negatively affects diverse aspects of human wellbeing. Of these, a relationship between obesity and depression is widely recognized but biomarkers for assessment of obesity-associated mood changes in animal obesity models are rarely known. Here we explored the link between obesity and the plasma levels of monoamine neurotransmitters involved in mood control using a sensitive UPLC/MSMS technique in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model in male C57BL/6 mice to explore the potential utility of plasma tests for obesity-associated mood change. HFD (60% of total calories, 8 weeks) induced significantly higher weight gains in body (+37.8%) and fat tissue (+306%) in male C57BL/6 mice. Bioanalysis of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in plasma at 8 weeks of HFD revealed that serotonin decreased significantly in the obese mice when compared to normal diet-fed mice ($2.7{\pm}0.6$ vs $4.3{\pm}2.0ng/ml$, N=8). Notably, a negative correlation was found between the levels of serotonin and body weight gains. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) with the individual levels of neurotransmitters revealed that plasma levels of dopamine and serotonin could apparently differentiate the obese mice from lean ones. Our study demonstrated that blood plasma levels of neurotransmitters can be employed to evaluate the mood changes associated with obesity and more importantly, provided an important clue for understanding of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders.

Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Modulates the Level of Neurotransmitters

  • Chung, Yoon Hee;Lee, Young Joo;Lee, Ho Sung;Chung, Su Jin;Lim, Cheol Hee;Oh, Keon Woong;Sohn, Uy Dong;Park, Eon Sub;Jeong, Ji Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2015
  • This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized.

Effects of the Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture on the Neurotransmitters of the Rat Brain Cortex

  • Yun, Hyoung-Seok;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2001
  • In order to study the effects of bee venom herbal acupuncture on the neurotransmitters of the rat brain cortex, herbal acupuncture with the bee venom group and normal saline group was performed bilaterally on the point corresponding to LI 4 of the rat. The average optical density of the neurotransmitters from the cerebral cortex was analyzed 30 minutes after the herbal acupuncture with immunohistochemical methods. The results were as follows: 1. The density of NADPH-diaphorase in the bee venom group was increased significantly at the motor cortex, visual cortex, auditory cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 2. The average optical density of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the bee venom group had significant changes at the insular cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 3. The average optical density of neuropeptide-Y in the bee venom group increased significantly at the visual cortex and cingulate cortex, compared to the normal saline group.

Fluorescent Probes for Analysis and Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase Activity

  • Kim, Dokyoung;Jun, Yong Woong;Ahn, Kyo Han
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.1269-1274
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    • 2014
  • Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and amine neurotransmitters, and assist in maintaining the homeostasis of the amine neurotransmitters in the brain. Dysfunctions of these enzymes can cause neurological and behavioral disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To understand their physiological roles, efficient assay methods for monoamine oxidases are essential. Reviewed in this Perspective are the recent progress in the development of fluorescent probes for monoamine oxidases and their applications to enzyme assays in cells and tissues. It is evident that still there is strong need for a fluorescent probe with desirable substrate selectivity and photophysical properties to challenge the much unsolved issues associated with the enzymes and the diseases.

Effect of Lidocaine on the Release, Receptor Binding and Uptake of Amino Acid Neurotransmitters In vitro (Lidocaine이 아미노산 신경전도물질의 유리, 수용체 결합, 및 섭취에 미치는 효과에 관한 시험관내 실험에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, An-Min;Cheong, Dong-Kyun;Mori, Masakazu
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 1988
  • The author examined the effects of lidocaine on the veratrine-or potassium-induced release of neurotransmitters to determine the possible role of amino acid neurotransmitters in lidocaine-induced convulsion. The examined transmitters were gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartic acid, glutamic acid and norepinephrine which are released from the synaptosomes. Furthermore, the effects of lidocaine on the binding to receptors and synaptosomal uptake of the two transmitters, GABA and glutamic acid, were determined in crude synaptic membranes and synaptosomes. In addition, the effects of propranolol, norepinephrine and serotonin on the release of amino acid neurotransmitters were also examined. The veratrine-induced release of GABA was most severely inhibited by lidocaine and propranolol, while norepinephrine and serotonin reduced the release of aspartic acid and glutamic acid more than the GABA release. Generally the potassium-induced release was much more resistant to the lidocaine action than the veratrine-induced release. Among the neurotransmitters examined, the aspartic acid release was most prone to the lidocaine action, while the GABA release was most resistant. Concentrations of lidocaine below 1 mM did not significantly change the GABA and glutamic acid receptor binding and uptake. These results indicate that the blocking of sodium channels by lidocaine can result in the selective depression of the GABA release. This may result in unlimited excitation of the central nervous system.

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The Effect of Hirudin Herbal-acupuncture on Neurotransmitters against Middle Cerebral Artery Occulsion(MCAO) Rats (Hirudin 약침(藥鍼)이 뇌허혈(腦虛血)을 유발(誘發)시킨 흰쥐의 신경전도물질(神經傳達物質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Suk, Jae-Wook;Jung, Tae-Young;Leem, Seong-Cheol;Seo, Jeong-Chul;Han, Sang-Won
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 2004
  • Objective : This experimental studies were performed in order to prove the effect of Hirudin Herbal-acupuncture by using rats that had neuronal damage due to the Middle Cerebral Artery Occulsion(MCAO). Method : We observed the change of extracellular concentrations(${\mu}M$) of dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, HIAA, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glysine, taurine, alanine, and tyrosine as extracted by vivo microdialysis, in the Hirudin Herbal-acupuncture administrated rats($240{\sim}260g$, Sprague-Dawley) subjected to the MCAO. The dialysates were extracted three times before the MCAO and six times after the MCAO every 20 minutes, and analysed by highperformance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Results : Hirudin Herbal-acupuncture significantly inhibited glutamate, aspartate, and tyrosine which are stimulant neurotransmitters at brain ischemia, and it significantly decreased glycine, GABA, taurine, and alanine which are inhibitory neurotransmitters at brain ischemia. Conclusion : Hirudin Herbal-acupuncture may prevent delayed neuronal death(DND) in selectively vulnerable focal areas of the brain effectively.

The Effect of Phospholipase $A_2$ Herbal-acupuncture on Neurotransmitters against Middle Cerebral Artery Occulsion Rats. (Phospholipase $A_2$ 약성이 뇌허혈을 유발시킨 흰쥐의 신경전달물질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Sung Min;Jung Tae Young;Leem Seong Cheol;Seo Jeong Chul;Han Sang Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1322-1330
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    • 2004
  • This experimental studies were performed in order to prove the effect of Phospholipase A₂(PLA₂) Herbal-acupuncture by using rats that had neuronal damage due to the Middle Cerebral Artery Occulsion(MCAO). We observed the change of extracellular concentrations(μM) Of dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, HIAA, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glysine, taurine, alanine, and tyrosine as extracted by vivo microdialysis, in the PLA₂ Herbal-acupuncture administrated rats(240-260g, Sprague-Dawley) subjected to the MCAO. The dialysates were extracted three times before the MCAO and six times after the MCAO every 20 minutes, and ana lysed by highperformance liquid chromatography(HPLC). PLA₂ Herbal-acupuncture significantly inhibited glutamate and tyrosine which are stimulant neurotransmitters at brain ischemia, and it significantly decreased glycine, GABA, taurine, and alanine which are inhibitory neurotransmitters at brain ischemia. PLA₂ Herbal-acupuncture may prevent delayed neuronal death(DND) in selectively vulnerable focal areas of the brain effectively.

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Schizandrae Fructus on Lead-Induced Change of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in Hippocampus

  • Zhao, Rong Jie;Zhao, Zheng Lin;Zhao, Xiu Feng;Zhao, Guang Wen;Li, Meng Quan;Wu, Yi Yan;Li, Jing Qiu;Guan, Li Xin;Kim, Sang-Chan
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2009
  • The effects of aqueous extract of Schizandrae Fructus (AESC) on lead (Pb)-induced changes of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus (HIP) of adult rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were received intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Pb acetate (5 mg/kg/d) for 28 days and sacrificed 7 days after the last administration. Concentrations of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in HIP were measured by HPLC. There were significant decreases of NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA in Pb treated rats (P < 0.05), while pretreatment with AESC (100 mg/kg/d or 300 mg/kg/d, p.o., 2 h before Pb) greatly inhibited the decrease of monoamine transmitters, respectively (P < 0.05). Also, AESC (300 mg/kg/d) significantly increased the reduction of glutathione contents and superoxide dismutase activities in HIP induced by chronic Pb. These results suggest that AESC ameliorates Pb-induced depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters in HIP through its antioxidant activity.

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