• Title, Summary, Keyword: Next-Generation Sequencing

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), A Key Tool to open the Personalized Medicine Era

  • Kwon, Sun-Il
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.167-177
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    • 2012
  • Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a term that means post-Sanger sequencing methods with high-throughput sequencing technologies. NGS parallelizes the sequencing process, producing thousands or millions of sequences at once. The latest NGS technologies use even single DNA molecule as a template and measures the DNA sequence directly via measuring electronic signals from the extension or degradation of DNA. NGS is making big impacts on biomedical research, molecular diagnosis and personalized medicine. The hospitals are rapidly adopting the use of NGS to help to patients understand treatment with sequencing data. As NGS equipments are getting smaller and affordable, many hospitals are in the process of setting up NGS platforms. In this review, the progress of NGS technology development and action mechanisms of representative NGS equipments of each generation were discussed. The key technological advances in the commercialized platforms were presented. As NGS platforms are a great concern in the healthcare area, the latest trend in the use of NGS and the prospect of NGS in the future in diagnosis and personalized medicine were also discussed.

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Ultra-rare Disease and Genomics-Driven Precision Medicine

  • Lee, Sangmoon;Choi, Murim
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.42-45
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    • 2016
  • Since next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique was adopted into clinical practices, revolutionary advances in diagnosing rare genetic diseases have been achieved through translating genomic medicine into precision or personalized management. Indeed, several successful cases of molecular diagnosis and treatment with personalized or targeted therapies of rare genetic diseases have been reported. Still, there are several obstacles to be overcome for wider application of NGS-based precision medicine, including high sequencing cost, incomplete variant sensitivity and accuracy, practical complexities, and a shortage of available treatment options.

Next-generation approaches to the microbial ecology of food fermentations

  • Bokulich, Nicholas A.;Mills, David A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.377-389
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    • 2012
  • Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawn of time and remain a prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance, many of these foods have been studied in detail using molecular tools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology are revolutionizing the study of food microbial ecology, deepening insight into complex fermentation systems. This review provides insight into novel applications of select molecular techniques, particularly next-generation sequencing technology, for analysis of microbial communities in fermented foods. We present a guideline for integrated molecular analysis of food microbial ecology and a starting point for implementing next-generation analysis of food systems.

Application of Next Generation Sequencing to Investigate Microbiome in the Livestock Sector (Next Generation Sequencing을 통한 미생물 군집 분석의 축산분야 활용)

  • Kim, Minseok;Baek, Youlchang;Oh, Young Kyoon
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to review application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate microbiome in the livestock sector. Since the 16S rRNA gene is used as a phylogenetic marker, unculturable members of microbiome in nature or managed environments have been investigated using the NGS technique based on 16S rRNA genes. However, few NGS studies have been conducted to investigate microbiome in the livestock sector. The 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from NGS are classified to microbial taxa against the 16S rRNA gene reference database such as RDP, Greengenes and Silva databases. The sequences also are clustered into species-level OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. Microbiome similarity among treatment groups is visualized using principal coordinates analysis, while microbiome shared among treatment groups is visualized using a venn diagram. The use of the NGS technique will contribute to elucidating roles of microbiome in the livestock sector.

Microarray and Next-Generation Sequencing to Analyse Gastric Cancer

  • Dang, Yuan;Wang, Ying-Chao;Huang, Qiao-Jia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8035-8040
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    • 2014
  • Gastric cancer is the second after lung cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Early detection and treatment can lead to a long survival time. Recently microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS) have become very useful tools of comprehensive research into gastric cancer, facilitating the identification of treatment targets and personalized treatments. However, there are numerous challenges from cancer target discovery to practical clinical benefits. Although there are many biomarkers and target agents, only a minority of patients are tested and treated accordingly. Microarray technology with maturity was established more than 10 years ago, and has been widely used in the study of functional genomics, systems biology, and genomes in medicine. Second generation sequencing technology is more recent, but development is very fast, and it has been applied to the genome, including sequencing and epigenetics and many aspects of functional genomics. Here we review insights gained from these studies regarding the technology of microarray and NGS, how to elucidate the molecular basis of gastric cancer and identify potential therapeutic targets, and how to analyse candidate genes. We also discuss the challenges and future directions of such efforts.

Toward Complete Bacterial Genome Sequencing Through the Combined Use of Multiple Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

  • Jeong, Haeyoung;Lee, Dae-Hee;Ryu, Choong-Min;Park, Seung-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2016
  • PacBio's long-read sequencing technologies can be successfully used for a complete bacterial genome assembly using recently developed non-hybrid assemblers in the absence of second-generation, high-quality short reads. However, standardized procedures that take into account multiple pre-existing second-generation sequencing platforms are scarce. In addition to Illumina HiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM-based genome sequencing results derived from previous studies, we generated further sequencing data, including from the PacBio RS II platform, and applied various bioinformatics tools to obtain complete genome assemblies for five bacterial strains. Our approach revealed that the hierarchical genome assembly process (HGAP) non-hybrid assembler resulted in nearly complete assemblies at a moderate coverage of ~75x, but that different versions produced non-compatible results requiring post processing. The other two platforms further improved the PacBio assembly through scaffolding and a final error correction.

Isolation of Gene according to the Physiological Changes of Lespedeza cuneata. G don by the Convergence Study using a Computer Program and NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) (NGS (Next Generation Sequencing)와 컴퓨터 프로그램의 융합적 연구를 통한 비수리(Lespedeza cuneata. G. don)의 생리적 변화에 따른 유용 유전자 분리)

  • Ahn, Chul-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.12
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of isolating the useful gene of soybean plant, anthocyanin, through NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) and molecular biology experiments. Lespedeza cuneata. G. don is a resource plant but has many useful materials. Especially, D-pinitol, which has anti-diabetic function, is contained in a large amount. However, the gene related to the biosynthesis of D-piniol has not been isolated in the non-spermatid. Lespedeza cuneata. G. don was treated with abiotic stress (drought), total RNA was extracted, and a library was constructed to perform NGS. In this way, the genes involved in D-pinitol biosynthesis were isolated and sequenced in silico. In order to support this, ononitol epimerase involved in D-pinitol amplification was identified using the Blast program and RT-PCR confirmed the increased gene expression in vitro, and the gene was isolated and identified by convergence study.

Whole genome sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus using benchtop next generation sequencing (NGS) system

  • Moon, Sung-Hyun;Oh, Yeonsu;Tark, Dongseob;Cho, Ho-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.297-300
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    • 2019
  • In countries with FMD vaccination, as in Korea, typical clinical signs do not appear, and even in FMD positive cases, it is difficult to isolate the FMDV or obtain whole genome sequence. To overcome this problem, more rapid and simple NGS system is required to control FMD in Korea. FMDV (O/Boeun/ SKR/2017) RNA was extracted and sequenced using Ion Torrent's bench-top sequencer with amplicon panel with optimized bioinformatics pipelines. The whole genome sequencing of raw data generated data of 1,839,864 (mean read length 283 bp) reads comprising a total of 521,641,058 (≥Q20 475,327,721). Compared with FMDV (GenBank accession No. MG983730), the FMDV sequences in this study showed 99.83% nucleotide identity. Further study is needed to identify these differences. In this study, fast and robust methods for benchtop next generation sequencing (NGS) system was developed for analysis of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) whole genome sequences.

Recent next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis methods for food microbiome research (식품 미생물 균총 연구를 위한 최신 마이크로바이옴 분석 기술)

  • Kwon, Joon-Gi;Kim, Seon-Kyun;Lee, Ju-Hoon
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2019
  • Rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is available to study microbes in genomic level. This NGS has been widely used in DNA/RNA sequencing for genome sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. The food microbiology area could be categorized into three groups. Food microbes including probiotics and food-borne pathogens are studied in genomic level using NGS for microbial genomics. While food fermentation or food spoilage are more complicated, their genomic study needs to be done with metagenomics using NGS for compositional analysis. Furthermore, because microbial response in food environments are also important to understand their roles in food fermentation or spoilage, pattern analysis of RNA expression in the specific food microbe is conducted using RNA-Seq. These microbial genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics for food fermentation and spoilage would extend our knowledge on effective utilization of fermenting bacteria for health promotion as well as efficient control of food-borne pathogens for food safety.

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Next-Generation Sequencing and Epigenomics Research: A Hammer in Search of Nails

  • Sarda, Shrutii;Hannenhalli, Sridhar
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.2-11
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    • 2014
  • After the initial enthusiasm of the human genome project, it became clear that without additional data pertaining to the epigenome, i.e., how the genome is marked at specific developmental periods, in different tissues, as well as across individuals and species-the promise of the genome sequencing project in understanding biology cannot be fulfilled. This realization prompted several large-scale efforts to map the epigenome, most notably the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project. While there is essentially a single genome in an individual, there are hundreds of epigenomes, corresponding to various types of epigenomic marks at different developmental times and in multiple tissue types. Unprecedented advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, by virtue of low cost and high speeds that continue to improve at a rate beyond what is anticipated by Moore's law for computer hardware technologies, have revolutionized molecular biology and genetics research, and have in turn prompted innovative ways to reduce the problem of measuring cellular events involving DNA or RNA into a sequencing problem. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the epigenome, the various types of epigenomic data afforded by NGS, and some of the novel discoveries yielded by the epigenomics projects. We also provide ample references for the reader to get in-depth information on these topics.