• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nociception

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Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Blood Circulation in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (건강한 지원자에서 홍삼농축액의 혈행 개선 효과: 무작위, 이중맹검, 위약-대조 시험)

  • Shin, Kyeong-Seob;Lee, Jung-Jin;Kim, Yeong-Il;Yu, Ji-Yeon;Park, Eun-Seok;Im, Ji-Hyun;You, Soon-Hyang;Oh, Ki-Wan;Lee, Myung-Koo;Wee, Jae-Joon;Kim, Young-Sook;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2007
  • Korean red ginseng has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception, and cancer, and it counteracts weakness. It has been reported that Korean red ginseng is able to normalize blood pressure, improve cholesterol and lower blood glucose levels. We have recently reported that Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) significantly prevented rat carotid arterial thrombosis in vivo, and inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo and in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of KRGE on blood circulation in human by measuring ex vivo platelet aggregation, plasma coagulation and serum lipid profiles in healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (placebo-group, KRGE-low dose group, KRGE-high dose group). Administration of KRGE to subjects significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregations both in KRGE-low dose group from $72.79{\pm}20.53$ to $62.00{\pm}23.06%$ (p=0.0009), and in KRGE-high dose group from $75.14{\pm}21.86$ to $64.52{\pm}24.72%$ (p=0.0039), respectively. Administration of KRGE to subjects also significantly inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregations both in KRGE-low dose group from $85.52{\pm}12.57$ to $79.62{\pm}20.47%$ (p=0.0916), and in KRGE-high dose group from $80.24{\pm}18.11$ to $70.31{\pm}25.93%$ (p=0.0565), respectively. Whereas, KRGE has no significant effects on coagulation system, such as prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and serum lipid profiles, such as total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. KRGE also has no significant effects on hematological and serum biochemical profiles. These results suggest that KRGE has a potential to improve blood circulation through antiplatelet activity in human, and KRGE intake may be beneficial for the individuals with high risks of thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases.

CHANGE OF VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE(VIP) IMMUNOREACTIVE CELLS FOLLOWING PULP EXTIRPATION IN RAT TRIGEMINAL GANGLION: A CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPIC STUDY (치수제거 후 흰쥐 삼차신경절에서 VIP 면역반응세포의 변화: 공초점레이저주사현미경적 연구)

  • Kim, Heung-Joong;Kim, Seung-Jae;Park, Joo-Cheol;Lee, Chang-Seop;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and fluorescence intensity of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactive (VIP-IR) cells in rat trigeminal ganglion following pulp extirpation of rat mandibular molar. The animals were divided into control group(n=6) and experimental group(n=6). The experimental animals were sacrificed at 14 days after pulp extirpation. The trigeminal ganglion was removed and immersed in the 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer. Serial frozen sections about $20{\mu}m$ in thickness were cut with a cryostat. The immunofluorescence staining was performed. The rabbit anti-VIP(1 : 8,000) was used as primary antibody and fluorescene isothiocynate(FITC) conjugated anti-rabbit IgG(1 : 80) as secondary antibody. The slides were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Unprocessed optical sections were obtained and stored on a optical disk. Color pictures were printed by a video copy processor. The results were as follows; 1. The positive ratio of VIP-IR cells in mandibular part of trigeminal ganglion were 7.40% in control group and 28.42% in experimental group(14 days after pulp extirpation). 2. The relative fluorescence intensity of VIP-IR cells in mandibular part of trigeminal ganglion were 87.78 in control group and 138.65 in experimental group. The relative fluorescence intensity of experimental group was 58% higher than that of control group. 3. In optical serial section analysis of VIP-IR cells of experimental group, most of the 9 sections showed high fluorescence intensity. At high magnification, axons of the experimental group displayed greater VIP-IR than in the control group, and the positive cells were mainly of medium size. The result indicate that number and fluorescence intensity of VIP-IR cells were increased in the mandibular part of trigeminal ganglion following pulp extirpation of mandibular molar, and it suggests that VIP could play a role in processing of nociception.

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Nerve Growth Factor and Sensory Neuropeptide Levels in Plasma and Saliva of Various Orofacial Pain Patients (다양한 구강안면통증환자의 혈장 및 타액에서의 신경성장인자와 감각성 신경펩티드 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Min-Uk;Chung, Sung-Chang;Chung, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.387-395
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    • 2009
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) and sensory neuropeptides are involved in the process of nociception at peripheral nerve fibers and wide spread in central nervous system. The aims of this study were to investigate NGF and sensory neuropeptides (substance P [SP] and calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP]) levels in human plasma and saliva, and the associations between these sensory neuropeptides levels and chronic orofacial pain symptoms. NGF, SP, and CGRP levels in plasma and resting whole saliva samples collected from 67 orofacial pain patients (joint pain, dental or periodontal pain, mucosal pain) and 36 pain free control subjects were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The characteristic pain intensity of each subject was measured using the Graded Chronic Pain Scale and the flow rate of resting whole saliva was measured. Joint pain patients group showed significantly higher plasma NGF level compared to each of dental pain patients (p<0.01), mucosal pain patients (p<0.01), and control group (p<0.01). Plasma NGF level of dental pain patients group was significantly higher than that of control group (p<0.01). Saliva SP level of dental pain patients group (p<0.05) and saliva CGRP level of mucosal pain group (p<0.05) were significantly higher than that of control group. Plasma and saliva SP levels of joint pain patients was significantly associated with pain intensity (plasma: standardized coefficient=0.599, p<0.01, saliva: standardized coefficient=0.504, p=0.05). In dental pain patients group, plasma SP (standardized coefficient=0.559, p<0.01), saliva SP (standardized coefficient=0.520, p<0.01) and saliva CGRP (standardized coefficient=0.599, p<0.01) levels were significantly associated with age. In mucosal pain patients group, plasma SP (standardized coefficient=0.495, p<0.05), saliva SP (standardized coefficient=0.500, p<0.05), and saliva CGRP (standardized coefficient=0.717, p<0.01) levels were significantly associated with age. NGF and neuropeptides may play a role in the maintenance of various orofacial pain symptoms. The examination of those levels in plasma and saliva helps understanding the mechanism of orofacial pain, and furthermore, can be applied to the diagnosis and therapy of orofacial pain.