• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nociception

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Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of extract of Astragalus membranaceous

  • Kim, Young-Ock;Kim, Su-Kang;Cho, Ah-Rang;Chung, Joo-Ho
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.569-572
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    • 2008
  • The root of Astragalus membranaceous (AM) has been used to treat edema and arthritis in the traditional Korean medicine. To elucidate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of ethanol extract of AM, the carrageenan-induced paw edema using a plethysmometer and thermal hypersensitivity using the plantar test were measured. Ibuprofen was used as a control drug. Pretreatment with AM (400 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced paw edema, compared to the carrageenan-treated rats. In the plantar test, the thermal withdrawal latency in AM-treated group was significantly increased than the carrageenan-treated group. The results indicate that AM could have be the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties.

DA-9701: A New Multi-Acting Drug for the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia

  • Kwon, Yong Sam;Son, Miwon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2013
  • Motilitone$^{(R)}$ (DA-9701) is a new herbal drug that was launched for the treatment of functional dyspepsia in December 2011 in Korea. The heterogeneous symptom pattern and multiple causes of functional dyspepsia have resulted in multiple drug target strategies for its treatment. DA-9701, a compound consisting of a combination of Corydalis Tuber and Pharbitidis Semen, has being developed for treatment of functional dyspepsia. It has multiple mechanisms of action such as fundus relaxation, visceral analgesia, and prokinetic effects. Furthermore, it was found to significantly enhance meal-induced gastric accommodation and increase gastric compliance in dogs. DA-9701 also showed an analgesic effect in rats with colorectal distension induced visceral hypersensitivity and an antinociceptive effect in beagle dogs with gastric distension-induced nociception. The pharmacological effects of DA-9701 also include conventional effects, such as enhanced gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit. The safety profile of DA-9701 is also preferable to that of other treatments.

Effect of the Combination of CI-988 and Morphine on Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

  • Kim, Junesun;Kim, Youngkyung;Hahm, Suk-Chan;Yoon, Young Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2015
  • Cholecystokinin is known to be involved in the modulation of nociception and to reduce the efficacy of morphine analgesia. This study investigated the effects of intrathecal administration of morphine and the cholecystokinin type B antagonist CI-988 on below-level neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in rats. We also examined the interaction of morphine and CI-988 in the antinociceptive effect. Both morphine and CI-988 given individually increased the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of ineffective doses of intrathecally administered CI-988 and morphine produced significant analgesic effects and the combination of effective doses resulted in analgesic effects that were greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug. Thus, morphine showed a synergistic interaction with CI-988 for analgesia of central neuropathic pain.

Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurotransmission

  • Tanaka, Kazuhiro;Farooqui, Akhlaq A.;Siddiqi, Nikhat J.;Alhomida, Abdullah S.;Ong, Wei-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2012
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain and a structural component of neuronal membranes. Changes in DHA content of neuronal membranes lead to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins which might be associated with synaptic function. Accumulating evidence suggests the beneficial effects of dietary DHA supplementation on neurotransmission. This article reviews the beneficial effects of DHA on the brain; uptake, incorporation and release of DHA at synapses, effects of DHA on synapses, effects of DHA on neurotransmitters, DHA metabolites, and changes in DHA with age. Further studies to better understand the metabolome of DHA could result in more effective use of this molecule for treatment of neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric diseases.

Anti-nociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Caragana sinica (골담초 메탄올 추출물의 진통 효과)

  • Park, Jin Suck;Cha, Dong Seok;Jeon, Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.38-42
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    • 2016
  • Caragana sinica (Leguminosae) is a plant, which has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of lots of diseases including neuralgia, goat, hypertension and eczema. However, scientific studies of C. sinica in pharmacological aspects are not carried out. In this study, the anti-nociceptice effect of methanolic extract of C. sinica (MCS) was evaluated using various pain models. Our data represented that MCS significantly delayed the latency time under central pain condition which are arose from thermal stimuli, indicating MCS possess analgesic potential against central nociception. In addition, MCS showed strong and dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activities on acetic acid-induced peripheral pain, compared to positive control such as indomethacin. Further combination studies using naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, have revealed that analgesic activity of MCS was not changed in the presence of naloxone, indicating MCS exerts anti-nociceptive activity independent of opioid receptor. These results suggest that MCS may be an effective medicine in managing pain.

Defensive Behavior against Noxious Heat Stimuli Is Declined with Aging Due to Decreased Pain-Associated Gene Expression in Drosophila

  • Ghimire, Saurav;Kim, Man Su
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2015
  • Aging is defined as a collective process that alters organism's functional capacity and appearance over the course of life. Apart from an increase in susceptibility to many diseases, aging affects the cellular system that is responsible for decoding painful stimuli. Yet, aging-associated molecular mechanisms of pain perception remains elusive. Using Drosophila, we showed a decrease in temperature tolerance and a reduction in high temperature thermal avoidance with aging. Locomotor activity assay demonstrated that the age-dependent changes in heat nociception did not stem from the general decline in muscular activity. However, we identified pain-related gene expression alteration with aging. We anticipate that our findings would help opening a new window onto developing the optimal pain treatment for the elderly.

Assessment for the Role of Serotonin Receptor Subtype 3 for the Analgesic Action of Morphine at the Spinal Level (척수 수준에서 Morphine 의 진통 작용에 대한 Serotonin 3형 수용체 역할에 작용에 대한 평가)

  • Yoon, Myung Ha;Bae, Hong Buem;Choi, Jeong Il;Kim, Seok Jae;Kim, Chang Mo;Jeong, Sung Tae;Kim, Kwang Su;Jin, Won Jong;Kim, Jong Pil;Kim, Jong Sik;Kim, Se Yeol;Jeong, Chang Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2005
  • Background: Serotonin 3 receptor is involved in the modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. The serotonin 3 receptor antagonist has been used for the management of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. The aim of this study was to examine whether the analgesic effect of morphine is antagonized by serotonin 3 receptor antagonists at the spinal level. Methods: Rats were implanted with lumbar intrathecal catheters. For nociception, a formalin solution (5%, $50{\mu}l$) was injected into the hind paw of male Sprague-Dawley rats. To determine whether the effect of intrathecal morphine was mediated via serotonin 3 receptors, serotonin 3 receptor antagonists were intrathecally administered 10 min prior to the morphine delivery. Following the formalin injection, formalin-induced nociceptive behavior (flinching response) was observed for 60 min. Results: Intrathecal morphine produced a dose-dependent suppression of the flinches in both phases during the formalin test. The analgesic action of morphine was not reversed by serotonin 3 receptor antagonists (LY-278,584, ondansetron), which had little per se effect on the formalin-induced nociception. Conclusions: Spinal serotonin 3 receptors may not be involved in the analgesia of morphine on a nociceptive state evoked by a formalin stimulus.

Study for the Antinociceptive Effect and Toxicity of Chronic Intrathecal Infusion of Cannabinoids in Rats (백서의 척수강 내로 장기간 투여한 Cannabinoids의 진통 효과 및 독성에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Myung Ha;Bae, Hong Buem;Choi, Jeong II;Bae, Chun Sang;Kim, Seok Jae;Kim, Chang Mo;Jeong, Sung Tae;Kim, Kwang Su;Jin, Won Jong;Kim, Jong Pil;Kim, Jong Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2005
  • Background: Cannabinoids have shown antinociceptive action. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of chronic infusion of a cannabinoids receptors agonist (WIN 55,212-2) for thermal nociception at the spinal level, and to also observe the development of toxicity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with lumbar intrathecal catheters with the nociceptive response (withdrawal response latency) determined by exposing the plantar surface of the hindpaw to radiant heat. Initially, the effect of intrathecal WIN 55,212-2 was evaluated followed by the change in the effect at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after repeated infusion. Finally, the histopathological findings were assessed 1 and 4 weeks following the infusion of WIN 55,212-2. Results: Intrathecal WIN 55,212-2 was found to produce a limited antinociception during the thermal test. %MPE of WIN 55,212-2 at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after infusion was not different from each other. No abnormal pathological findings were observed following a chronic intrathecal infusion of WIN 55,212-2. Conclusions: WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoids receptors agonist, may be useful in the management of thermal nociception, without changing the effectiveness or causing the toxicity following a chronic infusion at the spinal level.

The effect of prepositioned upper cervical traction mobilization and therapeutic exercise on cervicogenic headache: A case study

  • Creighton, D;Gammons, T;Monahan, J;Rochester, MI
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.1564-1570
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    • 2018
  • The International Headache Society (IHS) has validated cervicogenic headache (CGH) as a secondary headache type that is hypothesized to originate due to nociception in the cervical area. CGH is a common form of headache and accounts for 15% to 20% of all chronic and recurrent headaches. CGH is commonly treated with manual and exercise therapy. To date, no studies have isolated only one manual intervention in an attempt to determine its effectiveness. In this case study we present a 28-year-old patient with right upper cervical (UC) and occipital pain who responded well to a single manual intervention technique. This technique was applied in isolation for the first three visits and two therapeutic exercises prescribed on the fourth and fifth visit. In total, manual and exercise intervention occurred over 8 visits at which point in time the patient was discharged with no UC motion impairments, an NPRS rating of 0, a NDI and HDI demonstrating a 100% improvement and a 37% improvement in FOTO score. The traction based manual intervention and two therapeutic exercises prescribed for this patient were successful in relieving UC pain and CGH. At six months follow up, the patient was still symptom free.

Modulation of Corydalis tuber on Glycine-induced Ion Current in Acutely Dissociated Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neuron

  • Cheong, Byung-Shik;Nam, Sang-Soo;Choi, Do-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2003
  • This study was designed to investigate the modulation of the Corydalis tuber on glycine-activated ion current in rat periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons. Aqueous extract from Corydalis tuber has been widely used for pain control such as dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation or amenorrhea with abdominal cramping, neuralgia, headache and gastrointestinal spasm. The PAG region of the brain is known to be involved heavily with nociception. Modulation of the Corydalis tuber on glycine-induced ion current in rat periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons was studied by a nystatin-perforated patch-clamp technique. High concentrations of Corydalis tuber elicited ion current, which was suppressed by strychnine application. Low concentrations of Corydalis tuber reduced glycine-induced ion currents in the PAG neurons. Inhibitory action of Corydalis tuber on glycine-activated ion current was reduced by treatment with naltrexone, a non- selective opioid antagonist. Application of N-methylmalemide (NEM), a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, also reduced the inhibitory action of Corydalis tuber on glycine-activated ion current in the PAG neurons. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of Corydalis tuber on glycine-activated ion current in the PAG neurons is one of the analgesic mechanisms of the Corydalis tuber, which may activate descending pain control system in PAG neurons.

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