• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northeastern Thailand

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Molecular Detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in Humans in Northeastern and Southern Thailand

  • Phosuk, Issarapong;Intapan, Pewpan M.;Thanchomnang, Tongjit;Sanpool, Oranuch;Janwan, Penchom;Laummaunwai, Porntip;Aamnart, Witthaya;Morakote, Nimit;Maleewong, Wanchai
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.747-749
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    • 2013
  • The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand.

Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Northeastern Thai Blood Samples

  • Barusrux, Sahapat;Sengthong, Chatchawan;Urwijitaroon, Yupa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8837-8842
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    • 2014
  • Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of liver cancer in Thailand. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV positive among Thai blood donors is found in the northeastern region. The present analysis of the genotype distribution among anti-HCV positive northeastern-Thai blood donors was conducted to provide a base for the epidemiological pattern of HCV infection in this region. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 HCV seropositive healthy blood donors were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR. HCV-RNA positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing at core region genomes and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Results: HCV viremia was found in 94.6% (106/112) of HCV seropositive blood donors. There were 3 major genotypes distributed among this population. HCV genotype 3a was the most prevalent (71.7%) followed by genotypes 1a (7.5%), 1b (7.5%), 6i (3.8%), 6f (2.8%) and 6n (1.9%). Conclusions: HCV genotype 3a in asymptomatic infections in northeastern Thailand is significantly higher than other previous reports. Subgenotype 6 prevalence is less than in neighboring countries and distribution patterns differ. The findings are relevant as predictors for using interferon therapy in this population.

Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Wakkuwattapong, Parichart;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Pengsaa, Prasit;Jomkoa, Darawan;Joosiri, Apinya;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2973-2977
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income <4,000 baht per month (4.82%), and living in Khon Sawan district (8.43%). Participants had a high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

Surveillance of Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma Development in Rural Communities of Thailand Using the Korat-CCA Verbal Screening Test

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Loyd, Ryan A;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Kompor, Porntip;Norkaew, Jun;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Phatisena, Tanida;Eaksunti, Thawatchai;Polsripradist, Poowadol;Joosiri, Apinya;Sukkasam, Inchat;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2205-2209
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    • 2016
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Active surveillance in rural communities with an appropriat low-cost screening tool is required to facilitate early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the population at risk of CCA in Bua Yai district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand using the Korat-CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) during June to October 2015. Reliability of KCVST demonstrated a Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.75 Stepwise-multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was important for CCA screened, followed by agriculture and pesticide use, under-cooked cyprinoid fish consumption, praziquantel use, naïve northeastern people, opisthorchiasis, family relatives with CCA, and cholangitis or cholecystitis or gallstones, respectively. Population at risk for CCA was classified to low risk (63.4%), moderate risk (33.7%), and high risk (1.32%) for CCA. When CCA was screened using ultrasonography, 4 of 32 high risk participants had an abnormal biliary tract with dilated bile ducts. This study indicates that KCVST is a potential useful too which decrease the cost of large scale CCA screening.

Factors Affecting Survival Time of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients: A Prospective Study in Northeast Thailand

  • Woradet, Somkiattiyos;Promthet, Supannee;Songserm, Nopparat;Parkin, Donald Maxwell
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1623-1627
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    • 2013
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a major health problem and cause of death among people in Northeastern Thailand. In this prospective study 171 patients newly diagnosed with CCA by physicians in 5 tertiary hospitals in four provinces of northeastern of Thailand between February and July 2011 were followed up to January 2012. The outcome was survival time from diagnosis to death. A total of 758.4 person-months of follow-up were available. The mortality rate was 16.9 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 14.1-20.1). The median survival time among CCA patients was 4.3 months (95%CI: 3.3-5.1). Cox's proportional hazard model was used to study the independent effects of factors affecting survival time among patients. Statistically significant factors included advanced stage at diagnosis (HR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.7-3.8), presentation with jaundice (HR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.1-2.4) or ascites (HR: 2.8, 95%CI: 1.8-4.4), and positive serum carcinoembryonic antigen (HR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.2-4.3). Patients who had received standard treatment had a better prognosis that those who did not (HR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.7).

Preliminary Study of the GSTM1 Null Polymorphism and History of Tobacco Smoking among Oral Cancer Patients in Northeastern Thailand

  • Natphopsuk, Sitakan;Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa;Phuthong, Sophida;Ishida, Takafumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.739-742
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    • 2016
  • Risks with GSTM1 genotypes and potential roles of smoking in the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied in Northeastern Thailand. Study subjects were 79 histologically-confirmed OSCC cases (31 men, 48 women) and 79 age- and sex-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 25 to 84 years. GSTM1 genotyping was achieved by two independent PCR assays. The GSTM1 null allele and the homozygous genotype did not increase risk of OSCC vs the wild type allele and the remaining genotypes. When the focus was on the smoking habit, male subjects who smoked ${\geq}10$ or ${\geq}35$ years were at significantly increased risk for OSCC with adjusted ORs of 4.88 [95%CI, 1.41-16.87, p=0.012] or 4.94 [95%CI, 1.62-15.12, p=0.005], respectively. A higher risk for OSCC was found for smoking amount; those who smoked >5 or >10 pack-years were at a higher risk with adjusted OR of 4.46 [95%CI; 1.45-13.74, p=0.009] or 3.89 [95%CI; 1.34-11.28, p=0.012], respectively. There are certain smoking patterns that give greater risks and thus both smoking duration and pack-years should be taken into consideration in tobacco related cancer prevention.

Village Voices: Lessons about Processes for Disease Prevention from a Qualitative Study of Family Health Leaders in a Community in Northeastern Thailand

  • Jongudomkarn, D;Singhawara, P;Macduff, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4401-4408
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer is a primary source of concern in Thailand and other countries around the world, including the Asian-Pacific region. Evidence supports that an important contributing cause of cancer and other chronic illnesses such as stroke, diabetes, and hypertension is excessive alcohol consumption. Studies conducted in Thailand reveal a worrisome rise in the number of new and regular drinkers in communities. Therefore, actions for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of problem drinking are necessary. In recent years nurses in North East Thailand have been developing and implementing the Khon Kaen Family Health Nursing model to embed disease prevention in communities through the actions of family health nurses and local family health leaders. Aim: The aim of this qualitative research was to better understand the experiences of the local family health leaders using this model and to synthesize lessons learned. Materials and Methods: As part of a participatory action research approach involving analysis of focus group discussions and individual interviews, the experiences of 45 family health leaders were synthesized. Results: Four main themes were identified, namely: i) Family first: role modeling beginning at the personal and family level. ii) Local leverage: using village community forums to reduce alcohol drinking. iii) Gentle growth: making the first step and treading gently; and iv) Respect, Redemption, Rehabilitation: valuing the person to re-integrate them in the village society. Conclusions: As alcohol consumption in the village declined significantly following the prevention program, these findings illuminate how low-tech integrated prevention approaches may be very useful, particularly in rural communities. The lessons learned may have relevance not only in Thailand but in other countries seeking to prevent and mitigate behavior that conduces to diseases such as cancer.

Re-Examination of Opisthorchis viverrini in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand, Indicates Continued Needs for Health Intervention

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Loyd, Ryan A;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Kompor, Porntip;Norkaew, Jun;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Kujapan, Jirawoot;Polphimai, Sukanya;Phatisena, Tanida;Eaksunti, Thawatchai;Polsripradist, Poowadol;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.231-234
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma particularly in the cases of chronic or re-infection. This presents a serious health problem in northeastern and northern Thailand. A community base approach is required for surveillance. Therefore, in a pilot project, re-examination of O. viverrini infection was conducted in the 3 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during June and October 2015. A total of 355 participants from a 194,152 population, was selected through multi-stage sampling. O. viverrini infection was determined using modified Kato Katz thick smear technique. Participants were 229 males and 126 females, and aged ${\geq}30$ years old. Prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 2.25% (8/355 participants). O. viverrini infection was slightly higher in females (3.17%), and age group between 41-50 years (4.49%). Mueang Yang district had a highest of O. viverrini infection rate (2.82%), and followed by Bua Yai (2.48%), and Chum Phuang (1.84%), respectively. O. viverrini infection rate was increased from year 2012 to 2015 particularly in Bua Yai and Mueang Yang. These re-examinion results indicate that opisthorchiasis is still problem in community of Nakhon Ratchasima province, therefore, the provincial-wide scale is need required. Furthermore health education is need intervened in the infected group, and screening of cholangiocarcinoma is urgently concerned.

Zoonotic Echinostome Infections in Free-Grazing Ducks in Thailand

  • Saijuntha, Weerachai;Duenngai, Kunyarat;Tantrawatpan, Chairat
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.663-667
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    • 2013
  • Free-grazing ducks play a major role in the rural economy of Eastern Asia in the form of egg and meat production. In Thailand, the geographical location, tropical climate conditions and wetland areas of the country are suitable for their husbandry. These environmental factors also favor growth, multiplication, development, survival, and spread of duck parasites. In this study, a total of 90 free-grazing ducks from northern, central, and northeastern regions of Thailand were examined for intestinal helminth parasites, with special emphasis on zoonotic echinostomes. Of these, 51 (56.7%) were infected by one or more species of zoonotic echinostomes, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Echinostomes found were identified using morphological criteria when possible. ITS2 sequences were used to identify juvenile and incomplete worms. The prevalence of infection was relatively high in each region, namely, north, central, and northeast region was 63.2%, 54.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. The intensity of infection ranged up to 49 worms/infected duck. Free-grazing ducks clearly play an important role in the life cycle maintenance, spread, and transmission of these medically important echinostomes in Thailand.