• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northeastern Thailand

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Lack of Participation of the GSTM1 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer Development in Northeast Thailand

  • Natphopsuk, Sitakan;Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa;Settheetham, Dariwan;Ishida, Takafumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1935-1937
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    • 2015
  • The potential association between the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer was investigated in Northeastern Thailand. DNA was extracted from buffy coat specimens of 198 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 198 age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping of the GSTM1 was conducted by using two PCR methods, a short- and a long-PCR. Distribution of the GSTM1 genotypes in between the cases and the controls was not significantly different (p>0.5 by ${\chi}^2$ test). The results suggest that the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in the northeast Thai women.

Value Chains and Regional Middle Income Traps: The case of the upstream sugar industry in Northeastern Thailand (가치 사슬과 지역의 중진국 함정: 태국 동북부 지방의 상위 설탕 가치 사슬을 사례로)

  • Choi, Woohyuk;Andriesse, Edo
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.817-831
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    • 2014
  • In this paper insights from studies on the middle income trap and value chains analyses are combined to investigate one particular industry in one particular region: the sugarcane industry in Northeastern Thailand. Focusing on this region enables an in-depth focus on geographical differentiation of the middle income trap. The empirical outcomes demonstrate that policymakers involved with sugar should look at the particular challenges in Northeastern Thailand: 1. The role of brokers which is unaddressed in the current regulatory environment; 2. A lack of information of the regulatory environment among growers; 3. Distrust between growers and millers; 4. Alack of implementation of R&D efforts; 5 .A lack of support from associations; 6. The labor shortage problem, and 7. No incentives for growers, brokers and millers to improve quality and embark on upgrading. Since agricultural value chains in Southeast Asia often start in relatively poor rural areas it is imperative that policymakers balance the interests of upstream, midstream and downstream actors. Unfortunately, this is rather difficult as midstream actors (millers) and wholesalers are powerful and therefore, are in the best position to defend their interests. Our insights could function as comparative material for similar studies within other Southeast Asian upstream value chains.

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Survival of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients in Northeastern Thailand after Supportive Treatment

  • Thunyaharn, Nut;Promthet, Supannee;Wiangnon, Surapon;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Kamsa-ard, Supot
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.7029-7032
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    • 2013
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very common cancer in Northeastern Thailand. Most CCA patients see a physician at a late stage when curative surgery is not possible. After diagnosis, they generally are treated by partial surgery/percutaneous drainage, chemotherapy and supportive treatment. Objective: This study aimed to assess the survival rates of CCA patients after supportive treatment. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was applied in this study. Data for 746 CCA patients were extracted from the hospital-based cancer registry of Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University. The patients were diagnosed (at least by ultrasonography) between 1 January, 2009 and 31 December, 2009 and then followed up for current status until 30 June, 2011. The cumulative survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent prognostic factors were investigated using Cox regression. Results: The total follow-up time was 5,878 person-months, and the total number of deaths was 637. The mortality rate was therefore 10.8 per 100 person-year (95%CI : 10.1-11.7). The cumulative 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 month survival rates were 59%, 39%, 31%, 24% and 14%, respectively. The median survival time after supportive treatment was 4 months. After adjusting for gender, age, stage, distant metastasis, histological grading and treatment, stage was a significant predictor of survival of CCA patients. Those in stage III and stage IV had a 6.78 fold higher mortality than the stage I and stage II cases (95% CI : 1.6-28.7). Conclusion: It is very important to encourage patients to see health personnel at an early stage.

Reinfection by Opisthorchis Viverrini after Treatment with Praziquantel

  • Saengsawang, Phubet;Promthet, Supannee;Bradshaw, Peter
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.857-862
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    • 2016
  • Background: The prevalence of infection by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini), has remained high in Northeast Thailand where it is a major risk factor for the eventual development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The infection is acquired by the consumption of dishes containing unsafely prepared freshwater fish, a dietary tradition which has proved resistant to change. Since many people are aware that dosing with praziquantel (PZQ) is a successful treatment for an episode of the infection, there is a risk that, to avoid the long term consequences, they will engage in a cycle of infection, dosing and reinfection. Objectives: There is a dearth of studies of reinfection by O. viverrini, and the aims of this study were to assess re-infection rates in a typical province of Northeastern Thailand where O. viverrini infection is likely and to investigate factors associated with reinfection. Materials and Methods: A total of infected 607 villagers were treated with PZQ, and those found to be no longer infected were followed up at six-monthly intervals over 12 months. Results: At the end of this period data on 457 subjects were available for analysis using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, and 50 were found to have become reinfected, giving a cumulative reinfection rate of 10.9%. The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the only factor found to be associated with reinfection was past use of PZQ. Conclusions: Recommendations are made for future larger scale and better designed reinfection studies in the light of limitations of the current study. Further efforts are needed to discourage people from eating fish dishes likely to contain viable metacariae.

Prevalence of OV Infection in Yasothon Province, Northeast Thailand

  • Saengsawang, Phubet;Promthet, Supannee;Bradshaw, Peter
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3399-3402
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    • 2012
  • A liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrrini (OV), is the major cause of the high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. The prevalence of OV infection remains high in various parts of the country, especially in Northeast Thailand and particularly in wetland rural areas where a large proportion of the community work in agriculture and continue the traditional practice of eating raw or uncooked cyprinoid fish products. The national control program seems to have had little impact in many of these areas, and it has been difficult to make precise assessments of the overall effectiveness of the program. This paper is the first report of prospective research project designed to monitor the impact of the national control program in rural communities located in a northeastern province and at high risk of OV infection. The participants in this initial survey were 1,569 villagers, aged 20-65 years, living in two subdistricts of Yasothon Province. Stool examinations showed that 38.68% were infected with OV. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the difference was not statistically significant. Infection was found to be positively associated with age in both males and females. The preliminary data indicate that the population selected for study is suitable for the purpose of the monitoring project.

Population-Based Intervention for Liver Fluke Prevention and Control in Meuang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand

  • Kompor, Pontip;Karn, Rattikarn Muang;Norkaew, Jun;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Photipim, Mali;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Paew, Somkiat Phong;Kaewpitoon, Soraya;Rujirakul, Ratana;Wakhuwathapong, Parichart;Phatisena, Tanida;Eaksanti, Thawatchai;Joosiri, Apinya;Polsripradistdist, Poowadol;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.685-689
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchiasis is still a major health problem in rural communities of Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is found frequently in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of health intervention in the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and CCA. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were completed health intervention comprising 4 stations; 1, VDO clip of moving adult worm of liver fluke; 2, poster of life cycle of liver fluke; 3, microscopy with adult and egg liver fluke; and 4, brochure with the knowledge of liver fluke containing infection, signs, symptoms, related disease, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Pre-and-post-test questionnaires were utilized to collect data from all participants. Students paired t-tests were used to analyze differences between before and after participation in the health intervention. Knowledge (mean difference=-7.48, t=-51.241, 95% CI, -7.77, -7.19, p-value =0.001), attitude (mean difference=-9.07, t=-9.818, 95% CI=-10.9, -7.24, p-value=0.001), and practice (mean difference=-2.04, t=-2.688, 95% CI=-3.55, -0.53, p-value=0.008), changed between before and after time points with statistical significance. Community rules were concluded regarding: (1) cooked cyprinoid fish consumption; (2) stop under cooked cyprinoid fish by household cooker; (3) cooked food consumption; (4) hygienic defecation; (5) corrected knowledge campaign close to each household; (6) organizing a village food safety club; (7) and annual health check including stool examination featuring monitoring by village health volunteers and local public health officers. The results indicates that the present health intervention program was effective and easy to understand, with low cost and taking only a short time. Therefore, this program may useful for further work at community and provincial levels for liver fluke prevention and control.

Ultrasonography as a Tool for Monitoring the Development and Progression of Cholangiocarcinoma in Opisthorchis viverrini/Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hamsters

  • Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn;Eursitthichai, Veerachai;Labbunruang, Nipawan;Na-Bangchang, Kesara;Tesana, Smarn;Aumarm, Waraporn;Pongpradit, Ananya;Viyanant, Vithoon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 2012
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common cancer in northeastern Thailand. At present, effective diagnosis of CCA either in humans or animals is not available. Monitoring the development and progression of CCA in animal models is essential for research and development of new promising chemotherapeutics. Ultrasonography has been widely used for screening of bile duct obstruction in CCA patients. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the applicability of ultrasonography to monitor the development and progression of CCA in Syrian golden hamsters (n=8) induced by Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)/dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. Ultrasonography and histopathological examination of hamsters was performed at week 0, 20, 24 and 28 of OV infection or at the start of water/Tween-80 administration to controls. The ultrasonographic images of liver parenchyma and gallbladders of OV/DMN-induced CCA hamsters showed sediments in gallbladder, thickening of gallbladder wall, and hypoechogenicity of liver parenchyma cells. The ultrasonographic images of liver tissues were found to correlate well with histopathological examination. Although ultrasonography does not directly detect the occurrence of CCA, it reflects the thickening of bile ducts and abnormality of liver tissues. It may be applied as a reliable tool for monitoring the development and progression of CCA in animal models in research and development of new promising chemotherapeutics for CCA.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in an Urban Area of Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand

  • Chaiputcha, Kusumaporn;Promthet, Supannee;Bradshaw, Peter
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4173-4176
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection in an urban area of Northeastern Thailand. The participants were 254 household representatives aged 15 years or older living in the most urbanised part of Chiang Yuen municipality in Mahasarakham Province. All participants provided stool samples which were examined using the modified Kato-Katz procedure, and a structured interview questionnaire was used to collection demographic information, knowledge about OV infection, and the consumption of unsafely prepared freshwater fish. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 15.0%, and in the multivariate analysis male gender was found to be significantly and positively associated with OV infection ($OR_{adj}=9.75$, 95%CI: 34.03-23.58) while education to secondary school level or above was a significant protective factor ($OR_{adj}=0.30$, 95%CI: 0.12-0.74). The eating of unsafely prepared fish and knowledge about OV were not significantly related to infection status. The findings were discussed in terms of issues for future research, especially the need to consider the possibility of higher rates of OV infection in urban areas than might be expected and to investigate the sources of infected fish products which may well be different from those in rural villages.

Carcinogenic Human Liver Fluke: Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J.;Ueng-Arporn, Naporn;Rujirakul, Ratana;Churproong, Seekaow;Matrakool, Likit;Auiwatanagul, Suprakrit;Sripa, Banchob
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1235-1240
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    • 2012
  • Background: Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public-health problem in Southeast Asia. It is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases and the evidence strongly indicates that liver fluke infection is the etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate Opisthorchis viverrini metacercarial infection in cyprinoid fish collected from 32 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand during one year period from February 2010 to February 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, data being collected with pepsin-HCl digestion and stereomicroscope, respectively. Analysis was performed using SPSS Windows Version 12.0. Results: A total of 640 Cyprinidae family fish including 5 species were collected from different study sites, and investigated for O. viverrini metacercariae. The infection rate was 12.3% (79/640), predominantly in Cyclocheilichthys armatus, C. repasson, Puntioplites proctzysron, Hampala macrolepitota and Hampala dispar, respectively. The prevalence of O. viverrini metaceria in Nakhon Ratchasima area was 78.1%, predominantly in Sida and KiaKham Thale So. Conclusion: This findings stress that natural fish species in rural communities are still a source of O viverrini infection and put local people at risk, therefore public awareness and prevention campaigns are urgently required.

Hospital-based Population of Elderly Cancer Cases in Northeastern Thailand

  • Wirasorn, K;Suwanrungruang, K;Sookprasert, A;Limpawattana, P;Sirithanaphol, W;Chindaprasirt, J
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.767-770
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    • 2016
  • Background: The proportion of aged Thais (${\geq}65$ years old) is expected to be 30% by 2030, leading to an increased number of elderly cancer cases. Older individuals have distinct patterns of cancer and treatment needs. We therefore conducted the present study of new cancer cases and trends to get a perspective on the elderly cancer situation in Northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: All new elderly cancer cases (${\geq}65$ years) registered in the hospital-based cancer registry at the Faculty of Medicine, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University during 1993-2012 were included in the study. Results: Elderly patients accounted for 31.6% of all cancer patients and new cancer cases in the older age group increased 46% from the first to second decades. The absolute number of oldest old (80+ years) doubled. The top three cancers in males were liver and bile duct, lung, and colorectal. In females, the three most common cancers were liver and bile duct, oral cavity, and cervix. Cancers with the highest percentages of increase were thyroid, prostate, and colorectal. Conclusions: Elderly cancer cases are increasing. Treatment modalities and palliative care for older populations are urgently needed.