• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northeastern Thailand

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High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Resistance to Clarithromycin: a Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast of Thailand

  • Tongtawee, Taweesak;Dechsukhum, Chavaboon;Matrakool, Likit;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Loyd, Ryan A;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8281-8285
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    • 2016
  • Background: Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy, infection being a serious health problem in Thailand. Recently, clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains represent the main cause of treatment failure. Therefore this study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in Suranaree University of Technology Hospital, Suranree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Northeastern Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast of Thailand. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between June 2014 and February 2015 with 300 infected patients interviewed and from whom gastric mucosa specimens were collected and proven positive by histology. The gastric mucosa specimens were tested for H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations analysis using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Correlation of eradication rates with patterns of mutation were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Of 300 infected patients, the majority were aged between 47-61 years (31.6%), female (52.3%), with monthly income between 10,000-15,000 Baht (57%), and had a history of alcohol drinking (59.3%). Patient symptoms were abdominal pain (48.6%), followed by iron deficiency anemia (35.3%). Papaya salad consumption (40.3%) was a possible risk factor for H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin was 76.2%. Among clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, all were due to the A2144G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Among mutations group, wild type genotype, mutant strain mixed wild type and mutant genotype were 23.8%, 35.7% and 40.5% respectively. With the clarithromycin-based triple therapy regimen, the efficacy decreased by 70% for H. pylori eradication (P<0.01). Conclusions: Recent results indicate a high rate of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin. Mixed of wild type and mutant genotype is the most common mutant genotype in Nakhon Ratchasima province, therefore the use of clarithromycin-based triple therapy an not advisable as an empiric first-line regimen for H. pylori eradication in northeast region of Thailand.

Survival Rate of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Patients after Surgical Treatment in Thailand

  • Sriputtha, Sudarat;Khuntikeo, Narong;Promthet, Supannee;Kamsaard, Supot
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1107-1110
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    • 2013
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), one of the primary liver cancers, is frequent in the northeastern part of Thailand. Surgical resection remains the best method of treatment, but patients suffering from ICC usually present at a late stage of the disease. Studies of survival and prognostic factors after surgery remain rare. The aim here was to evaluate the survival rate and factors affecting the survival of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after surgery. The study used a retrospective cohort design. The subjects were 73 consecutive patients with ICC, who were admitted for surgery to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, during the period 2005-2009. The censoring date was 31 December, 2011, data being evaluated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Postoperative survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. The total follow-up time was 99 person-years. The total number of deaths was 59, giving a mortality rate of 59 per 100 person-years. The cumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 52.1%, 21.7%, and 11.2%, respectively. The median duration of survival after resection was 12.4 months. Univariate analysis revealed stage of disease, lymph node metastasis, histological type, histological grade and macroscopic classification to be statistically significant (p-value<0.05) prognostic factors. In the multivariate analysis, only macroscopic classification was statistically significant (p-value<0.05). In conclusion, macroscopic classification was the only independent factor found to be significantly associated with survival following surgical treatment of ICC.

Development of a Family Nursing Model for Prevention of Cancer and Other Noncommunicable Diseases through an Appreciative Inquiry

  • Jongudomkarn, Darunee;Macduff, Colin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10367-10374
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer and non-communicable diseases are a major issue not only for the developed but also developing countries. Public health and primary care nursing offer great potential for primary and secondary prevention of these diseases through community and family-based approaches. Within Thailand there are related established educational curricula but less is known about how graduate practitioners enact ideas in practice and how these can influence policy at local levels. Aim: The aim of this inquiry was to develop family nursing practice in primary care settings in the Isaan region or Northeastern Thailand and to distill what worked well into a nursing model to guide practice. Materials and Methods: An appreciative inquiry approach involving analysis of written reports, focus group discussions and individual interviews was used to synthesize what worked well for fourteen family nurses involved in primary care delivery and to build the related model. Results: Three main strategies were seen to offer a basis for optimal care delivery, namely: enacting a participatory action approach mobilizing families' social capital; using family nursing process; and implementing action strategies within communities. These were distilled into a new conceptual model. Conclusions: The model has some features in common with related community partnership models and the World Health Organization Europe Family Health Nurse model, but highlights practical strategies for family nursing enactment. The model offers a basis not only for planning and implementing family care to help prevent cancer and other diseases but also for education of nurses and health care providers working in communities. This articulation of what works in this culture also offers possible transference to different contexts internationally, with related potential to inform health and social care policies, and international development of care models.

Risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in Nong Khai Province, Thailand

  • Chudthaisong, Nittaya;Promthet, Supannee;Bradshaw, Peter
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4593-4596
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    • 2015
  • Background: Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is the main risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma and is often found in Northeastern Thailand. The prevalence of OV infection and the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma are major public health problems in this region. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with OV infection among people in Nong Khai Province in order to develop a prevention programme in the community. Materials and Methods: The data were collected in July 2013. Stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites within hours after collection using a normal saline wet preparation and the modified Kato-Katz technique. A case-control study was conducted to collect information about demographic data, the habit of eating unsafely prepared fish, the safe disposal of waste food, and the practice of defaecating in fields. Structured questionnaires were used to interview 351 participants (117 cases and 234 controls) in a random selection of 30 villages across Nong Khai Province. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for OV infection. Results: In the multivariate analysis, the results showed that the factors which had a statistically significant association with OV infection were the habit of consuming unsafely prepared fish ($OR_{adj}=5.17$, 95%CI=2.49-10.74), the similar habit of family members ($OR_{adj}=3.25$, 95%CI=1.63-6.49), a history of O. viverrini infection ($OR_{adj}=5.64$, 95%CI=2.10-15.18), a history of taking praziquantel ($OR_{adj}=5.66$, 95%CI=3.11-10.29), and the unsafe disposal of waste food ($OR_{adj}=2.1$, 95%CI=1.10-3.80). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the features on which a community programme should focus in order to reduce the prevalence of opisthorchiasis and incidence of bile duct cancer.

Spatial Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Chum Phaung District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Loyd, Ryan A;Matrakool, Likit;Sangkudloa, Amnat;Kaewthani, Sarochinee;Khemplila, Kritsakorn;Eaksanti, Thawatchai;Phatisena, Tanida;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Norkaew, Jun;Joosiri, Apinya;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.719-722
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious health problem in Thailand, particularly in northeastern and northern regions, but epidemiological studies are scarce and the spatial distribution of CCA remains to be determined. A database for the population at risk is required for monitoring, surveillance and organization of home health care. This study aim was to geo-visually display the distribution of CCA in northeast Thailand, using a geographic information system and Google Earth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 9 sub-districts and 133 villages in Chum Phuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province during June and October 2015. Data on demography, and the population at risk for CCA were combined with the points of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, and points of hospitals in districts, then fed into a geographical information system. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth for geo-visualization. Results: A total of 11,960 from 83,096 population were included in this study. Females and male were 52.5%, and 47.8%, the age group 41-50 years old 33.3%. Individual risk for CCA was identifed and classified by using the Korat CCA verbal screening test as low (92.8%), followed by high risk (6.74%), and no (0.49%), respectively. Gender ($X^2$-test=1143.63, p-value= 0.001), age group ($X^2$-test==211.36, p-value=0.0001), and sub-district ($X^2$-test=1471.858, p-value=0.0001) were significantly associated with CCA risk. Spatial distribution of the population at risk for CCA in Chum Phuang district was viewed with Google Earth. Geo-visual display followed Layer 1: District, Layer 2: Sub-district, Layer 3: Number of low risk in village, Layer 4: Number of high risk in village, and Layer 5: Hospital in Chum Phuang District and their related catchment areas. Conclusions: We present the first risk geo-visual display of CCA in this rural community, which is important for spatial targeting of control efforts. Risk appears to be strongly associated with gender, age group, and sub-district. Therefor, spatial distribution is suitable for the use in the further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA.

Cholangiocarcinoma Patient Outcome in Northeastern Thailand: Single-Center Prospective Study

  • Luvira, Vor;Nilprapha, Kasama;Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa;Pugkhem, Ake;Chamadol, Nittaya;Kamsa-ard, Supot
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.401-406
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is relatively rare worldwide. Most previous reports collected only patients with pathological diagnosis. In fact, however, many patients coming to hospital are diagnosed by clinical suspicion with radiologic imaging and receive treatment without histological confirmation. Real survival data and outcome of each treatment, especially for patients that do not have histologic confirmation, are lacking. In this study, therefore, we aimed to analyze the survival rates of CCA patients and the proportions of patients receiving different treatments. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 patients clinically suspected of CCA and visiting Srinagarind Hospital in May-July 2010, were prospectively followed until December 2014. After checking their clinical records, 163 of 270 patients were finally diagnosed as having CCA, and the data of this group were analyzed for survival rate and received treatments. Results: Of the 163 patients, 96 (58.9%) had intrahepatic, 56 (34.4%) had perihilar and 11 (6.7%) had distal CCA. The majority [107 (65.6%, 95%CI, 57.8-73.0)] received only supportive care. Overall median survival was 4 months (95%CI, 3.3-4.7), and 2-years survival was only 8.1% (95%CI,4.5-12.9). However, the 4 year survival of the R0 resection group was 100%. Conclusions: The present results show that the prognosis of CCA is very poor in North-east Thailand. Most CCA patients receive only treatment to alleviate symptoms due to their advanced stage of disease. Complete surgical resection at the early stage is the only treatment that significantly improves patient survival.

Trends in Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 1990 - 2009, Khon Kaen, Thailand

  • Wiangnon, Surapon;Kamsa-Ard, Supot;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Promthet, Supannee;Kamsa-Ard, Siriporn;Mahaweerawat, Suwannee;Khuntikeo, Narong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1065-1068
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    • 2012
  • Background: Liver cancer is the most frequent cancer among Thais especially people in northeastern Thailand, but there has as yet been no assessment of trend. The data of all cancers in Khon Kaen can be retrieved from data base of the Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) which was established in 1984. Objective: To assess the incidence trend of hepatocellular carcinoma in Khon Kaen, Thailand, between 1990 and 2009. Methods: Population-based cases of liver cancer registered between 1985 and 2009 were retrieved from the KKCR data base and cases with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the coding C22.0 according to ICD-O were selected. Incidence trends were calculated using the Jointpoint analysis. Results: There were 7,859 cases of HCC during the study period. Males were affected two times more frequently than females. The most common age group of cases was 50 and 69 years (60.3%). Most patients were diagnosed based on radiology imaging (40.6%) while the morphology verification was 7%. The age-standardized rates (ASR) were 13.1 to 49.8 per 100,000 among males and 4.8 to 38.4 per 100,000 among females depending on year of diagnosis since 1985. Remarkably, the ASRs were clearly low during first few years of starting the registration. The overall ASRs of HCC were 30.3 per 100,000 in males (95% CI: 25.9 to 34.6) and 13.1 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.4 to 15.8) in females. During 1990-2009, the trends in incidences have been decreasing significantly with the annual percent change (APC) of 6.2% per year (95% CI: -7.6 to -4.8) in males and by 6.5% per year in females (95% CI: -8.4 to -4.9). Conclusions: The incidence trends have been decreasing in both sexes. The recent decline in incidence may represent a falling risk.

People Participation Towards Opisthorchis viverrini Prevention and Control in Chaiyaphum Province, Northeastern Thailand

  • Phongsiripapat, Rutjirapat;Chimplee, Kanokporn;Rujirakul, Ratana;Kaewpitoon, Soraya;Keawpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2016
  • This cross-sectional descriptive and qualitative study was aimed to study the people participation and their approaches toward the human carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, prevention and control in Ban Chaun sub-district administrative organization (BCSAO) and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (BNSM), Bamnet Narong district, Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand between June 2013 and February 2014. Participants were purposive selected, included chiefs of sub-district administrative organizations, sub-district municipalities, sub-district health promotion hospitals (SHPHs), heads of village, and a further sample was selected with a multi-stage random sampling for public health volunteers, and villagers. The pre-designed questionnaire contained items for individualized status and the participatory steps of sharing ideas, decision-making, and planning, procession, evaluation, and mutual benefit, for the project O. viverrini prevention and control (POPC). In-depth interviews were used for collection of need approaches to POPC. With 375 participants who completed the questionnaire, it was found that people had a high level regarding to participate in the POPC, particularly in the process stage ($\bar{X}=3.78$, S.D. = 0.56), but the lowest level was found in sharing ideas, decision making, and planning step ($\bar{X}=3.65$, S.D. = 0.63). By comparison, participant status and organization did not significantly differ with people participation. In each step, Ban Chaun sub-district had a high level of participation in the step of sharing ideas, decision making, and planning toward POPC, more than Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality (t=2.20, p=0.028). Approaches for POPC in Ban Chaun sub-district and Bamnet Narong sub-district municipality included requirements for budget support, annual campaigns for liver fluke prevention and control, campaign promotion, risk group observation, home visiting, community rules regarding reducing raw fish consumption in their communities, and a professional public health officer for working in their communities, BCSAO, BNSM, and SHPH, for O. viverrini prevention and control. This study indicates that people realize that eradication of the liver fluke needs a continuous people participation for O. viverrini prevention and control in their communities.

Plasma Peptidome as a Source of Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Cholangiocarcinoma

  • Kotawong, Kanawut;Thitapakorn, Veerachai;Roytrakul, Sittiruk;Phaonakrop, Narumon;Viyanant, Vithoon;Na-Bangchang, Kesara
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1163-1168
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    • 2016
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the bile duct cancer which constitutes one of the important public health problems in Thailand with high mortality rate, especially in the Opisthorchis viverrini (a parasite risk factor for CCA) endemic area of the northeastern region of the country. This study aimed to identify potential biomarkers from the plasma peptidome by CCA patients. Peptides were isolated using 10 kDa cut-off filter column and the flow-through was then used as a peptidome for LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 209 peptides were obtained. Among these, 15 peptides were concerned with signaling pathways and 12 related to metabolic, regulatory, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathways. Five exclusive peptides were identified as potential biomarkers, i.e. ETS domain-containing transcription factor ERF (P50548), KIAA0220 (Q92617), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform 1 (P42338), LP2209 (Q6XYC0), and casein kinase II subunit alpha (P19784). Three of these biomarkers are signaling related molecules. A combination of these biomarkers for CCA diagnosis is proposed.

Cellulolytic Enzymes from Acrophialophora nainiana

  • Punnapayak, Hunsa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.245-247
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    • 2005
  • A cellulolytic fungus isolated from Agave plantation in northeastern Thailand was identified as Acrophialophora nainiana. The fungus was capable of growing at pH between 3 - 7 and 25 - 45 $^{\circ}C$, with the optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and 40 $^{\circ}C$. The wild isolate produced cellulases, comprising of exoglucanase (0.019 U/mg protein), endoglucanase (0.366 U/mg protein), and ${\beta}$-glucosidase (0.001 U/mg protein). Mutations with UV and NTG produced the UV 10-2 mutant with cellulases activities including exoglucanase (0.093 U/mg protein), endoglucanase (0.585 U/mg protein), and ${\beta}$-glucosidase (0.013 U/mg protein). Purification of the enzymes with ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion-exchange chromatography yielded the maximal cellulase specific activities of 2.736 U/mg protein (exoglucanase), 0.235 U/mg protein (endoglucanase), and 0.008 U/mg protein (${\beta}$-glucosidase). The mutant's cellulases were the most active at pH 5.0 and 60 $^{\circ}C$. Ion-exchange chromatography revealed that A. nainiana UV 10-2 cellulases were comprised of two peaks with one peak showing the single endoglucanase activity while the other peak showed a mixture of the three enzyme activities. Production of A. nainiana UV 10-2 cellulases using banana leaf stalk as the sole carbon source gave comparable yields to that of the pure ${\alpha}$-cellulose. The enzymes were used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of plant residue (Coix aquatica) along with Kluveromyces marxianus to produce ethanol. Moreover, when the enzymes were used in the bioscouring process of fabric, the desiravle traits of textile processing including immediate water absorbency, increased in whiteness and reduction of yellowness of the treated fabric were observed.

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