• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northeastern Thailand

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Satellite-based Rainfall for Water Resources Application

  • Supattra, Visessri;Piyatida, Ruangrassamee;Teerawat, Ramindra
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.188-188
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    • 2017
  • Rainfall is an important input to hydrological models. The accuracy of hydrological studies for water resources and floods management depend primarily on the estimation of rainfall. Thailand is among the countries that have regularly affected by floods. Flood forecasting and warning are necessary to prevent or mitigate loss and damage. Merging near real time satellite-based precipitation estimation with relatively high spatial and temporal resolutions to ground gauged precipitation data could contribute to reducing uncertainty and increasing efficiency for flood forecasting application. This study tested the applicability of satellite-based rainfall for water resources management and flood forecasting. The objectives of the study are to assess uncertainty associated with satellite-based rainfall estimation, to perform bias correction for satellite-based rainfall products, and to evaluate the performance of the bias-corrected rainfall data for the prediction of flood events. This study was conducted using a case study of Thai catchments including the Chao Phraya, northeastern (Chi and Mun catchments), and the eastern catchments for the period of 2006-2015. Data used in the study included daily rainfall from ground gauges, telegauges, and near real time satellite-based rainfall products from TRMM, GSMaP and PERSIANN CCS. Uncertainty in satellite-based precipitation estimation was assessed using a set of indicators describing the capability to detect rainfall event and efficiency to capture rainfall pattern and amount. The results suggested that TRMM, GSMaP and PERSIANN CCS are potentially able to improve flood forecast especially after the process of bias correction. Recommendations for further study include extending the scope of the study from regional to national level, testing the model at finer spatial and temporal resolutions and assessing other bias correction methods.

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Cancer Chemopreventive Effect of Spirogyra Neglecta (Hassall) Kützing on Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats

  • Thumvijit, Tarika;Taya, Sirinya;Punvittayagul, Charatda;Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee;Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1611-1616
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    • 2014
  • Spirogyra neglecta, a freshwater green alga, is a local food in the northern and northeastern parts of Thailand. This investigation explored the anticarcinogenicity of S neglecta and its possible cancer chemopreventive mechanisms in rats divided into 14 groups. Groups 1 and 10 served as positive and negative control groups, respectively. Groups 1-9 were intraperitoneally injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) once a week for 3 weeks. Groups 10-14 received normal saline instead. One week after the last DEN injection, groups 2-5 were administered for 9 consecutive weeks various doses of S neglecta extract (SNE) and dried S neglecta (SND), mixed with basal diet. Groups 6-9 and 11-14 similarly were administered various doses of SNE and SND starting from the first week of the experiment. Administration of SNE and SND was not associated with formation of glutathione-Stransferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in rat liver. SNE and SND during initiation phase significantly reduced the number of GST-P positive foci in rats injected with DEN. The number of GST-P also diminished in groups treated with SNE and SND after injection with DEN, except for the low dose extract group. SNE showed stronger anticarcinogenic potency than SND. Furthermore, SNE also decreased the number of Ki-67 positive cells. However, the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of the SNE-treated groups were not statistically different from the controls. The GST activity in 50 mg/kg bw of SNE and 1% of SND groups was significantly increased as compared to the positive control. In conclusion, Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) K$\ddot{u}$tzing showed cancer chemopreventive properties at the early stages of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Possible inhibitory mechanisms include enhancement of the activities of some detoxifying enzymes and/or suppression of precancerous cells.

Prevalence and Co-infection of Intestinal Parasites among Thai Rural Residents at High-risk of Developing Cholangiocarcinoma: A Cross-sectional Study in a Prospective Cohort Study

  • Songserm, Nopparat;Promthet, Supannee;Wiangnon, Surapon;Sithithaworn, Paiboon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6175-6179
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    • 2012
  • Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

High Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-11 indicates Poor Prognosis in Human Cholangiocarcinoma

  • Tongtawee, Taweesak;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Loyd, Ryan;Chanvitan, Supachai;Leelawat, Kawin;Praditpol, Niphol;Jujinda, Supathip;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3697-3701
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA) is serious public health problem in Thailand, especially in the northeastern and northern regions. CHCA is known as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors associated with local invasion and a high rate of metastasis. A crucial step in the invasion process is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basal membranes, for which several studies have shown a critical role played by matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11). Objective: This study aim to detect MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens and any correlation with survival time. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 30 patients with CHCA in Rajvithi hospital, who had undergone immunohistochemical staining of MMP-11. Relationships between clinicopathological data and MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens were analyzed by the ${\chi}^2$ test or Fisher's exact test. The estimated survival and the survival differences were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, respectively. Results: MMP-11 expression was found in 15 specimens (50%). The overall mean survival time is 237.0 days (95% CI 135.4-338.5, SD 271.9). Specimens with a positive MMP-11 had an average survival time of 136.7 days (95%CI 50.3-223.1, SD 156.0). Survival differences was signficant for the positive and negative MMP-11(p=0.022), but not well differentiated tumor and moderate to poor differentiated tumor (p=0.755), CA19-9 level of >1,000 and <1,000 (p=0.488), and between advanced and non-advanced staging (p=0.388). Conclusions: The positive MMP-11 expression indicates poor prognosis in CHCA specimens.

Serum Cathepsin B to Cystatin C Ratio as a Potential Marker for the Diagnosis of Cholangiocarcinoma

  • Monsouvanh, Ammala;Proungvitaya, Tanakorn;Limpaiboon, Temduang;Wongkham, Chaisiri;Wongkham, Sopit;Luvira, Vor;Proungvitaya, Siriporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9511-9515
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    • 2014
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer of the bile duct epithelial cells. The highest incidence rate of CCA with a poor prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy is found in Southeast Asian countries, especially in northeastern Thailand and Lao PDR. Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease which is regulated by cysteine proteinase inhibitors such as cystatin C. Elevation of cathepsin B levels in biological fluid has been observed in patients with inflammatory diseases and many cancers. We aimed to investigate the serum cathepsin B and cystatin C levels of CCA patients to evaluate the feasibility of using cathepsin B and cystatin C as markers for the diagnosis of CCA. Fifty-six sera from CCA patients, 17 with benign biliary diseases (BBD) and 13 from controls were collected and the cathepsin B and cystatin C levels were determined. In addition, cathepsin B expression was investigated immunohistochemically for 9 matched-pairs of cancerous and adjacent tissues of CCA patients. Serum cathepsin B, but not cystatin C, was significantly higher in CCA and BBD patient groups compared to that in the control group. Consistently, all cancerous tissues strongly expressed cathepsin B while adjacent tissues were negative in 7 out of 9 cases. In contrast, serum cystatin C levels were comparable between CCA and control groups, although serum cystatin C levels in the BBD group was higher than that in the control or CCA groups. When the serum cathepsin B to cystatin C ratio was calculated, that of the CCA group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and, although statistically not significant, the ratio of CCA group showed a trend to be higher than that of the BBD group. Thus, the cathepsin B to cystatin C ratio might be used as an alternative marker for aiding diagnosis of CCA.