• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Number of Excitations

검색결과 78건 처리시간 0.039초

Damage identification of substructure for local health monitoring

  • Huang, Hongwei;Yang, Jann N.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.795-807
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    • 2008
  • A challenging problem in structural damage detection based on vibration data is the requirement of a large number of sensors and the numerical difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate results when the system is large. To address this issue, the substructure identification approach may be used. Due to practical limitations, the response data are not available at all degrees of freedom of the structure and the external excitations may not be measured (or available). In this paper, an adaptive damage tracking technique, referred to as the sequential nonlinear least-square estimation with unknown inputs and unknown outputs (SNLSE-UI-UO) and the sub-structure approach are used to identify damages at critical locations (hot spots) of the complex structure. In our approach, only a limited number of response data are needed and the external excitations may not be measured, thus significantly reducing the number of sensors required and the corresponding computational efforts. The accuracy of the proposed approach is illustrated using a long-span truss with finite-element formulation and an 8-story nonlinear base-isolated building. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of tracking the local structural damages without the global information of the entire structure, and it is suitable for local structural health monitoring.

Collective Excitations in Thin K Films on Al(111)

  • Kim, Bong-Ok
    • 한국진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 2000
  • The surface collective modes of thin K films deposited on Al(111) have been investigated using frequency dependent photoyield measurements and momentum resolved inelastic electron scattering. Jellium based theoretical calculations have predicted a richer set of features in the thin films than for the surface of a semi-infinite solid because there are th interference between two interfaces (substrate-film and film-vacuum) and heavy damping on the substrate. The use of an optical probe and electron scattering has allowed us to draw a more complete picture of the dynamic screening in thin films. The number, dispersion, damping and optical activity of the collective modes of the thin films have been measured as a function of K film thickness. New overlayer-induced excitations are observed : At qII=0, they correspond to the antisymmetric slab mode and the multipole surface plasmon. At finite qII=0, these modes undergo a transition towards the K multipole and monopole surface plasmons. With increasing coverage, the overlayer excitations turn into the collective modes of semi-infinite K. For a consistent interpretation of photoyield and electron energy loss spectra it is crucial to account for the non-analytic dispersion of the overlayer modes at small parallel wave vectors and for the finite angular resolution of the detector. The observed dispersions confirm predictions based on the time-dependent density functional approach.

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Numerical framework for stress cycle assessment of cables under vortex shedding excitations

  • Ruiz, Rafael O.;Loyola, Luis;Beltran, Juan F.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.225-238
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    • 2019
  • In this paper a novel and efficient computational framework to estimate the stress range versus number of cycles curves experienced by a cable due to external excitations (e.g., seismic excitations, traffic and wind-induced vibrations, among others) is proposed. This study is limited to the wind-cable interaction governed by the Vortex Shedding mechanism which mainly rules cables vibrations at low amplitudes that may lead to their failure due to bending fatigue damage. The algorithm relies on a stochastic approach to account for the uncertainties in the cable properties, initial conditions, damping, and wind excitation which are the variables that govern the wind-induced vibration phenomena in cables. These uncertainties are propagated adopting Monte Carlo simulations and the concept of importance sampling, which is used to reduce significantly the computational costs when new scenarios with different probabilistic models for the uncertainties are evaluated. A high fidelity cable model is also proposed, capturing the effect of its internal wires distribution and helix angles on the cables stress. Simulation results on a 15 mm diameter high-strength steel strand reveal that not accounting for the initial conditions uncertainties or using a coarse wind speed discretization lead to an underestimation of the stress range experienced by the cable. In addition, parametric studies illustrate the computational efficiency of the algorithm at estimating new scenarios with new probabilistic models, running 3000 times faster than the base case.

동적 신뢰성 해석 기법의 수치 안정성에 관하여 (On the Numerical Stability of Dynamic Reliability Analysis Method)

  • 이도근;옥승용
    • 한국안전학회지
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2020
  • In comparison with the existing static reliability analysis methods, the dynamic reliability analysis(DyRA) method is more suitable for estimating the failure probability of a structure subjected to earthquake excitations because it can take into account the frequency characteristics and damping capacity of the structure. However, the DyRA is known to have an issue of numerical stability due to the uncertainty in random sampling of the earthquake excitations. In order to solve this numerical stability issue in the DyRA approach, this study proposed two earthquake-scale factors. The first factor is defined as the ratio of the first earthquake excitation over the maximum value of the remaining excitations, and the second factor is defined as the condition number of the matrix consisting of the earthquake excitations. Then, we have performed parametric studies of two factors on numerical stability of the DyRA method. In illustrative example, it was clearly confirmed that the two factors can be used to verify the numerical stability of the proposed DyRA method. However, there exists a difference between the two factors. The first factor showed some overlapping region between the stable results and the unstable results so that it requires some additional reliability analysis to guarantee the stability of the DyRA method. On the contrary, the second factor clearly distinguished the stable and unstable results of the DyRA method without any overlapping region. Therefore, the second factor can be said to be better than the first factor as the criterion to determine whether or not the proposed DyRA method guarantees its numerical stability. In addition, the accuracy of the numerical analysis results of the proposed DyRA has been verified in comparison with those of the existing first-order reliability method(FORM), Monte Carlo simulation(MCS) method and subset simulation method(SSM). The comparative results confirmed that the proposed DyRA method can provide accurate and reliable estimation of the structural failure probability while maintaining the superior numerical efficiency over the existing methods.

직류 전기장을 인가한 층류부착화염에서 물질-열 확산 및 부력에 의한 화염진동 비교에 관한 연구 (Diffusive-Thermal Instability and Buoyancy-Driven Instability in Laminar Attached Free-jet Flames with DC Electric Fields)

  • 한종규;윤성환;박정;윤진한;길상인;서상일;김영주
    • 한국연소학회지
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we describe the behavior of two self-excitations in laminar attached free-jet flames under the influence of DC electric fields, one of buoyancy-driven and the other of diffusion-thermal instability, established from the horizontal and vertical injection. In the horizontal injection with removed buoyancy effect, oscillating flames with the frequency of 1.3 - 7.4 Hz were observed in a certain condition with Lewis number more than unity. On the other hand, it was appeared Lewis number induced self-excitation as well as buoyancy-driven self-excitation in the vertical upward injection with DC electric fields. This behavior had frequency range of 1.6 - 9.4 Hz and was exhibited to attribute the buoyancy effect. Finally, a well-defined division about two self-excitations having similar frequency range is briefly discussed.

TLCD를 이용한 지진하중을 받는 3차원 비정형 건축구조물의 응답제어 (RESPONSE CONTROL OF 3D IRREGULAR BUILDINGS UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATIONS USING TLCD)

  • 김홍진;김형섭;안상경
    • 한국소음진동공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2003
  • The semi-active TLCD system is investigated for control of responses of 3D irregular buildings under seismic excitations. The TLCD system is a special type of TMD system providing a performance similar to a TMD system but offers a number of practical advantages over the traditional TMD system. The equations of motion for the combined building and TLCD system are derived for multistory building structures with rigid floors and plan and elevation irregularities. Simulation results for control of two multistory moment-resisting space structures with vertical and plan irregularities show clearly that the semi-active TLCD control system reduces the responses of 3D irregular buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions efficiently.

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Electret-based microgenerators under sinusoidal excitations: an analytical modeling

  • Nguyen, Cuong C.;Ranasinghe, Damith C.;Al-Sarawi, Said F.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.335-347
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    • 2018
  • The fast-growing number of mobile and wearable applications has driven several innovations in small-scale electret-based energy harvesting due to the compatibility with standard microfabrication processes and the ability to generate electrical energy from ambient vibrations. However, the current modeling methods used to design these small scale transducers or microgenerators are applicable only for constant-speed rotations and small sinusoidal translations, while in practice, large amplitude sinusoidal vibrations can happen. Therefore, in this paper, we formulate an analytical model for electret-based microgenerators under general sinusoidal excitations. The proposed model is validated using finite element modeling combined with numerical simulation approaches presented in the literature. The new model demonstrates a good agreement in estimating both the output voltage and power of the microgenerator. This new model provides useful insights into the microgenerator operating mechanism and design trade-offs, and therefore, can be utilized in the design and performance optimization of these small structures.

Efficient MCS for random vibration of hysteretic systems by an explicit iteration approach

  • Su, Cheng;Huang, Huan;Ma, Haitao;Xu, Rui
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.119-139
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    • 2014
  • A new method is proposed for random vibration anaylsis of hysteretic systems subjected to non-stationary random excitations. With the Bouc-Wen model, motion equations of hysteretic systems are first transformed into quasi-linear equations by applying the concept of equivalent excitations and decoupling of the real and hysteretic displacements, and the derived equation system can be solved by either the precise time integration or the Newmark-${\beta}$ integration method. Combining the numerical solution of the auxiliary differential equation for hysteretic displacements, an explicit iteration algorithm is then developed for the dynamic response analysis of hysteretic systems. Because the computational cost for a large number of deterministic analyses of hysteretic systems can be significantly reduced, Monte-Carlo simulation using the explicit iteration algorithm is now viable, and statistical characteristics of the non-stationary random responses of a hysteretic system can be obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show the accuracy and efficiency of the present approach.

교량의 내진성능 향상을 위한 희생부재형 에너지소산장치(EDSD)의 적용에 관한 연구 (Application of Energy-Dissipating Sacrificial Device(EDSD) for Enhancing Seismic Performance of Bridges)

  • 김상효;조광일;김혜영
    • 한국지진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.445-452
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    • 2006
  • A new Energy-Dissipating Sacrificial Device(EDSD) is proposed, which can effectively dissipate the energy stored in the structures during seismic actions. A mathematical 3-D bridge models and analysis techniques are developed to represent the non-linear behavior of the EDSD, various seismic responses of a sample bridge with the EDSD are analyzed in terms of energy, member forces and deformation using the developed analysis method. And the EDSD is tested and certified it's behavior and stability to apply on exiting bridges. The EDSD can be able to dissipate a large amount of energy and therefore it can prevent the pier's excessive forces under seismic excitations and EDSD and its connected members are also stable. Additionally, the method and guidelines of an optimum EDSD design are proposed in terms of installation method and decision of number of EDSD. The Proposed EDSD under seismic excitations can significantly decrease the excessive storing energy in the bridge structures and reduce the relative displacements of each superstructure to the ground. The EDSD is also found to function as a structural fuse under strong ground motions, sacrificing itself to absorb the excessive energy. Consequently, economical enhancement of the seismic performance of bridges can be achieved by employing the newly developed energy dissipation sacrificial device(EDSD).

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Dynamic reliability of structures: the example of multi-grid composite walls

  • Liu, Pei;Yaoa, Qian-Feng
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.463-479
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    • 2010
  • Based on damage accumulation of multi-grid composite walls, a method of dynamic reliability estimations is proposed. The multi-grid composite wall is composed of edge frame beam, edge frame columns, grid beams, grid columns and filling blocks. The equations including stiffness, shear forces at filling blocks cracking and multi-grid composite walls yielding, ultimate displacement, and damage index are obtained through tests of 13 multi-grid composite wall specimens. Employing these equations in reliability calculations, procedures of dynamic reliability estimations based on damage accumulation of multi-grid composite walls subjected to random earthquake excitations are proposed. Finally the proposed method is applied to the typical composite wall specimen subjected to random earthquake excitations which can be specified by a finite number of input random variables. The dynamic reliability estimates, when filling blocks crack under earthquakes corresponding to 63% exceedance in 50 years and when the composite wall reach limit state under earthquakes corresponding to 2-3% exceedance in 50 years, are obtained using the proposed method by taking damage indexes as thresholds. The results from the proposed method which show good agreement with those from Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate the proposed method is effective.