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Sensor placement driven by a model order reduction (MOR) reasoning

  • Casciati, Fabio;Faravelli, Lucia
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.343-352
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    • 2014
  • Given a body undergoing a stress-strain status as consequence of external excitations, sensors can be deployed on the accessible lateral surface of the body. The sensor readings are regarded as input of a numerical model of reduced order (i.e., the number of sensors is lower than the number of the state variables the full model would require). The goal is to locate the sensors in such a way to minimize the deviations from the response of the true (full) model. One adopts either accelerometers as sensors or devices reading relative displacements. Two applications are studied: a plane frame is first investigated; the focus is eventually on a 3D body.

Determination of an Inelastic Collision Cross Sections for C3F8 Molecule by Electron Swarm Method (전자군 방법에 의한 C3F8분자가스의 비탄성충돌단면적의 결정)

  • Jeon Byung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2006
  • The electron drift velocity W and the product of the longitudinal diffusion coefficient and the gas number density $ND_{L}$ in the $0.525\;\%$ and $5.05\;\%$ $C_{3}F_8-Ar$ mixtures were measured by using the double shutter drift tube with variable drift distance over the E/N range from 0.03 to 100 Td and gas pressure range from 1 to 915 torr. And we determined the electron collision cross sections set for the $C_{3}F_8$ molecule by STEP 1 of electron swarm method using a multi-term Boltzmann equation analysis. Our special attention in the present study was focused upon the vibrational excitation and new excitations cross sections of the $C_{3}F_8$ molecule.

Neural Network Active Control of Structures with Earthquake Excitation

  • Cho Hyun Cheol;Fadali M. Sami;Saiidi M. Saiid;Lee Kwon Soon
    • International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a new neural network control for nonlinear bridge systems with earthquake excitation. We design multi-layer neural network controllers with a single hidden layer. The selection of an optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer is an important design step for control performance. To select an optimal number of hidden neurons, we progressively add one hidden neuron and observe the change in a performance measure given by the weighted sum of the system error and the control force. The number of hidden neurons which minimizes the performance measure is selected for implementation. A neural network was trained for mitigating vibrations of bridge systems caused by El Centro earthquake. We applied the proposed control approach to a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and a two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) bridge system. We assessed the robustness of the control system using randomly generated earthquake excitations which were not used in training the neural network. Our results show that the neural network controller drastically mitigates the effect of the disturbance.

Identification of Stiffness Parameters of Nanjing TV Tower Using Ambient Vibration Records (상시진동 계측자료를 이용한 Nanjing TV탑의 강성계수 추정)

  • Kim Jae Min;Feng. M. Q.
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1998
  • This paper demonstrates how ambient vibration measurements at a limited number of locations can be effectively utilized to estimate parameters of a finite element model of a large-scale structural system involving a large number of elements. System identification using ambient vibration measurements presents a challenge requiring the use of special identification techniques, which ran deal with very small magnitudes of ambient vibration contaminated by noise without the knowledge of input farces. In the present study, the modal parameters such as natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes of the structural system were estimated by means of appropriate system identification techniques including the random decrement method. Moreover, estimation of parameters such as the stiffness matrix of the finite element model from the system response measured by a limited number of sensors is another challenge. In this study, the system stiffness matrix was estimated by using the quadratic optimization involving the computed and measured modal strain energy of the system, with the aid of a sensitivity relationship between each element stiffness and the modal parameters established by the second order inverse modal perturbation theory. The finite element models thus identified represent the actual structural system very well, as their calculated dynamic characteristics satisfactorily matched the observed ones from the ambient vibration test performed on a large-scale structural system subjected primarily to ambient wind excitations. The dynamic models identified by this study will be used for design of an active mass damper system to be installed on this structure fer suppressing its wind vibration.

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Experimental validation of Kalman filter-based strain estimation in structures subjected to non-zero mean input

  • Palanisamy, Rajendra P.;Cho, Soojin;Kim, Hyunjun;Sim, Sung-Han
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.489-503
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    • 2015
  • Response estimation at unmeasured locations using the limited number of measurements is an attractive topic in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Because of increasing complexity and size of civil engineering structures, measuring all structural responses from the entire body is intractable for the SHM purpose; the response estimation can be an effective and practical alternative. This paper investigates a response estimation technique based on the Kalman state estimator to combine multi-sensor data under non-zero mean input excitations. The Kalman state estimator, constructed based on the finite element (FE) model of a structure, can efficiently fuse different types of data of acceleration, strain, and tilt responses, minimizing the intrinsic measurement noise. This study focuses on the effects of (a) FE model error and (b) combinations of multi-sensor data on the estimation accuracy in the case of non-zero mean input excitations. The FE model error is purposefully introduced for more realistic performance evaluation of the response estimation using the Kalman state estimator. In addition, four types of measurement combinations are explored in the response estimation: strain only, acceleration only, acceleration and strain, and acceleration and tilt. The performance of the response estimation approach is verified by numerical and experimental tests on a simply-supported beam, showing that it can successfully estimate strain responses at unmeasured locations with the highest performance in the combination of acceleration and tilt.

Active shape control of a cantilever by resistively interconnected piezoelectric patches

  • Schoeftner, J.;Buchberger, G.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.501-521
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    • 2013
  • This paper is concerned with static and dynamic shape control of a laminated Bernoulli-Euler beam hosting a uniformly distributed array of resistively interconnected piezoelectric patches. We present an analytical one-dimensional model for a laminated piezoelectric beam with material discontinuities within the framework of Bernoulli-Euler and extent the model by a network of resistors which are connected to several piezoelectric patch actuators. The voltage of only one piezoelectric patch is prescribed: we answer the question how to design the interconnected resistive electric network in order to annihilate lateral vibrations of a cantilever. As a practical example, a cantilever with eight patch actuators under the influence of a tip-force is studied. It is found that the deflection at eight arbitrary points along the beam axis may be controlled independently, if the local action of the piezoelectric patches is equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign, to the external load. This is achieved by the proper design of the resistive network and a suitable choice of the input voltage signal. The validity of our method is exact in the static case for a Bernoulli-Euler beam, but it also gives satisfactory results at higher frequencies and for transient excitations. As long as a certain non-dimensional parameter, involving the number of the piezoelectric patches, the sum of the resistances in the electric network and the excitation frequency, is small, the proposed shape control method is approximately fulfilled for dynamic load excitations. We evaluate the feasibility of the proposed shape control method with a more refined model, by comparing the results of our one-dimensional calculations based on the extended Bernoulli-Euler equations to three-dimensional electromechanically coupled finite element results in ANSYS 12.0. The results with the simple Bernoulli-Euler model agree well with the three-dimensional finite element results.

Single Carrier Spectroscopy of Bisolitons on Si(001) Surfaces

  • Lyo, In-Whan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.13-13
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    • 2010
  • Switching an elementary excitation by injecting a single carrier would offer the exciting opportunity for the ultra-high data storage technologies. However, there has been no methodology available to investigate the interaction of low energy discrete carriers with nano-structures. In order to map out the spatial dependency of such single carrier level interactions, we developed a pulse-and-probe algorithm, combining with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The new tool, which we call single carrier spectroscopy, allows us to track the interaction with the target macrostructure with tunneling carriers on a single carrier basis. Using this tool, we demonstrate that it is possible not only to locally write and erase individual bi-solitons, reliably and reversibly, but also to track of creation yields of single and multiple bi-solitons. Bi-solitons are pairs of solitons that are elementary out-of-phase excitations on anti-ferromagnetically ordered pseudo-spin system of Si dimers on Si(001)-c(42) surfaces. We found that at low energy tunneling the single bisoliton creation mechanism is not correlated with the number of carriers tunneling, but with the production of a potential hole under the tip. An electric field at the surface determines the density of the local charge density under the tip, and band-bending. However a rapid, dynamic change of a field produces a potential hole that can be filled by energetic carriers, and the amount of energy released during filling process is responsible for the creation of bi-solitons. Our model based on the field-induced local hole gives excellent explanation for bi-soliton yield behaviors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy data supports the existence of such a potential hole. The mechanism also explains the site-dependency of bi-soliton yields, which is highest at the trough, not on the dimer rows. Our study demonstrates that we can manipulate not just single atoms and molecules, but also single pseudo-spin excitations as well.

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Multiple Pounding Tuned Mass Damper (MPTMD) control on benchmark tower subjected to earthquake excitations

  • Lin, Wei;Lin, Yinglu;Song, Gangbing;Li, Jun
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.1123-1141
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    • 2016
  • To explore the application of traditional tuned mass dampers (TMDs) to the earthquake induced vibration control problem, a pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) is proposed by adding a viscoelastic limitation to the traditional TMD. In the proposed PTMD, the vibration energy can be further dissipated through the impact between the attached mass and the viscoelastic layer. More energy dissipation modes can guarantee better control effectiveness under a suite of excitations. To further reduce mass ratio and enhance the implementation of the PTMD control, multiple PTMDs (MPTMD) control is then presented. After the experimental validation of the proposed improved Hertz based pounding model, the basic equations of the MPTMD controlled system are obtained. Numerical simulation is conducted on the benchmark model of the Canton Tower. The control effectiveness of the PTMD and the MPTMD is analyzed and compared under different earthquake inputs. The sensitivity and the optimization of the design parameters are also investigated. It is demonstrated that PTMDs have better control efficiency over the traditional TMDs, especially under more severe excitation. The control performance can be further improved with MPTMD control. The robustness can be enhanced while the attached mass for each PTMD can be greatly reduced. It is also demonstrated through the simulation that a non-uniformly distributed MPTMD has better control performance than the uniformly distributed one. Parameter study is carried out for both the PTMD and the MPTMD systems. Finally, the optimization of the design parameters, including mass ratio, initial gap value, and number of PTMD in the MPTMD system, is performed for control improvement.

A Comparative Study Between Diffusive-thermal and Buoyancy-driven Self-excitations in Laminar Free Jet Flames with Applied DC Electric Fields (직류전기장이 인가된 층류제트화염에서 물질 -열 확산과 부력에 의한 진동비교에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Jong-Kyu;Yoon, Sung-Hwan;Park, Jeong;Kwon, Oh-Boong;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Park, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2012
  • Experimental study on comparison of diffusive-thermal self-excitation with buoyancy-driven one due to accumulation of partially premixed, preheated mixture in front of edge flame was conducted in horizontally and vertically injected laminar free-jet flames with an applied DC electric field of -10 kV. The application of horizontal injection method with the DC electric field to jet flames was experimentally designed to suppress heat-loss-induced self-excitation and thereby to highlight the definite difference between both diffusive-thermal and buoyancy-driven self-excitations with the same order of O(1.0 Hz), in that diffusive-thermal self-excitation has not been so far found experimentally in laminar jet flames. Flame stability maps in vertically and horizontally injected jet flames are presented. The distinct modes of individual self-excitation are shown to be well described by their own phase diagrams. The results show that buoyancy-driven self-excitation due to the accumulation of partially premixed, preheated mixtures in front of edge flame is branched from the buoyancy-induced self-excitation with O(10 Hz) due to a flame flicker. Once the buoyancy-driven self-excitation appears, it suppresses buoyancy-induced as well as diffusive-thermal self-excitation. The key characteristics for individual self-excitation are discussed and their functional dependencies of Strouhal number upon related physical parameters are also presented.

Rocking response of unanchored rectangular rigid bodies to simulated earthquakes

  • Aydin, Kamil
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.343-362
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    • 2004
  • Rocking response of rigid bodies with rectangular footprint, freely standing on horizontal rigid plane is studied analytically. Bodies are subjected to simulated single component of horizontal earthquakes. The effect of baseline correction, applied to simulated excitations, on the rocking response is first examined. The sensitiveness of rocking motion to the details of earthquakes and geometric properties of rigid bodies is investigated. Due to the demonstrated sensitivity of rocking response to these factors, prediction of rocking stability must be made in the framework of probability theory. Therefore, using a large number of simulated earthquakes, the effects of duration and shape of intensity function of simulated earthquakes on overturning probability of rigid bodies are studied. In the case when a rigid body is placed on any floor of a building, the corresponding probability is compared to that of a body placed on the ground. For this purpose, several shear frames are employed. Finally, the viability of the energy balance equation, which was introduced by Housner in 1963 and widely used by nuclear power industry to estimate the rocking stability of bodies, is evaluated. It is found that the equation is robust. Examples are also given to show how this equation can be used.