The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Only one hundred years of history in nursing education in Korea is not enough to develop the subject fully as a science. However, the development of Korean nursing education is a great historical event, because Korean nursing education has been accepted by a male-oriented Korean society and has led to a new paradigm in the new millenium. These results are largely due to the Korean people's high enthusiasm for education, as well as Korean women's diligence. I think these 100 years of history can be divided into five periods: (1) the Sunlight period (1900-1911) (2) the New born period (1912-1945) (3) the Settle-down period (1946-1960) (4) the Marked Growth period (1961-1980) (5) the Jumping Period (1981-2000) These classifications are characterized by changes in the educational system, a changed nursing curriculum, educational goals, educational outcomes, and implications. The characteristics of historical development of Korean nursing education was evaluated in three dimensions: structures, contents, and outcome. The structure of Korean nursing education consists of a 3-year program and a 4-year program. Most nursing leaders in Korea hope that these two programs will converge into one system. Secondly, the contents of nursing education in Korea underwent very active changes, according to historical development. These changes in the nursing curriculum have been developed to provide a professional education and develop nursing education as a modern science. Lastly, as to the results of nursing education in Korea, the education was needed to turn out advanced specialists in nursing. In the new millenium, knowledge and information will be the driving forces behind social development. A nation's level of development and creativity in nursing education is the most potent determinant of the future of Korean nursing. The best way to prepare for future challenges will be to create the backbone of a nursing education system. Hence, well-educated nurses in graduate programs should be turned into advanced specialists in nursing. These groups will upgrade the image of Korean nurses, and will have strong influence to improve patient care and the health situation in Korea.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Official nursing education of Korea under Japanese rule began in order to make the communication possible among Japanese medical men and Korean patients. It could generate high standard nurses from the beginning. Nurses licensure began in 1914 and the graduates of official nursing schools could get nurses licensure without further test. Official nursing education became the standard of R.N. education. The curriculum emphasized on Japanese and ethics first, and in order to produce nurse, practice second. In 1920 the shortage of nurse became serious problem, so the Japanese colonial authorities set up 5 official nursing school in large scale. In 1922 they revised the relevant laws and regulations to make the nursing licensure pass all over Japanese ruling area. 8-year preliminary education and 2 year curriculum became standard of official nursing education after then. Other nursing schools should satisfy this standard to let their graduate get nurses licensure without further test. Curriculum was revised to satisfy the dual goal of 'good housewife' and 'good nurse'. Every official nursing school tried to raise educational standard Nursing science was specialized and more emphasis was put on the occupational education. From the late 1930s, Japanese desperately needed additional manpower to replenish the dwindling ranks of their military and labor forces. They tried to produce more nurses by increase nursing school. Students had to do wartime work instead of study. Younger students could enter nursing school, and general school could produce R.N. In conclusion, nursing education of Korea under Japanese rule was determined by the official nursing education. The Japanese colonial authorities lead the official nursing education. It made nursing education fixed early and produced high standard R.N. But it made nursing education withdraw in late Japanese rule period. Nursing education of Korea began quite weak in the need of nursing and Korea herself. The weakness became a subject of nursing education of Korea after Japanese rule to produce better R.N..
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Purpose: Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing interest in patient safety and quality of care. As a result, undergraduate nursing students have difficulties in clinical nursing practice such as health assessment or providing nursing skills. The purpose of this paper was to review current issues related to use of simulations in nursing education. Method: We conducted a thorough literature review including related proceedings to identify present issues in use of simulation education in nursing. Result/Conclusion: Simulation education in nursing differs from that in medical science. In nursing education, we need to focus on developing competencies for nursing students, for example, nursing process, nursing skills, and therapeutic communication skills With an increasing number of human patient simulators, we suggest a more careful approach including faculty development, curriculum development, and cost effective strategic planning. We propose a reliable and valid scenario development among nursing faculty as a consortium in the future.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to (a) synthesize nursing education literature using a smartphone for Korean nursing college students based on Whittemore and Knafl's integrative five-step review method and to (b) evaluate the quality appraisal of each article using Gough's weight of evidence. Methods: Articles published in Korea were identified through electronic search engines and scholarly websites using a combination of three search terms, including nursing student, smartphone, and education. Scientific, peer-reviewed articles in nursing education for Korean college nursing students, written in Korean or in English, and published between January 2000 and May 2018 were included in this review. Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria and had above average ratings in quality appraisals. Results: Three characteristics related to nursing education using a smartphone were derived: (a) as a familiar media, motivating learning and enabling self-directed learning, (b) for the purpose of education or evaluation utilizing the educational movie of application, and (c) the iterative exercise of smartphone usage reinforces student learning. Conclusion: Smartphone use is an effective tool for improving nursing knowledge and skills for nursing college students in nursing education. Future research is needed to standardize smartphone applications across schools for nursing education.
This study, was done to compare the nursing education systems of China and South Korea (Korea), then, on the basis of this comparison, to examine the direction of nursing education in China. The results the study are as follows : 1. Nursing education in Korea was influenced by social change, political policy, but as it was established, nurses in Korea, were able actively involved in presenting nursing education development proposals to the government, and in developing nursing education through their own efforts. Nursing education in China developed through the political policy of a socialist Country. During the period of modernization after 1977, a nursing education developed very quickly, In 1983, the first baccalaureate nursing education program was established and, in 1992, the first masters program was opened. 2. In Korea, there are two nursing education systems; diploma and baccalaureate, and there is only one entry level, high school graduation. In China today, on the other hand, there are three types of nursing education systems; technical, diploma, and baccalaureate, and they have middle school and high school graduation as the two levels of entry. 3. There are similarities between China and Korea in curriculums for nursing education which include the major nursing concepts. But in descriptions of the education objectives, China the emphasis is on training the 'expert' in clinical nursing which is not consistent with their educational philosophy. Korea differs from China in that the focus is on training for 'multiple ability' to be used in both clinical and community environments. 4. In Korea, the curriculum is organized with the theoretical and clinical experience combined. The curriculum is oriented to the life cycle and human developmental process. In China, however, the curriculum is organized so that after finishing the theoretical part of the curriculum, the students begin a one year intensive field experience in which the major clinical field is the hospital, and the focus is on disease oriented care and research ability. 5. In order for nurses to be proposed to address nursing education system needs follows : to change as The new nursing education system should be baccalaureate education in order to improve the education level in all nursing education programs, to develop doctoral programs, to open nurse specialist programs, and to develop a new curriculum based nursing philosophy and health delivery system change. New nursing curriculum for health care in China in the 21st century should be directed by a framework based on nursing philosophy, objectives and nursing content. In conclusion, the study will contribute China nursing education system revolution for policy develop and curriculum research. According to these results, in the future, nurses in China should be more actively involved in research and in a nursing education revolution, Also they should be involved in building information networks and in developing long term projects in nursing education.
This study is a descriptive comparative investigated one to analyze nursing education system and curriculum of Korea and China trans-culturally. 1) Education System The basic level of nursing education in Korea consisted of 65 3-year- junior college of nursing (7379 students) and 48 4-year-bachelor of nursing college (2345 students) in 2000 showing more 3-year-junior college of nursing and its students. In China, western nursing as well as Chinese nursing education system were operating. In 2000, 501 western school of middle technical nursing, 29 school of middle technical nursing of middle level education, and 89 3-year western and 24 Chinese junior college of nursing, and 42 4-year western bachelor of nursing college and 10 Chinese of high level education have been established. The presence of Chinese school of middle technical nursing system seemed to be in slower development in nursing than Korea, but that of Chinese nursing education seemed to be advanced with its national identification prior to Korea. Post graduate continuous education for RN-Diploma and RN-BSN program has been opened as in Korea. The Hosa(護士) system in school of middle technical nursing in China reflects lower level of education than Korea. But it can be a merit, other than in Korea, without nurses aids, when they are acting under supervision of nurses and led by them, and there presents a special course for promotion up to high level education. Graduate school in Korea is divided into general type opening a curriculum for MS in 1960 and as of 2000, 21 general types for majoring in nursing. The PhD course in Korea was established in 1978, and after that the PhD courses have been opening in 14 universities at present. China established master degree course in 1991 and as of 7 colleges are ongoing, and the doctoral course is now under planning, resulting slower development than Korea. 2) Education of theory and clinical practice in Korea and Chine (1) Korea's 3-year junior nursing college have 51 subjects, 49 subjects in China, which was not different. China was following education of ideology and medical. 4-year Bachelor of Science College has 92 subjects in Korea with cultural subjects and essential major studies/elective in theory education in Korea, while 63 subjects in China, showed wider selection in Korea's education. (2) Korea's 3-year and 4-year nursing colleges performed clinical practice education parallel with theoretical education for a certain period, block or theory/practice system. While China's 3-year and 4 or 5-year-colleges educated the theory first and then practice for one year in the last grade, integrating each situation of the departments and the theory. (3) Korea's oriental nursing theory in nursing education was performed in 28 colleges of 65 nationwide ones of 3-year junior nursing colleges, but only one school was educating clinical practice. In 4-year bachelor of nursing colleges, the oriental nursing theory was done in 14 among 48 investigated. And 1-4 subjects of them were doing, and 4 schools performed of clinical practice, showing more reinforced than the junior colleges. China's 3-year and 4-5-year western nursing colleges taught two subjects of Chinese medicine nursing. China's 3-year & 4-5-year College of Chinese medicine nursing, theory of Chines medicine nursing education taught eight subjects. (4) 5-year colleges of Chinese medicine western integrated nursing, theory of Chinese medicine nursing education consisted of twelve Chinese medicine nursing subjects and two of Chinese medicine western integrated nursing subjects. China was tempting a new development of a pattern of Chinese medicine nursing subjects reinforced. 3) The verification of Korean and Chinese nurse's license. The verification test of Chinese nurses license is differentiated at the level of education other than in Korea. Expire date is 2 years and a qualified test must be done to a renewal. And the continuing education hours are 72 per year, which is more enforced than Korean nurses (10 hours a year). In accordance with WTO regulations, we should prepare for opening foreign hospital, educating oriental nursing subjects. And on this, it is recommendable to settle a basic frame research to run the oriental nursing practice ongoing. 1. It is desirable to develop the oriental nursing subjects to apply its idea to the western nursing and differentiate Korean nursing. 2. It is desirable to certify oriental nurse's characters, to expand and develop the nursing areas to practice it, and to establish the oriental nursing system. 3. It is expectable to promote Korean nursing specialization to develop the oriental nursing as a professional and to create its demand.
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
It was reported that nursing students had most difficulties in clinical competency due to their short of knowledge and skills in nursing care. Environmental difference between laboratory in nursing school and hospital was another difficulty to them. This implicated that more preclinical competency education is needed in fundermental nursing to achieve skills of care and the laboratory environment of nursing school had to be improved. The purpose of this study was to examine contents, total lecture and practicum house of the fundermental nursing education in nursing schools. It was also examine the difference of contents between hospital in-service education and nursing school. It's study is a descriptive study with study sample of 56 nursing professors who teach fundermental nursing in colleges and universities. Structured Questionnaires was used in collecting data. The result showed that practicum hours total 96.8 hours which was 59% of funderm nursing course. The education regar medication account for large numbers of h Aseptic technique, elimination care, vital oxygen related care were the next common contents. When compared with hospital in-service education, 76% of the education were the same. This suggested that pre-clinical education in fundermental nursing needed to be enforced in its contents & education hours to establish clinical practice centered nursing education.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Purpose: This study presents the current status of transcultural nursing education in nursing baccalaureate programs. Methods: The nursing curricula from 185 out of 194 nursing colleges that received accreditation were collected and analyzed. Results: 109 (58.9%) nursing colleges offered 117 transcultural nursing-related courses. The courses were offered as elective (68.4%) as well as major (78.6%) courses. All courses were offered as a theoretical delivery class without any field experiences. The courses were offered mainly for sophomore (41.9%) and freshman students (33.3%), and most of them (79.5%) were two-credit courses. Instead of the term "transcultural nursing," "multicultural nursing" is mostly used in the title of courses. An inconsistency between the title of courses and their content was found. After analyzing the title of courses based on four nursing meta-paradigms, courses related to the environment were most common (41.9%). Conclusion: Transcultural nursing education has developed during the last decade. However, teaching methods and course content have not developed enough. Thus, a greater effort is needed to increase awareness of the importance of transcultural nursing education and to develop courses for it.
This study was intended to grasp the history of nursing education from the beginning to the present in Korea, and grip and look-out current diversified systems of nursing education on basis of February, 2000 through literatural review and investigation by close telephone interviews. The basic nursing educational institutions in the whole country were total 113, namely, 3 years course, 65 junior colleges of nursing, and 4 years course, 48 colleges of nursing. And there were 3 types of continuing nursing educational system: two of three were transferring to another college for gain bachelor's degree in nursing; RN-BSN programs and university of broadcasting, and the other was the system of independent learning and then examination for BSN. Total nursing graduates from junior college of nursing courses and college of nursing courses were 7,564 on February, 1999. In general graduate school, the number of master courses were 21 and Ph.D courses were 13. And the number of special graduate schools were 21, i.e., graduate school of education were 7, graduate school of administration were 2, graduate school of public health were 11 and graduate school of industry was 1. As the perspective on nursing education, we overviewed changing nursing organizational environment, increasing the system of continuing education, making standards in nursing education and systemization of nursing educational accreditation, specialization of nursing, information system in nursing education and education of graduate school. The summary of the above overviewed subjects were as follows; Every nursing educational institution needed to educate by educational criteria and standard and characteristically run BSN and graduate courses. Specialization in nursing has to develop more and more, therefore advanced education and law should be prepared appropriately. According to the age's and social needs, we have to establish counter-plan for fundamental educational environment. We have to sensitive to rapidly changing information in the era of globalization. In the level of university education, each university needs characterization of educational objectives, goals and contents, and has to replace the shortage of the number of professor. And the regulation of thesis and dissertation examinations need to be reinforced. Education in nursing should consists with specialization. Collaboration among universities will bring efficiency in the nursing education.
Purpose: This study was to identify the current issues and challenges of the nursing education program in Cambodia and to suggest recommendations to improve it. Methods: The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives were used as the analytic framework. Data were collected through a critical, constructive analysis of the literature, as well as observation with stakeholders in the area. Results: Cambodia experienced a shortage of nurses based on the demands of nurses. Moreover, the lack of institutional capacity, out dated and rudimentary nursing curriculum, under qualified nursing faculty, overcrowded classrooms, and lack of fundamental education materials and equipment for nursing education hampered the maintenance and improvement of the quality of pre-service nursing education in Cambodia. Conclusion: Strengthening the nursing educational resources and infrastructures, along with proper retention and enhancement of the faculty's capacity, clinical mentorship, and sustainable management of the nursing curriculum were recommended. Integrating the nursing theory and process into clinical practice and using strategic partnerships, would improve the quality and quantity of nursing education in Cambodia. There needs to be a synergistic relationship between nursing education and training relevant to the nursing care to meet the needs of the Cambodian population.
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