• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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Advances in Enhancing Nutrient Utilization for Ruminants by Nutritional Manipulation to Reduce Environmental Contamination - Review -

  • Lu, De-xun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 2001
  • A review of present understanding of the dietary nutrient utilization in ruminant animals is presented. For increasing the utilization of dietary nutrients and reducing environmental contamination, highlighting the development and use of nutritional manipulation technique is suggested.

Appropriate nitrogen application enhances saponin synthesis and growth mediated by optimizing root nutrient uptake ability

  • Wei, Wei;Ye, Chen;Huang, Hui-Chuan;Yang, Min;Mei, Xin-Yue;Du, Fei;He, Xia-Hong;Zhu, Shu-Sheng;Liu, Yi-Xiang
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.627-636
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    • 2020
  • Background: Cultivation of medicinal crops, which synthesize hundreds of substances for curative functions, was focused on the synthesis of secondary metabolites rather than biomass accumulation. Nutrition is an important restrict factor for plant growth and secondary metabolites, but little attention has been given to the plasticity of nutrient uptake and secondary metabolites synthesis response to soil nitrogen (N) change. Methods: Two year-field experiments of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), which can synthesize a high level of saponin in cells, were conducted to study the effects of N application on the temporal dynamics of biomass, nutrient absorption, root architecture and the relationships between these parameters and saponin synthesis. Results: Increasing N fertilizer rates could improve the dry matter yields and nutrient absorption ability through increasing the maximum daily growth (or nutrient uptake) rate. Under suitable N level (225 kg/ha N), Sanqi restricted the root length and surface and enhanced the root diameter and N uptake rate per root length (NURI) to promote nutrient absorption, but the opposite status of Sanqi root architecture and NURI was found when soil N was deficient. Furthermore, increasing N rates could promote the accumulation of saponin in roots through improving the NURI, which showed a significant positive relationship with the content of saponin in the taproots. Conclusion: Appropriate N fertilizer rates could optimize both root architecture and nutrient uptake efficiency, then promote both the accumulation of dry matter and the synthesis of saponins.

Nutrient Synchrony: Is it a Suitable Strategy to Improve Nitrogen Utilization and Animal Performance?

  • Yang, Ji-Young;Seo, J.;Kim, H.J.;Seo, S.;Ha, Jong-K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.972-979
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this paper was to review recent studies on nutrient synchrony and the effects of synchronization of energy and N supply in the rumen on nitrogen utilization and animal performance. Theoretically, synchronization of energy and N supply in the rumen should allow more efficient use of nutrients by rumen microbes, increase microbial protein and fermentation end products, and thus increase available nutrients in the small intestine. Efficient use of nutrients possibly improves animal performance and reduces nutrient excretion to the environment. However, a number of studies showed contradictory results in microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen retention and animal production performance. Since there are additional challenges to nutrient synchrony that must be addressed, further research is required to apply the nutrient synchrony concept directly to the field situation.

Minimizing the Environmental Pollution of Pig Husbandry and Waste Management

  • Mszros, Gy;Kuli, B.;Fenyvesi, L.;Mtys, L.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.1395-1404
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    • 1993
  • Application of water-saving self-feeders can reduce water consumption of pigs by more than 50% . so the feeding-watering system one of the most important way of the reduction of the slurry. Bioactive deep litter housing can eliminate slurry. Matured urine, faeces and litter can use for the purposes of soil conditioning and fertilizing . Water-saving slurry handling technology can halve manure dilution so it can double the nutrient content of the slurry. By using of straw bale biofilter for reducing emissions of pig houses makes fattening of pigs possible close to populated area. Developed rate control system for slurry application make avoiding over-fertilization possible , can fulfill better the demand of nutrient of plants. By means of computer aided manure utilization system area distribution of soil characteristics can determinate . The system is suitable for planning the utilization of manure and slurry in environment -friendly way.

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A Case Study on the Farm Preference and the Use of Livestock Feces (가축분뇨 이용 및 농가 선호도에 관한 조사연구)

  • Kwon, Sung-Ku;Yoo, Duck-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.249-264
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    • 2004
  • High yield arable and crop farming demands a temporally and quantitatively determined application of plant nutrients according to field and culture. The nutrients may come from commercial fertilizers or from animal wastes. Regarding the dangers to soil, water and air, which come from current agricultural application measures for nitrogen, a sectoral approach for a nonpolluting liquid manure utilization can-not be used ally longer. An integrated system approach has to be found, leading to a drastic improvement of nutrient utilization and hence to a considerably reduced nutrient use. This can be only expected, if the organic manure can be applicated at times, when losses through leaching and volatilization can be minimized.

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The Possible Utilization of Animal Excrements (가축분뇨 자원화를 위한 이용실태 분석)

  • 유덕기
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 2002
  • Regarding the dangers to soil, water and air, which come from current agricultural application measures for nitrogen, a sectoral approach for a non-polluting liquid manure utilization cannot be used any longer. Slurry was not any longer considered as a tiresome waste produced of animal husbandry, but as a valuable fertilizer. The goal of the largest possible utilization of slurry on the farm was and still is in the foreground, An Integrated system approach has to be found. leading to a drastic improvement of nutrient utilization and hence to a considerably reduced nutrient use. This can only be expected, if the organic manure can be applicated at times, when losses through leaching and volatilization can be minimized. The necessary investments for such concepts can clearly be reduced through cooperation.

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The affects of Development and Environment on Swine Diets Processing (돼지사료가공이 성장 및 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • 김인호;이상환
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.35-47
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    • 2002
  • In swine production, efficiency of utilization of nutrients is imperative. By embracing advances in processing techniques(i.e., fine grinding, pelleting, steam flaking, roasting, extrusion and expanding) nutrient utilization of feeds turfs have greatly improved. Grinding is by far the most commonly used process with reduction of particle size, Expander, like extruders, are high-temperature and pressure-short-term processor. The purpose of using an expander is to improve pellet quality. Also, expanding of dietary ingredients indicates improvements in growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Because feed cost are easily the greatest economic input into swine production, maximizing nutrient utilization is an area that will continue to receive much attention. Therefore, much attention will continue to be placed on feed processing techniques that will give consistent improvements in animal performance and nutrient digestibility.

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Comparison of energy and nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color

  • Kim, Jong Hyuk;Han, Gi Ppeum;Kang, Hwan Ku;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2019
  • The current experiment was conducted to compare nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color. Two metabolic trials with 96-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were conducted. Twelve hens with a strong eggshell strength (SES) and 12 hens with a weak eggshell strength (WES) were selected and used in the first experiment, whereas 12 hens with dark brown eggshells (DBE) and 12 hens with light brown eggshells (LBE) were selected and used in the second experiment. All hens were fed a common commercial layer diet. Diets included chromic oxide as an indigestible marker to determine the apparent total tract retention (ATTR) of the gross energy (GE), dry matter, acid-hydrolyzed ether extract, nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, and minerals. The results indicate that the ATTR of Ca in the aged laying hens with SES (59.7%) was greater (p < 0.05) than in the aged laying hens with WES (48.6%). However, the ATTR of the GE and other nutrients was not different between the hens with SES or WES. There were no differences in the ATTR of GE and nutrients between the hens with DBE or LBE. In conclusion, aged laying hens with SES have a greater ability to utilize dietary Ca than those with WES, indicating that the extent of dietary Ca utilization determines the eggshell strength of aged laying hens. However, nutrient utilization in diets may have little impact on eggshell brown coloration in aged laying hens.

Influence of Level of Dietary Inorganic and Organic Copper and Energy Level on the Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broiler Chickens

  • Das, T.K.;Mondal, M.K.;Biswas, P.;Bairagi, B.;Samanta, C.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2010
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of dietary inorganic (copper sulfate) and organic (copper proteinate) forms of copper and energy level on performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. Two hundred day-old commercial Vencobb broiler chicks were purchased and randomly distributed to 20 cages of 10 birds each. These replicates were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a (($2{\times}2$)+1) factorial arrangement. These two factors were sources of Cu ($CuSO_{4}$ vs. Cuproteinate) and dose of Cu supplements (200 mg and 400 mg/kg dietary dry matter) and the control (no supplemental Cu). After the starter period (up to 3 weeks), from d 22 onwards another factor i.e. energy at two levels (2,900 vs. 2,920 kcal/kg diet) was introduced with the previous factorial arrangements by subdividing each replicate into two equal parts, for two energy levels, without disturbing the dose and source of Cu supplement. Cu-salt supplementation linearly increased (p<0.01) live weight (LW), live weight gain (LWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 3 weeks, whereas cumulative feed intake (CFI) was unaffected (p>0.05). LWG and FCR were higher (p<0.01) in Cu-proteinate supplemented birds compared to $CuSO_{4}$ supplementation. A linear dose response (p<0.01) of Cu was found for the performance of broiler chickens. Birds having a higher energy level in the finisher stage increased (p<0.01) LWG and FCR. Cumulative feed intake was similar (p>0.05) across the groups up to the 5th week. Cu-proteinate increased performance of broiler chickens compared to $CuSO_{4}$. Dose of supplemental Cu-salt irrespective of source showed a linear response (p<0.01) for performance. Supplementation of Cu-proteinate increased metabolizability of DM (p<0.01), NFE (p<0.05), total carbohydrate (p<0.01) and OM (p<0.01) at the starter period. Increased dose of Cu-salt linearly increased (p<0.01) metabolizability of DM, CP, CF, NFE and OM. Higher energy level in the diet improved DM (p<0.05), EE (p<0.01), NFE (p = 0.01), total carbohydrate (p<0.01) and OM (p<0.01) metabolizability. Cu-proteinate supplementation showed better nutrient utilization compared to CuSO4. Dose of Cu linearly increased DM, CP, EE, NFE, total carbohydrate and OM metabolizability. CF metabolizability was unaffected (p>0.05) among the treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Cu-salt more than the requirement may improve performance and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens even with a high energy finisher diet. Cu-proteinate showed better performance and nutrient utilization compared to $CuSO_{4}$.

Rumen Manipulation to Improve Animal Productivity

  • Santra, A.;Karim, S.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.748-763
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    • 2003
  • Anaerobic rumen microorganisms mainly bacteria, protozoa and fungi degrade ligno-cellulosic feeds consumed by the ruminants. The ruminants in developing countries are predominantly maintained on low grade roughage and grazing on degraded range land resulting in their poor nutrient utilization and productivity. Hence, manipulation of rumen fermentation was tried during last two decades to optimize ruminal fermentation for improving nutrient utilization and productivity of the animals. Modification of rumen microbial composition and their activity was attempted by using chemical additives those selectively effect rumen microbes, introduction of naturally occurring or genetically modified foreign microbes into the rumen and genetically manipulation of existing microbes in the rumen ecosystem. Accordingly, rumen protozoa were eliminated by defaunation for reducing ruminal methane production and increasing protein outflow in the intestine, resulting in improve growth and feed conversion efficiency of the animals. Further, Interspecies trans-inoculation of rumen microbes was also successfully used for annulment of dietary toxic factor. Additionally, probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin have been used in animal feeding to stabilize rumen fermentation, reduced incidence of diarrhoea and thus improving growth and feed conversion efficiency of young stalk. It is envisaged that genetic manipulation of rumen microorganisms has enormous research potential in developing countries. In view of feed resource availability more emphasis has to be given for manipulating rumen fermentation to increase cellulolytic activity for efficient utilization of low grade roughage.