• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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The Effect of Feeding Mannan-Oligosaccharides (Bio-MOS) on the Performance of Meat Chickens under Two Different Vaccination Programs

  • Shafey, T.M.;Al-Mufarej, S.;Shalaby, M.I.;Jarelnabi, A.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.559-563
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    • 2001
  • The effects of feeding a mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) from 0 to 3 g/kg diet and vaccination program on 1- to 35-day performance (growth and feed efficiency), metabolizable energy, nitrogen utilization and carcass composition of meat chickens were investigated. A general vaccination program was used against IB, IBD and ND with half of the birds per diet receiving a booster dose of IB and ND vaccines at 12 days of age. Dietary supplementation of Bio-Mos (BM) did not influence body weight gain, feed efficiency and nutrient utilization. The highest dietary BM (3 versus 1.5 or 0 g/kg) increased carcass abdominal fat and reduced the proportion of drumstick in the carcass of meat chickens. The booster dose reduced the performance of birds. It was concluded that the addition of BM to the diet of chickens did not significantly influence the performance and nutrient utilization of meat chickens.

Potential Feeding Value of Deoiled Rice Bran by Japanese Quails. 2. Effect on Nutrient Utilization

  • Bhanja, S.K.;Verma, S.V.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1144-1148
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    • 2001
  • The implications of incorporating deoiled rice bran (DORB) in diet on the utilization of certain nutrients had been examined through balance studies made with 6- and 10- week-old Japanese quails. The stuffs evaluated in this study had their origin from two different types of processes- a batch extraction (DORB-B) and another continuous process (DORB-C), and each included at 10, 20 or 30% level in an iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diet. On chemical analyses, the DORB-B was found to contain crude protein, 19.0; ether extract, 0.79; total ash, 17.05; Ca, 0.11; P, 1.92; glucose, 2.35 and starch 11.22 g/100 g day matter. Corresponding values for DORB-C were 15.02, 1.56, 13.0, 0.40, 2.76, 2.16 and 19.0, respectively. The data on nutrient balances with quails fed diets containing the two-types of DORB suggested no significant (p>0.05) differences in per cent retention of diet dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), gross energy (GE), nitrogen (N), crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca) or phosphorus (P) content attributable to the extraction process. The age of the birds also appeared to have no significant (p>0.05) effect on nutrient utilization by them. However, the level of inclusion of DORB had a significant (p<0.05) effect on nutrient utilization by quails in that the retention of dietary N, EE, CF, Ca and P was better at lower than at higher levels. It is concluded that the DORB, irrespective of extraction process, can safely be employed upto 20% level in diet of adult Japanese quails without noticeable interference in utilizing the major dietary nutrients.

Evaluation of nutrient and food intake status, and dietary quality in Korean adults according to nutrition label utilization: Based on 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (성인 남녀에서 영양표시 활용 정도에 따른 영양섭취 및 식사의 질 평가: 2010~2011 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.193-205
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted in order to investigate nutrient and food intake status and dietary quality in Korean adults according to nutrition label utilization. Methods: We analyzed data from the combined 2010-2011 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). The analysis included 8190 adults aged 19 to 64 years. In this study, according to nutrition label utilization, we classified the subjects according to the "non-utilization of nutrition label (NUNL)" group (male, n = 2716, female, n = 3147), "identification of nutrition label (INL)" group (male, n = 143, female, n = 330), and "Utilization of nutrition label (UNL)" group (male, n = 363, female, n = 1491). Nutrient and food group intake, NAR (nutrient adequacy ratio), MAR (mean adequacy ratio), and INQ (index of nutritional quality) were analyzed using data from the 24-recall method. Results: Results of this study showed that subjects in the NUNL group were significantly more likely to drink alcohol compared with the other two groups. The NUNL group showed a significantly higher frequency of consuming instant noodles, Soju (male), and carbonated drink (female) than the UNL group, whereas the NUNL group showed a significantly lower frequency of consuming milk, soymilk, and yogurt than the UNL group. In addition, regarding diet quality (NAR and INQ), significantly lower vitamin $B_2$, vitamin C, and calcium was observed in the NUNL group compared with the UNL group. For both male and female, significantly higher MAR was observed in the UNL group than in the NUNL group. The NUNL group showed significantly lower consumption of milk compared to the UNL group. Conclusion: Good dietary practice such as referring to nutrition labels and its influence can affect the quality of nutritional intake and selection of food, while it can also provide basic data for specific nutrition education regarding use of nutrition labeling.

Effect of Glucosinolates of Taramira (Eruca Sativa) Oilcake on Nutrient Utilization and Growth of Crossbred Calves

  • Das, Srinibas;Tyagi, Amrish Kumar;Singhal, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.813-817
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    • 2003
  • Taramira (Eruca sativa) cake, an unconventional oil cake, replaced 25 and 50 per cent crude protein of mustard cake in the ration of crossbred calves in an experiment of 90 days duration. Total glucosinolate content of the three concentrate mixture was almost similar (18.19, 17.95 and $17.95{\mu}mol/g$ dry matter), however, glucouracin was the major glucosinolate of experimental diets. Similar dry matter Intake, nutrient digestibility (except those of fibre fractions) and nitrogen balances as well as similar serum $T_3$ and $T_4$ levels and growth rate in all the groups indicated that taramira cake can replace 50 per cent crude protein of mustard cake in the diet of crossbred calves.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY CELLULOSE AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN CHICKENS

  • Siri, S.;Tobioka, H.;Tasaki, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 1994
  • Effects of dietary cellulose and protein levels on nutrient utilization in chickens were investigated. Four experimental diets containing 5% (low cellulose) or 20% (high cellulose) cellulose in combination with 10% (low protein) or 20% (high protein) protein of 70 g/day were alternatively forced-fed to eight colostomized White Leghorn cockerels once a day to make $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. The digestibilities of DM and energy decreased with the increase in cellulose level, but not affected by dietary protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets. The digestibility of nitrogen free extract had the same trend with the digestibility of DM and energy. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber was not so much different among the diets, but the NDF digestibility was lower in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets, due to the low hemicellulose digestibility. The true digestibility of protein was influenced by both of the dietary protein and cellulose levels, and their interaction was found. The dietary protein level affected the biological value of protein but the dietary cellulose level did not, and consequently the biological value of protein in the low protein diets was lower than in the high protein diets.

Effect of Supplementation of Rice Straw with Leucaena leucocephala and Prosopis cineraria Leaves on Nutrient Utilization by Goats

  • Dutta, N.;Sharma, K.;Hasan, Q.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.742-746
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    • 1999
  • The potential of Leucaena leucocephala and Prosopis cineraria leaves as nitrogen supplements ($16g/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$) to improve the utilization of a basal diet of rice straw by goats was assessed in a feeding trial. Rice straw supplementation with forage oats (Avena sativa) was fed as a control diet. DMI, $g/kgW^{0.75}$ of rice straw by goats receiving Leucaena was significantly (p<0.05) higher followed by Prosopis and oat fodder. The supplementation of Leucaena improved the digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF nutrient density. Goats on Prosopis or oat fodder supplemented straw responded similarly in terms of nutrient utilization. The intake ($g/kgW^{0.75}$) of DCP, TDN and nitrogen balance of goats were significantly higher (p<0.05) when Leucaena was fed. It is suggested that the Leucaena may be a useful N-supplement in areas where livestock are fed poor quality crop residues.

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri

  • Sankian, Zohreh;Khosravi, Sanaz;Kim, Yi-Oh;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.7.1-7.6
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    • 2017
  • A feeding trial was designed to assess the effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth, feed utilization efficiency, and muscle proximate composition of juvenile mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri. Six experimental diets were formulated with a combination of three protein (35, 45, and 55%) and two dietary lipid levels (7 and 14%). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish ($8.3{\pm}0.1g$) to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary protein level from 35 to 55% at the same dietary lipid level. At the same dietary lipid content, WG and SGR obtained with diets containing 55% protein was significantly higher than those obtained with diets containing 45 and 35% protein. No significant effect on growth rate was found when the dietary level of lipid was increased from 7 to 14%. While the levels of protein and lipid in the diets had no significant effect on feed intake, other nutrient utilization efficiency parameters including daily protein intake (DPI), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar trend to that of growth rates, with the highest values obtained with diets containing 55% protein. Muscle chemical composition was not significantly affected by the different dietary treatments for each dietary lipid or protein level tested. These findings may suggest that a practical diet containing 55% protein and 7% lipid provides sufficient nutrient and energy to support the acceptable growth rates and nutrient utilization of mandarin fish juveniles.

Evaluation of COD Utilization for Biological Nutrient Removal with dPAO in SBBR-MSBR System (Denitrifying PAO와 SBBR-MSBR을 이용한 생물학적영양소제거공정에서 탄소원 절약에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Hansaem;Han, Jonghun;Yun, Zuwhan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.646-653
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    • 2011
  • The combined system of sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) and membrane SBR (MSBR) was operated with sewage to evaluate the COD utilization for biological nutrient removal (BNR). The SBBR was operated for nitrification reactor, while denitrifying PAO (dPAO) was cultivated in MSBR with anaerobic-anoxic operation. In the SBBR and MSBR system, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was successfully achieved with higher N removal. The COD utilization in combined SBBR-MSBR system was significantly reduced compared to ordinary BNR (up to 3.1 g SCOD/g (N+P) and 1.6 g SCOD/g (N+P) with different C/N/P ratio). The results suggest that a dPAO process could effectively reduce carbon energy (=COD) requirement. The combination of oxic-SBBR and anaerobic-anoxic MSBR for dPAO utilization could be an attractive alternative to upgrade the process performance in weak sewage.

Different Sources and Levels of Copper Supplementation on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Castrated Black Bengal (Capra hircus) Kids Diet

  • Mondal, M.K.;Biswas, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1067-1075
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    • 2007
  • Twenty eight 3-4 month old castrated Black Bengal kids (Capra hircus) were used to determine the effects of source and level of dietary copper (Cu) concentration on their performance and nutrient utilization. Cu was supplemented (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg diet DM) as copper sulfate ($CuSO_4$, $5H_2O$) or copper proteinate (Cu-P). Kids were fed a basal diet containing maize (19.5%), soybean (17.0%), deoiled rice bran (56.5%), molasses (4.0%), di-calcium phosphate and salt (1.0% each) and mineral and vitamin mixture (0.5% each) supplements at 3.5% of body weight to meet NRC (1981) requirements for protein, energy, macro minerals and micro minerals, excluding Cu. The basal diet contained 5.7 mg Cu/kg, 122.5 mg Fe/kg, 110 mg Zn/kg, 0.26 mg Mo/kg and 0.32% S. $CuSO_4$ or Cu-P was added to the basal diet at the rate of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg. Kids were housed in a well ventilated shed with facilities for individual feeding in aluminum plated metabolic cages. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 0, 30, 60 and 90 to determine hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase and aspertate transferase). A metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding. Statistical analysis revealed that source and level of Cu supplementation improved live weight gain (p<0.04) and average daily gain (p<0.01). No significant contribution of source and level of Cu to alter serum serum enzymes was evident. Goats fed Cu-P tended to have higher Hb, PCV and TEC than with $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Cu-P increased digestibility of ether extract (EE, p<0.02) and crude fiber (p<0.05) and showed an increasing trend (p<0.09) for digested crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF). Supplemental dose of Cu linearly improved (p<0.02) digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), EE and nitrogen free extract (NFE). Though the absorption of nitrogen (N) was not affected (p>0.10) by both source and dose of Cu, N retention was affected (p<0.04) and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction (p<0.05). Final body weight (BW) was not influenced (p>0.10) by the source of Cu but increasing dose of Cu increased (p<0.04) the BW of kids. TDN intake (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was higher (p<0.05) with the increased dose of Cu and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction. It was concluded that supplementation of Cu from different sources and varying dose level in a concentrate based diet may improve performance, nutrient utilization and plane of nutrition in castrated Black Bengal kids. The effects on performance and nutrient utilization are more pronounced with Cu-P than $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Higher dose of Cu showed better result than lower dose.

P(3HB) Accumulation in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16(ATCC 17699) under Nutrient-Rich Condition and Its Induced Production from Saccharides and Their Derivatives

  • Song, Jae-Jun;Shin, Yong-Chul
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 1993
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB)) accumulation under nutrient-rich condition with various amounts of $(NH_4)_2 SO_4$ was systematically investigated. The results of the electron-microscopy and the solvent extraction showed that the P(3HB) accumulation is unavoidable even under nutrient-rich condition. This indicates that in a two-step culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16, the researches should be careful in interpreting the data of polyhydroxyalkanoates(PHAs) accumulation in terms of the carbon-source fed in the second step because the two-step culture product contains the P(3HB) produced under nutrient-rich condition. The polyester production capability in a two-step batch culture of A. eutrophus H16(ATCC 17699) was also investigated using various saccharides and their derivatives such as glucose, fructose, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, sorbitol, lactose, galactose, and mannose. The polyesters synthesized were characterized by 500 MHz$^{1}H-NMR$ spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity$[\eta]$ measurement in chloroform and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). 500 MHz $^{1}H-NMR$ analysis showed that all polyesters synthesized generally contained 1~2 mol% of 3HV. Another finding is that the glucose utilization can be increased by changing the autoclaving procedure of the substrate to enhance the P(3HB) production yield up to 46 wt% of P(3HB) in dry cells.

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