• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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Macro- and Micro-nutrient Utilization and Milk Production in Crossbred Dairy Cows Fed Finger Millet (Eleucine coracana) and Rice (Oryza sativa) Straw as Dry Roughage Source

  • Gowda, N.K.S.;Prasad, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2005
  • Finger millet straw and rice straw are the major source of dry roughage in southern India. They distinctly vary in their morphological and nutritional characters. Hence an effort was made to study the nutrient utilization, milk yield and composition in crossbred dairy cows fed either finger millet (group 1) or rice straw (group 2) as a source of dry roughage. The cows in both the groups were fed as per requirement with concentrate, green fodder and straw in the ratio of 30:45:25 parts (DM). At the end of 50 days of preliminary feeding a digestibility trial was conducted for 7 days and pooled samples of feed, fodder, feces, urine and milk were analysed for macro and micro nutrient content. Finger millet straw contained more CP, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co than rice straw and rice straw contained higher ADF, ash and silica. The intake of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and most micronutrients (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co) was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw and the gut absorption of Ca, Cu, Mn and Co was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The dietary requirement of all micronutrients in both the group of cows could be met irrespective of the type of roughage fed except that of Ca, which was low (0.61 and 0.40%) in rice straw fed cows. The average daily milk yield (L/cow) was also higher (7.0 L) in cows fed finger millet straw as compared to cows fed rice straw (6.3 L). The average milk composition also did not differ except that of milk fat which was significantly (4.7 and 4.5%) low in cows fed rice straw. The overall results of this study have indicated that finger millet straw is a better source of dry fodder than rice straw and while feeding rice straw as the sole roughage to dairy cows there is need to supplement additional calcium as this could be one of the limiting nutrients for milk production.

Feeding Behaviour and Forage Nutrient Utilization by Goats on a Semi-Arid Reconstituted Silvipasture

  • Sharma, K.;Saini, A.L.;Singh, Nawab;Ogra, J.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.344-350
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    • 1998
  • Seasonal variations in the feeding behaviour of Jamunapari and Barbari goat breeds and their utilization of browse and grass nutrients was evaluated in a promising 3-tier (Leucaena leucocephala- Dichro-stachys nutan-Cenchrus ciliaris) reconstituted pasture during summer, rainy and winter season of the years 1987 and 1988. Distinct diurnal pattern of feeding was observed with both the breeds. Jamunapari goats spent significantly more time foraging during winter season (352.0 min) followed by summer (306.0 min) and least in rainy season (277.0 min). Though no significant difference was observed in the relative time spent by Barbari goats on grazing activities during summer and winter season, they spent significantly more (p < 0.05) time during rainy season as compared to other two seasons. The preference of grazing goats for certain plant species in relation to others was evident with distinct seasonal and breed variations. DM intake (g/kg $BW^{075}$) varied significantly (p < 0.05) from season to season. Among the browse. L. leucocephala was prefered over D. nutan irrespective of breed over the seasons. There was no breed difference in DM intake, or proximate composition and nutrient digestibility of ingested herbage. The available nutrient content of ingested forage was found sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of adult goats for maintenance (NRC, 1981). The reconstituted 3-tier pasture dominated by plant species like L. leucocephala and Cenchrus species appear to have great potential to sustain the nutrient requirement of goats without adverse seasonal fluctuations in pasture quality.

Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep

  • Choi, Yongjun;Rim, Jong-su;Na, Youngjun;Lee, Sang Rak
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods: Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum. Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of $39^{\circ}C$ with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = $56.8{\pm}0.4kg$) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. Results: In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (p<0.05), the 10% FSCG group showed greater CP digestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (p<0.05). Body weight gain and average daily gain were linearly decreased with increasing FSCG feeding level (p<0.05). When the feeding level of FSCG was increased, water intake was linearly increased (p<0.05). With an increasing FSCG level, dry matter intake did not differ among groups, although the gain to feed ratio tended to decrease with increasing level of FSCG (p<0.10). Conclusion: Microbial fermentation of SCG can improve protein digestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

Iodine Supplementation of Leucaena leucocephala Diet for Goats. I. Effects on Nutrient Utilization

  • Rajendran, D.;Pattanaik, A.K.;Khan, S.A.;Bedi, S.P.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.785-790
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    • 2001
  • Twelve indigenous male goats, comprising of six intact and six castrated (2.5-3 years; $24.4{\pm}0.62kg$) were assigned evenly into two dietary treatments, viz. $I_0$ and $I_{100}$ and were used to study the effect of supplementation of iodine on the nutrient utilization when their diet contained Leucaena leaf meal. They were offered a conventional concentrate mixture along with Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal, the latter to meet 50% of their crude protein (CP) requirements, and supplemented with either no iodine ($I_0$) or 0.1 mg of iodine ($I_{100}$)/day/animal as potassium iodide for a period of 105 days. Wheat straw given ad libitum was the sole source of roughage. A metabolism trial of 8 days duration was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding. It was observed that the overall dry matter (DM) intake during experimental period was higher (p<0.05) in $I_{100}$ group as compared to $I_0$ group (508.6 vs. $443.7g\;d^{-1}$). The intake of CP, digestible crude protein (DCP) and metabolisable energy (ME), although non-significant, tended to be higher in the iodine supplemented group, $I_{100}$. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter (OM), CP, ether extract and crude fiber (CF) did not differ (p>0.05) between the treatments. However, nitrogen retention was higher (p<0.01) in $I_{100}$ than $I_0$ with the values being 2.63 and $1.70g\;d^{-1}$, respectively. No difference (p>0.05) was evident in the retention of calcium and phosphorus between the two groups. The castrated animal exhibited lower DM intake concurrent with higher digestibility of DM and crude fibre (p<0.05), and organic matter and total carbohydrates (p<0.01) when compared to intact ones. It was concluded that supplementation of iodine to leucaena based ration may help in improving the DM intake and nitrogen utilization by goats.

Dietary phosphorus deficiency impaired growth, intestinal digestion and absorption function of meat ducks

  • Xu, Huimin;Dai, Shujun;Zhang, Keying;Ding, Xuemei;Bai, Shiping;Wang, Jianping;Peng, Huanwei;Zeng, Qiufeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1897-1906
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) deficiency on intestinal pH value, digestive enzyme activity, morphology, nutrient utilization, and gene expression of NaPi-IIb in meat ducks from 1 to 21 d of age. Methods: A total of 525 one-d-old Cherry Valley ducklings were fed diets (with 7 pens of 15 ducklings, or 105 total ducklings, on each diet) with five levels of nPP (0.22%, 0.34%, 0.40%, 0.46%, or 0.58%) for 21 d in a completely randomized design. Five experimental diets contained a constant calcium (Ca) content of approximately 0.9%. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 14 and 21 d of age. Ducks were sampled for duodenum and jejunum digestion and absorption function on 14 and 21 d. Nutrient utilization was assessed using 25- to 27-d-old ducks. Results: The results showed ducks fed 0.22% nPP had lower (p<0.05) growth performance and nutrient utilization and higher (p<0.05) serum Ca content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When dietary nPP levels were increased, BW (d 14 and 21), BWG and FI (all intervals), and the serum phosphorus (P) content linearly and quadratically increased (p<0.05); and the jejunal pH value (d 14), duodenal muscle layer thickness (d 14), excreta dry matter, crude protein, energy, Ca and total P utilization linearly increased (p<0.05); however, the serum ALP activity, jejunal $Na^+-K^+$-ATPase activity, and duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA level (d 21) linearly decreased (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that ducks aged from 1 to 21 d fed diets with 0.22% nPP had poor growth performance related to poor intestinal digestion and absorption ability; but when fed diets with 0.40%, 0.46%, and 0.58% nPP, ducks presented a better growth performance, intestinal digestion and absorption function.

Reconstruction of Nitrate Utilization Rate Change Based on Diatom-bound Nitrogen Isotope Values in the Central Slope Area of the Bering Sea during the Early Pleistocene (2.4-1.25 Ma) (플라이스토세 전기(2.4-1.25 Ma) 동안 베링해 중부 대륙사면 지역의 규조 골격내 유기물 질소동위원소 값에 의한 질산염 이용률의 변화 복원)

  • Kim, Sunghan;Khim, Boo-Keun
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.195-207
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    • 2016
  • Because the high latitude region in the North Pacific is characterized by high primary production in the surface water enriched with nutrients, it is important to understand the variation of surface water productivity and associated nutrient variability in terms of global carbon cycle. Surface water productivity change or its related nutrient utilization rate during the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG; ca. 2.73 Ma) has been reported, but little is known about such circumstances under gradual climate cooling since the NHG. Bulk nitrogen isotope (${\delta}^{15}N_{bulk}$) of sedimentary organic matter has been used for the reconstruction of nutrient utilization rate in the surface water. However, sedimentary organic matter experiences diagenesis incessantly during sinking through the water column and after burial within the sediments. Thus, in this study we examine the degree of nitrate utilization rate during the early Pleistocene (2.4-1.25 Ma) since the NHG, using the diatom-bound nitrogen isotope (${\delta}^{15}N_{db}$), which is known to be little influenced by diagenesis, from Site U1343 in the Bering slope area. ${\delta}^{15}N_{db}$ values range from ~0.5 to 5.5‰, which is lower than ${\delta}^{15}N_{bulk}$ values, but they vary with larger amplitude. Variation patterns between ${\delta}^{15}N_{db}$ values and biogenic opal concentration are generally consistent, which indicates that the nitrate utilization rate is closely related to opal productivity change in the surface water. A positive correlation between opal productivity and nitrate utilization rate was observed, which is different from the other high latitude regions in the North Pacific. The main reason for this contrasting relationship is that the primary production in the surface water at Site U1343 is influenced mostly by the degree of sea ice formation. Still, although concerns about diagenetic alteration have been avoided by using ${\delta}^{15}N_{db}$, the effects of the preservation state of biogenic opal and the species-dependent isotopic fractionation on ${\delta}^{15}N_{db}$ should be assessed in the future studies.

Effect of Supplementing Sheep with Sunflower Acid Oil or its Calcium Soap on Nutrient Utilization

  • Alexander, G.;Rao, Z. Prabhakara;Prasad, J. Rama
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1288-1293
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    • 2002
  • Four adult rams ($22.25{\pm}0.90kg$) were used in a $4{\times}4$ latin square design to evaluate the rations without ($T_1$) or with supplementation of sunflower acid oil at 5 ($T_2$), 10 ($T_3$) or calcium soap at 10% of dietary DM ($T_4$) on nutrient digestibility and balances of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. The basal ration contained 60 parts Brazilian napier grass hay and 40 parts concentrate mixture. The DM, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities and nitrogen retention (g/d) decreased (p<0.01) by inclusion of sunflower acid oil at 5% of dietary DM. In addition, depression (p<0.01) in digestibilities of CP, nitrogen free extract (NFE), cellulose, hemicellulose, retention of calcium and phosphorus (g/d) were also observed with increasing the level of sunflower acid oil to 10% of dietary DM. The EE digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN) content and calcium retention (g/d) were significantly higher (p<0.01) for ration supplemented with calcium soap. It is concluded that sunflower acid oil supplementation in free form as low as 5% of dietary DM is deleterious to fibre digestion in sheep while as calcium soap, it can be fed up to 10% of dietary DM as an energy source without any adverse effect.

Feeding Sesbania Leaves as a Sole Feed on Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Goats

  • Shahjalal, M.;Topps, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.487-489
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted for 56 days using nine castrated male Black Bengal goats (initial live weight 9.0 kg) aged about 5 months to study the effects of feeding Sesbania leaves as a sole feed on growth performance and nutrient utilization. The animals were fed ad libitum on either road-side grass, Sesbania aculeata leaves or Sesbania rostrata leaves. Average dry matter (DM) intake was 179, 229 and 259 g/d for goats fed road-side grass, Sesbania aculeata and Sesbania rostrata, respectively. Corresponding mean values for average daily live weight change were -6.6, 9.5 and 38.1 g, respectively. These values were higher (p<0.05) for goats fed Sesbania leaves than those given road-side grass. The apparent digestibility of all the proximate components except CF and the concentrations of DCP, TDN, DOM and ME of Sesbania leaves were higher (p<0.05) than those of road-side grass. Sesbania rostrata was superior (p<0.05) to Sesbania aculeata for nutrient digestibilities (except for NFE) and also for DOM, DCP and ME concentrations. Therefore, it may be concluded that the production of Sesbania rostrata, a legume fodder, should be encouraged for feeding goats.

Effects of Initial EC Values on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising (벼 수경육묘에서 양액의 EC 초기 설정에 따른 묘 생육과 무기성분의 이용)

  • 김영광;홍광표;정완규;손길만;송근우;강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising seedlings hydroponically using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In order to establish the optimum EC value of nutrient solution, six initial EC values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dS/m and control) of Yoshida's hydroponic solution were examined. Seedling height and dry weight increased with increasing below EC up to 3.0 dS/m, but showed no significant increase at higher than EC 3.0 dS/m. Nutrient solution with initial EC of 3.0 dS/m was good to be dropped down nearly to 1 dS/m after 15-day seedling culture. But those with initial EC of 4.0 and 5.0 dS/m were judged not appropriate because of high EC value in waste nutrient solution. Utilization efficiency of minerals of nutrient solution and rice endosperm was higher on the whole at initial EC of 2.0-3.0 dS/m. Considering seedling growth and utilization efficiency of supplied nutrient solution, initial EC is judged to be suitable at 3.0 dS/m.

Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Blood Biochemical Profile in Male Buffalo Calves

  • Kumar, Ravindra;Dass, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1428
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    • 2006
  • In order to investigate the effect of different levels of niacin supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization, their balance and blood biochemical profile, 15 male buffalo calves (9-10 months of age, $88.4{\pm}4.37kg$ average body weight) were divided into 3 equal groups each of 5 calves, following a completely randomized design, and fed individually for 120 days with wheat straw and concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirements. In addition calves were supplemented with 0 ppm (control, group I), 100 ppm (group II) and 200 ppm (group III) niacin. After 90 days of experimental feeding a metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the digestibility of nutrients and their balance. Fortnightly body weights were recorded to assess their growth rate and blood was collected from the jugular vein at day 0 and subsequently at 30-day intervals from all the experimental buffalo calves to study blood biochemical parameters. Results showed that intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicelluloses were statistically similar in the 3 groups. Buffalo calves in all three groups were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance, without showing any significant effect of the treatments. Dry matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient intake ($g/d/kgW^{0.75}$) were similar in the control and niacin supplemented groups. Digestible crude protein (%) and total digestible nutrients (%) in the ration of the 3 groups were 8.07, 7.99, 7.92 and 56.70, 56.63, 56.74, respectively, and were comparable among the groups. The average daily gain (g) in-group II (567.50) was not significantly (p>0.05) higher than group I (500.0) and group III (510.0). Blood biochemical constituents (glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea-N, insulin) showed no significant effect of niacin supplementation. However, serum cholesterol (mg/100 ml) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the 200 ppm niacin-supplemented group than in the control and 100 ppm niacin-supplemented groups. It can be concluded that supplementation of niacin at 100 and 200 ppm in the diet of buffalo calves had no significant beneficial effect on their growth and nutrient utilization.