• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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Effect of Feeding Live Yeast (Saecharomyces cerevisiae) on Nutrient Utilization and Changes of Intestinal Microorganism in Broiler Chicks (육계에 있어서 활성효모 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)의 급여가 영양소 이용성과 장내 미생물의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 이현우;김인호;김춘수
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 1995
  • In order to investigate the effect of feeding live yeast on growth performance, nutrients utilization, tibia mineral deposit and intestinal microorganism changes, a growth assay was conducted with 360 broiler chicks. Treatments were four levels of yeast as 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1% in 1.83% tricalcium phosphate and two levels of yeast as 0 and 0.05% in 1.15% tricalcium phosphate. The crude protein content of live yeast was 45%, and 97% of it was in the pure protein form, with 46.6% of essential amino acids and 53.4% of non-essential amino acids. Growth performance was tended to increase by feeding the yeast but there was no significant difference(P>.05). The protein digestibility was increased as the feeding level of yeast increased. However, digestibilities of fat, fiber, calcium and phosphorus were not affected by the yeast. Ash and calcium content of tibia were increased as the level of yeast increased. Total number of E. coli in small intestine was significantly decreased(P<.05) in chicks fed yeast. Total number of Lactobaci1lus was significantly increased by the yeast feeding. The changes of microorganism in cecum had the same trend with the changes of microorganism in small intestine.

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Assessment of Biodegradable and Refractory COD Fractions Using Oxygen Utilization Rate and Ultimate Biochemical Oxygen Demand Tests (산소호흡율 및 최종 생화학적 산소요구량 실험을 활용한 생물학적 분해성 및 난분해성 하수 유기물 분율 분석)

  • Lee, Byung-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2017
  • An integrated biochemical index, such as Biochemical or chemical oxygen demand (BOD or COD), have been used to measure the strength and characteristics of wastewater organic matter. However, adopting biological nutrient removal processes in wastewater treatment plants, wastewater organic matter needs to be specified to subordinate fractions, which are readily biodegradable COD (RBCOD), slowly biodegradable COD (SBCOD), nonbiodegradable soluble COD (NBDSCOD) and nonbiodegradable particulate COD (NBDPCOD). This study was thus purposed to develop and test a COD fractionation method to evaluate the strength and characteristics of the sub-fractions of wastewater organic matter, adopting the oxygen utilization rate and ultimate biochemical oxygen demand tests. We applied the COD fractionation method to (1) a wastewater mostly with domestic discharge and (2) a wastewater with domestic and industrial discharges. Results from the COD fractionation tests indicated that biodegradable RBCOD and SBCOD was abundant in the domestic wastewater, whereas NBDSCOD was substantial in the wastewater containing industrial discharge. Thus, the COD fractionation method was proven to be an effective way to measure the strength and characteristics of the COD sub-fractions of wastewater organic matter and will be adopted for better design and operation for a tertiary nutrient-removal wastewater treatment plant.

A National Survey on Utilization of Pattern Identification among Korean Medicine Doctors (전국 한방의료기관 한의사 대상 한의 변증활용 현황 조사)

  • Yeo, Minkyung;Park, Kihyun;Jang, Eunsu;Lee, Youngseop
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The aim of this study was to survey the present utilization of pattern identification(PI) in the clinical field among Korean Medicine Doctors. Method : This survey was conducted from Oct. 1 to Oct. 31, 2014 by face-to-face interview using structured questionnaire. The subjects were 400 korean medicine doctors who worked in hospitals or clinics. The questionnaire consisted of two sections - a demographics section(i.e., sex, age, clinical experience, place of work, residence and so on) and the main research section(i.e., the PI utilization rate, the utilization of PI systems, the utilization of PI in the clinical domain and in the treatment domain, the correlation between utilization PI and so on). Results : This study revealed that subjects used the PI to 66.7% of their patients on average. The utilization rate of PI in patients was significantly higher for female physicians than for male physicians, for physicians worked in clinics than for physicians who worked in hospitals and for physicians with more than 10 years clinical experience than for physicians with less than 10 years clinical experience. In the utilization of PI systems, Visceral PI was most as 92.0%. There were significant difference on the PI utilization rate according to utilization of Meridian and Collateral PI, Triple Energizer PI, Defense, Qi, Nutrient and Blood PI, Six-Meridian PI and Six Excesses PI. As a result of analysing the PI utilization rate by clinical domain and in the treatment domain, the Treatment and the Drug Treatment showed the highest values. Among utilized PI systems, the correlation coefficients between Defense, Qi, Nutrient and Blood PI and Triple Energizer PI showed the highest value, but the correlation coefficients between Sasang Constitutional Medicine with the each PI showed substantially lower value. Conclusion : The results of this study demonstrate that usage of PI was higher than usage of U code(in KCD) usage in clinical field. we suggested that additional studies on using PI and developing more appropriate standardized tool should be conducted to widen scope of PI's utilization.

Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Amino Acid Digestibility of Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers Containing Different Amounts of Protein in the Preruminant Period

  • Li, H.;Diao, Q.Y.;Zhang, N.F.;Fan, Z.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1151-1158
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on growth performance, nutrient utilization, amino acid (AA) digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of preruminant dairy calves. Fifteen healthy new-born calves were randomly allotted to three experimental groups and fed with different milk replacer that contained 18% (LP), 22% (MP) or 26% (HP) of protein. The results showed that final BW, net gain and ADG were significantly higher in the MP group than in LP and HP groups (p<0.05). In addition, the apparent digestibility of CP in the MP group was significantly higher than in the other two groups (p<0.05). The values of N intake and fecal N excretion were significantly increased following the increase of dietary protein content (p<0.05). However, in all three groups of animals, dietary protein content had no significant effect on urinary N concentration (p>0.05). BUN concentration, on the other hand, decreased as calves grew but increased following the increase of dietary CP content. Furthermore, no significant differences in digestibility of amino acids were observed among these three groups of animals (p>0.05). We concluded that calves fed with milk replacer containing 22% of protein had better growth performance and nutrient utilization as compared to animals treated with milk replacer containing either 18% or 26% of protein.

Effect of Replacing Til Oil Cake by Poultry Excreta on Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Growing Bull Calves

  • Khan, M.J.;Shahjalal, M.;Rashid, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.385-390
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    • 1998
  • An experiment was conducted for 90 days using 9 growing bull calves (initial LW 71.5 kg) to investigate the effect of replacing til oil cake by poultry excreta on growth performance and nutrient utilization. The animals were randomly divided into three groups. The control group A was fed with conventional concentrate mixture containing til oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, bone meal and common salt and the groups B and C were offered diets in which 50 and 100 percent of til oil cake of diet A were replaced by dried poultry excreta. All the animals were fed urea soaked rice straw ad libitum and concentrate mixture was given at the rate of 10 g per kg LW. Towards the end of growth trial a conventional digestibility trial was conducted. Average daily live weight gain was 216, 211 and 188 g for animals fed diets A, B and C, respectively. Average daily dry matter intake in groups A, B and C was 3.42, 3.37 and 3.30 kg per 100 kg LW, respectively. The daily live weight gain and dry matter intake did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the dietary groups. The digestibility coefficient for DM or NFE was almost similar but that for OM, CP, CF and EE was significantly different (p < 0.01) among the dietary groups. TDN percent in diets A, B and C was 57.3 53.3 and 50.8, respectively and the difference was significant (p < 0.01). Animals in all the groups were in a state of positive nitrogen balance. The results indicated that til oil cake can be replaced by dried poultry excreta in bull calf ration.

Manure Based Duckweed Production in Shallow Sink : Effect of Genera on Biomass and Nutrient Yield of Duckweed under the Same Nutritional and Management Conditions

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Sultana, N.;Huque, K.S.;Huque, Q.M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.686-693
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    • 2000
  • Biomass yield, nutritive value and nutrient utilization efficiency of different genera of duckweed (DW, Lemnaceae) under the same nutritional and management conditions were studied. Three genera of DW namely: Lemna perpusilla, Spirodela polyrhiza and Woljfia arrhiza, were cultivated in 18 plastic sinks each of $59{\times}54{\times}35cm^3$ size. Each sink contained approximately 80 L of water and was charged once with 6.648 kg of anaerobically fermented cow dung effluent. The seed rate for Spirodela, Lemna and Wolffia were 600, 400 and $600g/m^2$ respectively. Duckweed were harvested at 48 hours intervals. Media total N concentration for Lemna and Wolffia gradually increased with time. Growth of duckweed was measured by subtracting the inoculum from the total biomass production. Growth of Spirodela ceased within 4 days but Lemna and Wolffia continue to grow up to 34 days. Bio-mass yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Wolffia (906 kg/ha/d) than Lemna (631 kg/ha/d). Dry matter (DM) yield was very similar in Lemna (14.80 kg/ha/d) and Wolffia (14.57 kg/ha/d). The N content was non-significant higher in Lemna (5.45%) than Wolffia (5.00%) and Spirodela (4.6%). The crude protein (CP, $N{\times}6.25$) yield was non-significantly higher in Lemna (4.83 kg/ha/d) than Wolffia (4.32 kg/ha/d). The acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was the highest in Wolffia (28.59%), followed by Spirodela (19.47%) and Lemna (12.39%). Utilization efficiency of CP was 273 and 314% respectively for Wolffia and Lemna. However, similar efficiency values for Spirodela was only 1.5%. Considering the bio-mass yield, nutritive value and nutrient utilization efficiency, production performance of DW were in the order of Lemna>Wolffia>Spirodela under the present experimental conditions.

Influence of Isobutyric Acid Supplementation on Nutrient Intake, Its Utilization, Blood Metabolites and Growth Performance of Crossbred Calves Fed Wheat Straw Based Low Protein Diets

  • Misra, A.K.;Thakur, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.200-205
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    • 2001
  • The effects of dietary supplementation with the sodium salt of isobutyric acid in a low protein (10% CP) wheat straw based diet on nutrient utilization, blood metabolites and growth performance were studied with male crossbred calves. The calves were divided into two equal groups of 6 each. The animals of the control group were fed a basal diet consisting of wheat straw, concentrate mixture and green oat fodder in 40:40:20 proportion whereas BCFA supplemented group received the basal diet+isobutyric acid at 0.75 percent of basal diet. The duration of study was 120 days. The feed intake between experimental groups did not differ significantly and the average total DMI (% BW) was 1.99 and $1.95kg\;day^{-1}$ in control and BCFA supplemented diets. The dietary supplementation of BCFA improved (p<0.01) the DM, OM, CP (p<0.05), NDF and cellulose digestibilities by 8.50, 9.01, 5.39, 17.78 and 18.44 per cent over those fed control diet. The total N retention on BCFA supplementation was improved (p<0.01) due to the decreased (p<0.05) faecal N excretion. The BCFA supplementation did not alter the blood circulatory levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea N and amino acids. However after 120 days of experimental feeding a significant (p<0.05) increase in the concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid was observed in control group. The DCP intake and the DCP content of experimental diets was similar in both groups. However, the TDN content of BCFA supplemented diet was significantly (p<0.01) higher (64.35%) than that of control (59.60%). The total live weight gain in BCFA supplemented diet increased by 15.94% over control. The average daily gain and efficiency of feed conversion were also improved in BCFA fed calves by 13.38 and 26.71% respectively, compared to control. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with isobutyric acid improved the digestibility of nutrients and growth performance of calves.

Determination of Energy and Nutrient Utilization of Enzyme-treated Rump Round Meat and Lotus Root Designed for Senior People with Young and Age d Hens as an Animal Model

  • Park, Okrim;Kim, Jong Woong;Lee, Hong-Jin;Kil, Dong Yong;Auh, Joong-Hyuck
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to examine the nutrient utilization of rump round meat and lotus root using young (32 wk) and aged hens (108 wk) as an animal model. Rump round meat and lotus root were prepared with or without enzymatic treatment. For each age group of laying hens, a total of 24 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments with six replicates. For rump round meat, the true total tract retention rate (TTTR) of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were unaffected by either enzymatic treatment or hen age. However, aged hens had greater (p<0.01) TTTR of energy and crude fat than young hens. Enzymatic treatment did not influence the TTTR of energy or crude fat. In addition, we did not observe any significant interaction between the TTTR of DM, energy, N, or crude fat in rump round meat and hen age or enzymatic treatment. The TTTR of DM remained unchanged between controls and enzyme-treated lotus root for young hens. However, enzyme-treated lotus root exhibited greater (p<0.05) TTTR of DM than control lotus root for aged hens, resulting in a significant interaction (p<0.05). The TTTR of energy and N in lotus roots were greater (p<0.01) for aged hens than for young hens. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment exerted beneficial effects on energy and nutrient utilization in aged hens, suggesting the aged hen model is practical for simulation of metabolism of elderly individuals.

Feed Energy Evaluation for Growing Pigs

  • Kil, D.Y.;Kim, B.G.;Stein, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1205-1217
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    • 2013
  • Pigs require energy for maintenance and productive purposes, and an accurate amount of available energy in feeds should be provided according to their energy requirement. Available energy in feeds for pigs has been characterized as DE, ME, or NE by considering sequential energy losses during digestion and metabolism from GE in feeds. Among these energy values, the NE system has been recognized as providing energy values of ingredients and diets that most closely describes the available energy to animals because it takes the heat increment from digestive utilization and metabolism of feeds into account. However, NE values for diets and individual ingredients are moving targets, and therefore, none of the NE systems are able to accurately predict truly available energy in feeds. The DE or ME values for feeds are important for predicting NE values, but depend on the growth stage of pigs (i.e., BW) due to the different abilities of nutrient digestion, especially for dietary fiber. The NE values are also influenced by both environment that affects NE requirement for maintenance ($NE_m$) and the growth stage of pigs that differs in nutrient utilization (i.e., protein vs. lipid synthesis) in the body. Therefore, the interaction among animals, environment, and feed characteristics should be taken into consideration for advancing feed energy evaluation. A more mechanistic approach has been adopted in Denmark as potential physiological energy (PPE) for feeds, which is based on the theoretical biochemical utilization of energy in feeds for pigs. The PPE values are, therefore, believed to be independent of animals and environment. This review provides an overview over current knowledge on energy utilization and energy evaluation systems in feeds for growing pigs.

Effects of Replacing Soy-oil with Soy-lecithin on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Serum Parameters of Broilers Fed Corn-based Diets

  • Huang, Jin;Yang, Dandan;Wang, Tian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1880-1886
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of different soy-oil and soy-lecithin levels on growth performance, nutrient utilization and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: basal diet with 2% soy-oil (SO); soy-oil and soy-lecithin mixture in proportion of 75/25 (SOL1), 50/50 (SOL2) and 2% lecithin (SL). At the end of the trial (42 d), birds in SOL1 group grew faster (p<0.05) and had better feed conversion efficiency (p<0.05) than other groups while SL group had the lowest performance (p<0.05). The utilization of ether extract was improved in SOL1 group (p<0.05) but apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and utilization of other nutrients decreased in SOL2 and SL group from 19 to 21 d. No significant effects were observed in apparent metabolizable energy, dry matter, crude protein and ether extract but the utilization of calcium and phosphorus was significantly improved in SL group (p<0.05) during 39 to 42 d. The birds fed with lecithin had lower serum total cholesterol and triglyceride than the control group (SO). Broilers fed with 2% lecithin (SL) had the highest insulin level (p<0.05). The results implied that soy-lecithin and soy-oil in a proportion of 25:75 had the highest growth performance and that soy-lecithin had cholesterol lowering capacity.