• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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Substitution of soybean meal with detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal: Effects on performance, nutrient utilization, and meat edibility of growing pigs

  • Li, Yang;Chen, Ling;Zhang, Yuhui;Wu, Jianmei;Lin, Yan;Fang, Zhengfeng;Che, Lianqiang;Xu, Shengyu;Wu, De
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.888-898
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with different levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal (DJM) in growing pig diets on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and meat edibility. Methods: A total of 144 pigs with initial body weight of $20.47{\pm}1.44kg$, were randomly allocated to 6 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 4 pigs per replication for a period of 79 days. Six diets (DJM0, DJM15, DJM30, DJM45, DJM60, and DJM75) were formulated using DJM to replace 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75% of SBM. From d 37 to 42, feces and urine were total collected from six barrows in each treatment. At day 79, thirty-six pigs were slaughtered for sampling. The feed intake and weight gain were recorded, while the intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility and the content of residual phorbol esters in muscles were determined. Results: The results showed that increasing the replacement of SBM with DJM decreased the parameters including body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratio, weight and villus heights of duodenum, villus height and villus height/crypt depth of jejunum, digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase, and trypsin) activities, and nutrients digestibility (nitrogen deposition, digestibility of nitrogen, energy digestibility, and total nitrogen utilization) (linear, p<0.05; quadratic, p<0.05) and there was no significant difference among DJM0, DJM15, and DJM30 in all measured indices. The highest diarrhea morbidity was observed in DJM75 (p<0.05). Phorbol esters were not detected in pig muscle tissues. Conclusion: The DJM was a good protein source for pigs, and could be used to replace SBM up to 30% (diet phorbol esters concentration at 5.5 mg/kg) in growing pig diets with no detrimental impacts on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and meat edibility.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Sodium Salt of Isobutyric Acid on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Utilization in a Wheat Straw Based Low Protein Diet Fed to Crossbred Cattle

  • Misra, A.K.;Thakur, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.479-484
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    • 2001
  • The effect of dietary supplementation of sodium salt of isobutyric acid in low protein (10% CP) wheat straw based diet on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation was studied in ruminally fistulated male crossbred cattle. The study included a 7 day metabolism and a 3 day rumen fermentation trials. The cattle were distributed into two equal groups of 4 each. The animals of control group were fed a basal diet consisting of wheat straw, concentrate mixture and green maize fodder in 40:40:20 proportion whereas branched chain volatile fatty acid (BCFA) supplemented group received a basal diet + isobutyric acid at 0.75 percent of basal diet. The duration of study was 36 days. The feed intake between experimental groups did not differ significantly and the average total DMI (% BW) was 2.01 and $2.28kg\;day^{-1}$ in control and BCFA supplemented diets. The dietary supplementation of BCFA improved (p<0.05) the DM, OM, NDF and cellulose digestibility by 4.46, 6.63, 10.57 and 11.31 per cent over those fed control diet. The total N retention on BCFA supplementation was improved (p<0.01) due to decreased (p<0.05) urinary N excretion. The concentrations of ruminal total N was 37.07 and $34.77mg\;100ml^{-1}$ in control and BCFA fed groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation BCFA significantly (p<0.01) reduced the ruminal ammonia N concentration as compared to control and the mean values ($mg\;100ml^{-1}$) were 13.18 and 9.42 in control and BCFA fed groups. The total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA supplemented group (101.14 mM) than the control (93.05 mM). Among the VFAs, the molar proportion of acetate was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA supplemented group (71.07 mM) as compared to control (64.98 mM). However, the concentration of propionate and butyrate remained unchanged. Amino acids composition of bacterial hydrolysates was similar in both the groups. Ruminal outflow rate of liquid digesta was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA fed group ($67.56l\;day^{-1}$) than control ($52.73l\;day^{-1}$). It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of Na-salt of isobutyric acid in low protein diet improved the nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based Direct-fed Microbial on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Intestinal Morphology and Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens

  • Lei, Xinjian;Piao, Xiangshu;Ru, Yingjun;Zhang, Hongyu;Peron, Alexandre;Zhang, Huifang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2015
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal morphology and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allocated to one of four experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was fed to eight replicate cages, with nine birds per cage. Dietary treatments were composed of an antibiotic-free basal diet (control), and the basal diet supplemented with either 15 mg/kg of virginiamycin as antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), 30 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 30) or 60 mg/kg of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM (DFM 60). Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42). Growth performance, nutrient utilization, morphological parameters of the small intestine and cecal microbial populations were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and finisher (d 42) phases. During the starter phase, DFM and virginiamycin supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR; p<0.01) compared with the control group. For the finisher phase and the overall experiment (d 1 to 42) broilers fed diets with the DFM had better body weight gain (BWG) and FCR than that of control (p<0.05). Supplementation of virginiamycin and DFM significantly increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM) and gross energy during both starter and finisher phases (p<0.05) compared with the control group. On d 21, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly increased for the birds fed with the DFM diets as compared with the control group (p<0.05). The DFM 30, DFM 60, and AGP groups decreased the Escherichia coli population in cecum at d 21 and d 42 compared with control group (p<0.01). In addition, the population of Lactobacillus was increased in DFM 30 and DFM 60 groups as compared with control and AGP groups (p<0.01). It can be concluded that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-based DFM could be an alternative to the use of AGPs in broilers diets based on plant protein.

Nutrient Requirements for Growth of Lambs under Hot Semiarid Environment

  • Karim, S.A.;Santra, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2003
  • A factorial experiment was conducted to assess nutrient utilization by growing lambs maintained on three levels each of digestible energy (high: HE, medium: ME, low: LE) and protein (high: HP, medium: MP, low: LP) in nine combinations (HEHP, HEMP, HELP, MEHP, MEMP, MELP, LEHP, LEMP, LELP). The experiment was conducted during the hot season in a semiarid location. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar in all the groups in terms of unit body weight or metabolic body size. Digestibility of DM and nitrogen free extract increased (p<0.01) from low to medium and high energy regimen while the CF digestibility followed a reverse trend. The digestibility of crude protein (CP) decreased from high to medium and low protein regimens while it was similar in terms of energy variation. Nitrogen intake was higher in high followed by medium and low protein regime while fecal and urinary nitrogen loss were similar in all the treatment groups. Lambs in all the three levels of protein were in positive N balance and percent N retention was higher (p<0.01) in high followed by medium and low protein levels whereas it was similar in terms of energy variation. Initial body weight was similar in all the groups while final weight, total gain in the experiment and average daily gain (ADG) were higher in high than medium and low energy regimens. It is concluded that crossbred lambs required 75.1 g DM, 9.6 g CP, 6.3 g DCP and 711 KJ DE/kg W $^{0.75}$or 11.0 g CP/MJ DE or 7.2 g DCP/MJ DE for 93 g average daily gain in a hot semiarid environment.

Effects of Nutrient Solutions and Their Supplying Frequency on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising (벼 수경육묘에서 양액의 종류와 공급시기에 따른 묘 생육과 무기성분의 이용)

  • 김영광;홍광표;정완규;손길만;송근우;강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.205-208
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising rice hydroponically seedlings using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In Hydroponic rice seedlings, two nutrient solutions (Yashida and Wonsi) were evaluated with four supplying methods $[$3 times (2 days, 8 days and 12 days after seeding), 2 times (5 days and 10 days after seeding), and 1 time (5 days and 10 days after seeding)$]$1, Seedling growth was not different between the two solutions. However, tensile strength of root-mat was higher in Yoshida solution than in Wonsi solution. The more frequent supply of solution resulted in the better seedling growth but in the weaker root mat. Utilization efficiency of the solution minerals was not different in N content regardless of supplying frequencies, but higher in r, K, Ca and Mg when supplied only once on the 5 days after seeding.

Response of broiler chickens to diets containing different levels of sodium with or without microbial phytase supplementation

  • Akter, Marjina;Graham, Hadden;Iji, Paul Ade
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2019
  • Phytate induced excessive mineral excretion through poultry litter leads to poor performance and environmental pollution. Exogenous microbial phytase supplementation to poultry diets reduce the environmental excretion of nutrient and improve bird's performance. However, excessive dietary sodium (Na) level may hinder the phytase-mediated phytate hydrolysis and negate the beneficial effects of phytase. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentration dietary Na on phytase activity and subsequent impact on broiler performance, bone mineralisation and nutrient utilisation. In this study, six experimental diets, consisting of three different levels of Na (1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 g/kg) and two levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 U/kg) were formulated by using $3{\times}2$ factorial design. The six experimental diets were offered to 360 day-old Ross 306 male chicks for 35 days, where, each experimental diet consisted of 6 replicates groups with 10 birds. Along with growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal enzyme activity, dry matter (DM) content of litter and mineral status in bone were analysed. Dietary Na and phytase had no effect on bode weight gain and feed intake. Birds on the low Na diet showed higher (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the mid-Na diets. High dietary Na adversely affected (p < 0.001) excreta DM content. Phytase supplementation to the high-Na diet increased (p < 0.01) the litter ammonia content. High dietary Na with phytase supplementation improved ($Na{\times}phytase$, p < 0.05) the AME value and ileal digestibility of Ca and Mg. The total tract retention of Ca, P, and Mg was reduced with high Na diet, which was counteracted by phytase supplementation ($Na{\times}phytase$, p < 0.001). The diets containing mid-level of Na improved (p < 0.001) the function of Na-K-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in the jejunum. The overall results indicate that high dietary Na did not affect phytase activity but influenced the nutrient utilization of birds, which was not reflected in bird overall performance.

Effects of Cellulase Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Energy Utilization and Methane Emission by Boer Crossbred Goats

  • Wang, Lizhi;Xue, Bai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effect of supplementing exogenous cellulase on nutrient and energy utilization. Twelve desexed Boer crossbred goats were used in a replicated $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with 23-d periods. Dietary treatments were basal diet (control, no cellulase), basal diet plus 2 g unitary cellulase/kg of total mixed ration dry matter (DM), and basal diet plus 2 g compound cellulase/kg of total mixed ration DM. Three stages of feeding trials were used corresponding to the three treatments, each comprised 23 d, with the first 14 d as the preliminary period and the following 9 d as formal trial period for metabolism trial. Total collection of feces and urine were conducted from the 4th d of the formal trial, and gas exchange measures were determined in indirect respiratory chambers in the last 3 d of the formal trial. Results showed that cellulase addition had no effect (p>0.05) on nutrient digestibility. Dietary supplementation of cellulase did not affect (p>0.05) N intake and retention in goats. Gross energy (GE) intake, fecal energy and urinary energy excretion, heat production were not affected (p>0.05) by the cellulase supplementation. Total methane emission (g/d), $CH_4$ emission as a proportion of live weight or feed intake (DM, organic matter [OM], digestible DM or digestible OM), or $CH_4$ energy output ($CH_4$-E) as a proportion of energy intake (GE, digestible energy, or metabolizable energy), were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. There was a significant (p<0.001) relationship between $CH_4$ and live weight (y = 0.645x+0.2, $R^2$ = 0.54), $CH_4$ and DM intake (y = 16.7x+1.4, $R^2$ = 0.51), $CH_4$ and OM intake (y = 18.8x+1.3, $R^2$ = 0.51) and $CH_4$-E and GE intake. Results from this study revealed that dietary supplementation of cellulase may have no effect on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention, energy metabolism, and methane emission in goat.

Comparison of nutrient balance and nutrient loading index for cultivated land nutrient management (농경지 양분관리를 위한 양분수지 지표와 양분부하 지표간의 비교)

  • Lee, Jun-Hyung;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.554-567
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    • 2019
  • Recently, concerns regarding the environmental impact due to nutrient input in croplands have increased. Therefore, the government is promoting the introduction of a nutrient management system in croplands to solve the problem of excessive nutrient input. This study was carried out to establish nutrient indicators in regional croplands to facilitate the introduction of the national nutrient management system in Korea. The nutrient load and balance indicators for nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed for nine provinces (Gang-won, Gyeong-gi, Chung-buk, Chung-nam, Jeon-buk, Jeon-nam, Gyeong-buk, Gyeong-nam, and Jeju). In the correlation analysis between the nutrient load and nutrient balance, the correlation coefficient (r) for nitrogen was 0.2504, which was not statistically significant at the 5% significance level. However, the correlation coefficient for phosphorus was 0.7375, which was statistically significant at the 5% significance level. In the nutrient management index, phosphorus showed mutual compatibility between the nutrient load and the nutrient balance indicators, but nitrogen showed no mutual compatibility between the nutrient load and the nutrient balance indicators. Therefore, utilization of the nutrient balance indicator, reflecting the characteristics of the agricultural environment, was more reasonable as a nutrient management index for regional nutrient management.

A Study of the Nutritional Composition of the Dandelion by Part (Taraxacum officinale) (민들레의 부위별 영양성분 함량 비교)

  • 이성현;박홍주;한귀정;조수묵;이승교
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2004
  • Many studies have presented results about the antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale). There has yet to be a study which makes comparisons of nutrients based on the parts of the Dandelion. To identify the nutrient composition by part of dandelion, nutrient contents were analyzed. Dandelions were taken from Songpa-gu in Seoul and the nutrient composition of the flower, leaf and root were measured. The nutrient content of each part was analysed by using the method developed by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The proximate components(moisture, protein, fat, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates), minerals and vitamins of the dandelion were analysed. The nutrient composition of the dandelions showed many significant differences among the parts when the differences were determined by using Duncan's multiple range test. The leaf contains more protein, ash, Ca, K, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, B$_1$, B$_2$, and C than the other parts. The root has much more fiber, carbohydrate, P and Fe content. The results demonstrate that dandelions could be used as a food source supplement for fiber, Ca, Fe and vitamin B$_2$ which are common nutritional deficiencies in Korea. It is recommended that more research for other bio-functional factors besides nutrients composition is needed to enhance the utilization of the dandelion.

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Gelatinized Carbohydrates in the Diet of Catla catla Fingerlings: Effect of Levels and Sources on Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Tissue Enzyme Activities

  • Yengkokpam, Sona;Sahu, N.P.;Pal, A.K.;Mukherjee, S.C.;Debnath, Dipesh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2007
  • A Feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of three different sources and two levels of dietary gelatinized carbohydrate (GC) on nutrient utilization, growth, tissue composition and tissue enzyme activities of fingerlings of Catla catla (15.1-15.3 g). Six isocaloric (17.1-17.5 kJ/g) semi-purified diets were prepared either with rice, corn or tapioca at 40 or 50% GC each. The crude protein (CP) level used in the diet was 35% and 25% for 40% and 50% GC level, respectively to study the protein sparing effect of GC. The degree of gelatinization was higher for corn and tapioca than rice under similar cooking conditions. After a 60-d feeding trial, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestibility were higher in tapioca fed groups at both the levels of GC. However, the highest specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed in the corn fed groups at 50% GC level indicating better utilization of nutrients from gelatinized corn. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was almost similar in corn and tapioca fed groups between two levels of GC but in rice fed groups, FCR was lower in 40% GC than 50% GC level. The results indicated higher protein-sparing effect in corn and tapioca fed groups than rice fed groups. The order of gelatinized carbohydrate utilization in Catla catla fingerlings at 50% GC level was corn>tapioca>rice. At 40% GC level, corn and tapioca were comparable and more efficiently utilized than rice. In the corn fed groups, 50% GC was comparable with 40% GC level, whereas in rice and tapioca fed groups the 40% GC was better in terms of nutrient utilization. Liver glycogen content and hepatosomatic index were significantly (p<0.05) higher in those groups fed high GC (50%) irrespective of carbohydrate sources. Higher intestinal amylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were observed in higher GC fed groups than the lower GC groups. No mortality was found in any groups at any levels of GC.