• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Utilization

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Studies on Feed Intake and Nutrient Utilization of Sheep under Two Housing Systems in a Semi-arid Region of India

  • Bhatta, Raghavendra;Swain, N.;Verma, D.L.;Singh, N.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.814-819
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    • 2004
  • An investigation was carried out to study the effect of two housing systems on feed intake and nutrient utilization of sheep in a semi-arid region of India. Two types of housing managements were adopted. The first was a shed- 20'${\times}$10' structure with all the four sides of 6' chain link fencing with central height of 10'. The roof was covered with asbestos sheets, with mud floorings. The second was an open corral- 20'${\times}$10' open space with all the four sides covered with 6' chain link fencing. Thirty-four (32 ewes and 2 rams) sheep were grazed together on a 35 ha plot of native range. All the sheep were grazed as a flock from 08:00 to 17:00 h during the yearlong study. The flock was divided into two groups (16 ewes+1 ram) in the evening and housed according to two housing systems (Shed and Open Corral). Three digestion trials were conducted during three defined seasons of monsoon, winter and summer seasons to determine the effect of housing on nutrient intake and utilization. Blood samples were collected in three seasons for the estimation of hemoglobin and glucose. Dry and wet bulb temperatures were recorded at 06:00 A.M. and 09:00 P.M. using suitable thermometers both inside the shed and in the open corral and temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. There was significant (p<0.05) difference in the THI between shed and open corral in all the seasons, indicating that the shed was always warmer compared to open corral. The daily dry matter intake (DMI, g/d) was 965, 615 and 982 in sheep housed under shed and 971, 625 and 1,001 in those housed in open corral during monsoon, winter and summer season, respectively. These differences were however non-significant (p>0.05). The digestibility of DM was 45.92, 45.13 and 50.30 in sheep housed under shed and 43.64, 45.02 and 55.02 in sheep housed in open corral during monsoon, winter and summer seasons, respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the digestibility of nutrients in sheep maintained under shed and in open corral. Blood Hb concentration was 13.97, 14.13 and 13.15 in sheep housed under shed and 15.27, 13.63 and 14.82 in those kept in open corral, whereas blood glucose concentration was 59.67, 59.70 and 52.33 in sheep under shed and 61.00, 61.00 and 57.83 in open corral, during monsoon, winter and summer, respectively. There was also no significant effect of housing on the body weight changes, wool yield and survivability in ewes. Although housing had no significant effect on nutrient intake, their utilization and blood parameters, there was significant effect on the physiological responses and energy expenditure of sheep maintained under the two housing systems (Bhatta et al., 2004). It can be concluded from this study that the housing systems didn't have any significant effect on the nutrient intake and utilization of native breed like Malpura, which were well adapted to the hot semi-arid conditions of India. However, while deciding provisions for housing of different breeds of sheep (both crossbred and native) parameters like physiological responses, energy expenditure, health conditions and overall economics of the systems should be taken into consideration.

Nutrition and Drug Interaction (영양과 약물의 상호작용)

  • 나안희;홍윤호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 1992
  • Nutrients and drugs are similar to biological fate, such as absorption, metabolism and excretion. Such procedure may interact with nutrients and drugs. Drugs can influence nutrient absorption, metabolism or excretion ; the effects may impair the nutritional status of a patient. Specific nutrient, nutritional status, or dietary factors alter drug utilization. Therefore, medicated patients need to be aware of good nutrition practices and to understand the importance of dietary modifications associated with certain diseases. A nutritious and well balanced diet not only makes an important contribution to the health of those patients, but also reduces the risk of nutrition disorders or altered the pharmacological action of drugs.

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Effects of Processing and Genetics on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum in Chicks and Pigs - Review -

  • Kim, I.H.;Cao, H.;Hancock, J.D.;Park, J.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2000
  • Differences in the physical structure and chemical composition of sorghums result in different nutritional values. Sorghums with high in vitro nutrient digestibility tend to have greater ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilies. Soft endosperm can improve growth and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs and broiler chicks. However, finishing pigs respond less to endosperm hardness. Chicks benefit from waxy sorghums, but responses of swine to waxy sorghum remain controversial. Reduction of particle size benefits nursery pigs more than finishing pigs, while age of chicks affects the coarseness preference. Nutritional benefits of thermal processing in sorghum remain unclear in chicks and pigs. Although experiments have demonstrated increased efficiency with processed sorghum, processing provided only an immediate solution to the problem of reduced utilization. Long-term, solutions will be genetic improvement of physical and on chemical characteristic.

Utilization of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate by flounder (Paralicthys olivaceus)

  • Lee, Sang-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.17-18
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    • 2003
  • Although flounder is one of the most important marine fish for aquaculture in Korea, feeding the flounder in commercial farms depends mainly on moist pellet in which over 70% frozen fishes (e.g. frozen horse mackerel) are incorporated in its formulation. Therefore, for further expansion of flounder farming, it is essential to employ practical formulated feeds that can support reasonable growth. Development of nutritionally balanced and cost-effective feeds is dependant on the information about nutritional requirement and feed utilization of the species. Nutrient and energy source in feed are needed for the growth and maintenance of fish. Protein is probably the most important nutrient affecting fish growth and feed cost. Therefore, it is essential to determine the optimum dietary protein level for the growth of fish, both its high proportion in the feed and because it is the main factor in determining feed cost. Dietary energy level is also critical because protein source in the feed is utilized as an energy source when the feed deficient in energy is fed to fish, whereas when the feed excess in energy is fed to fish, feed consumption decreased and resulted in growth reduction due to lack of other necessary nutrients for normal growth. Improper dietary protein, energy levels and/or their ratio will lead to an increase of fish production cost and deterioration of water quality resulting from wasted feed; thus, they are important in formulating commercial feed. Dietary lipids play important roles in providing energy and essential fatty acid for normal growth and survival of fish. Although carbohydrates are not essential nutrients for carnivorous fish, these compounds play important roles as a low-cost energy source for protein sparing and also as a feed binder. Nutrition researches for flounder have identified its requirements of protein, lipid and essential fatty acid, vitamin, and minerals for normal growth. Other studies have also been carried out to investigate the utilization of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate sources. Based on these nutritional information obtained, practical feed formulations have been studied for improve aquaculture production of flounder. The results of the researches on utilization of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate by flounder are discussed in this review.

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Effects of Levels of Feed Intake and Inclusion of Corn on Rumen Environment, Nutrient Digestibility, Methane Emission and Energy and Protein Utilization by Goats Fed Alfalfa Pellets

  • Islam, M.;Abe, H.;Terada, F.;Iwasaki, K.;Tano, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.948-956
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    • 2000
  • The effect of high and low level of feed intakes on nutrient digestibility, nutrient losses through methane, energy and protein utilization by goats fed on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) pellets based diets was investigated in this study. Twelve castrated Japanese goats were employed in two subsequent digestion and metabolism trials. The goats were divided into three groups, offered three diets. Diet 1 consisted of 100% alfalfa pellet, Diet 2 was 70% alfalfa pellet and 30% corn, and Diet 3 was 40% alfalfa pellet and 60% corn. The two intake levels were high (1.6 times) and low (0.9 times) the maintenance requirement of total digestible nutrients (TON). Rumen ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) level of Diet 1 was lower (p<0.001) compared to Diets 2 and 3, but the values were always above the critical level (I50 mg/liter), The pH values of rumen liquor ranged from 6.02 to 7.30. Apparent digestibility of nutrient components did not show differences (p>0.05) between the two intake levels but inclusion of corn significantly altered the nutrient digestibility. Diet 3 had highest (p<0.001) dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE) and nitrogen fee extract (NFE) digestibility followed by the Diet 2 and Diet 1. The crude protein (CP) digestibility values among the three diets were in a narrow range (70.1 to 70.8%). Crude fiber (CF) digestibility for Diet 3 was slight higher (p>0.05) than that for other two diets. When alfalfa was replaced by corn, there were highly significant (p<0.001) increases in DM, OM, EE and NFE apparent digestibility and a slight increase in the CF digestibility (p>0.05). There were no differences (p>0.05) in energy losses as methane ($CH_4$) and heat production among the diets but energy loss through urine was higher for the Diet 1. The total energy loss as $CH_4$ and heat production were higher for the high intake level but the energy loss as $CH_4$ per gram DM intake were same (0.305 kcal/g) between the high and low intake level. Retained energy (RE) was higher for Diet 3 and Diet 2. Nitrogen (N) losses through feces and urine were higher (p<0.001) for Diet 1. Consequently, N retention was lower (p>0.05) for Diet 1 and higher in Diets 3 and 2. It is concluded that inclusion of corn with alfalfa increased the metabolizable energy (ME) and RE, and retained N through reducing the energy and N losses. The high level of intake reduced the rate of nutrient losses through feces and urine.

Effect of Different Source of Energy on Urea Molasses Mineral Block Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Pattern and Blood Profile in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Hosamani, S.V.;Mehra, U.R.;Dass, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.818-822
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the effect of different sources of energy on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral block (UMMB), rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents, 18 intact and 9 rumen fistulated male Murrah buffaloes aged about 3 years and average weight 310.8 kg were randomly allocated into three groups of 9 animals in each, thus each group having 6 intact and three rumen fistulated buffaloes. All animals were fed individually for 90 days. All buffaloes were offered wheat straw as basal roughage and urea molasses mineral block for free choice of licking. Three different energy sources viz., barley grain, (group I), maize grain (group II) and jowar green (group III) were offered to meet their nutrient requirement as per Kearl (1982). At the end of feeding trial, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was carried out on intact animals to determine the digestibility of nutrients. Rumen fermentation studies were carried out on rumen fistulated animals. After the metabolism trial blood was collected from intact animals to estimate the nitrogen constituents in blood serum of animals fed on different sources of energy. Results revealed no significant difference in the intake of UMMB in three groups. Similarly, the intake of DM (kg), DCP (g) and TDN (kg) per day was similar in three groups statistically. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group II than group III, whereas the digestibility of DM, OM and NFE was similar in group I and II. The digestibility of crude fiber (CF) and all the fiber fractions i.e. NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose was alike in 3 groups. Nitrogen balance (g/d) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group III as compared to group I and II, which were alike statistically, though the N intake (g/d) was similar in 3 groups but N balance (g/d) was significantly (p<0.05) less in group III as compared to other 2 groups. Significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), total nitrogen (TN) and its fractions were observed in group I and II as compared to group III. There was no effect on rumen pH, rumen volume and digesta flow rate due to different sources of energy in 3 groups. Similarly the blood serum biochemical parameters (NH3-N, urea-N and total protein) were statistically identical in 3 groups.

Effect of Flushing on Nutrient Utilization and Reproductive Performance of Ewes Grazing on Community Rangeland

  • Chaturvedi, O.H.;Bhatta, Raghavendra;Verma, D.L.;Singh, N.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.521-525
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    • 2006
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of flushing of ewes with concentrate pellets just before the mating season on their nutrient utilization and reproductive performance on farms. Forty-eight Malpura ewes, 1-5 years old were randomly divided into 2 groups of 24 each (G1and G2). Ewes in both the groups were grazed on natural rangeland from 07.00 to 18.00 hr followed by night shelter in animal shed. G1 ewes were maintained on sole grazing while G2 ewes, in addition to grazing, received concentrate pellets at the rate of 1.5% of their body weight. The mean biomass yield of the community rangeland was 0.46 ton DM/hectare. The intakes of DM (g/kg $W^{0.75}$), DCP (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) and ME (MJ/kg $W^{0.75}$) were higher (p<0.01) in G2 as compared to that of G1 being 86.5, 10.2 and 1.15 and 57.5, 4.7 and 0.75, respectively. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and hemicellulose were also higher (p<0.01) in G2 as compared to that of G1 being 57.2, 76.7, 78.9, 51.9 and 81.6 and 50.8, 68.7, 68.4, 45.4 and 74.4, respectively. The conception rate was higher (79.2%) in flushed ewes as compared to that of non-flushed (66.7%). Five of the pregnant ewes died and another 5 aborted in G1 while in G2, 5 ewes aborted with no mortality. The lambing was higher (73.7%) in G2 than that in G1 (37.5%). The birth weight of lambs was higher (p<0.05) in G2 (3.47 kg) than that in G1 (2.95 kg). Further, the birth weight of male lambs was higher (3.28) than that of female lambs (3.14). It is concluded that the biomass yield of the community rangeland in semi-arid region of India is low and insufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of ewes prior to mating season. However, concentrate supplementation at the rate of 1.5% of body weight to ewes during this critical stage enhanced their plane of nutrition, reproductive performance, body condition and birth weights of lambs.

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep

  • Pathak, A.K.;Dutta, Narayan;Banerjee, P.S.;Pattanaik, A.K.;Sharma, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1446-1458
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    • 2013
  • The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight ($25.03{\pm}1.52$) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups' i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep.