• Title, Summary, Keyword: O/W emulsion

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Bioavailability of Emulsion Containing Scutellariae Radix Extract (황금 엑스 유제의 생체이용률)

  • Yang, Jae-Heon;Kim, Young-Il
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1999
  • The bioavailabilities of baicalin in water, oil, w/o and o/w emulsion were evaluated in rats. The dissolution rate of baicalin in o/w emulsion was smaller than those of w/o form in dilute hydrochloric acid solution (pH 1.2) and in PBS (pH 6.8). The absorption rate of baicalin from w/o emulsion was smaller than that of o/w emulsion in the different parts of rat intestine of the rats. Following oral administration in rats, the $C_{max}$ of baicalin from water phase, oil phase, o/w wand w/o emulsion were 2.11, 0.61, 1.57, and $1.35\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The relative bioavailability of w/o emusion was 129 % when it was compared with water phase. This result suggests that the improvement of bioavailability for baicalin in w/o emulsion might be practically available.

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Mesenteric Lymphatic Delivery of Oral Anticancer Tegafur by Emulsion Formulations (유제화에 의한 경구용 항암제인 테가푸르의 장관 임파수송)

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Nam, Kweon-Ho;Chang, Woo-Ik;Oh, In-Joon;Koh, Ik-Bae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1995
  • W/O and O/W emulsions of tegafur (50 mg/5 ml/kg) were orally administered to rats to compare with their mesenteric lymphatic delivery effects. And also in order to demonstrate the lymph targeting associated to the oral route, it was deemed necessary to investigate the fate of solution after oral administration as a control. Lymph and plasma samples were periodically taken from each subject of mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulated rats. Then, lymph and plasma levels of tegafur and its active metabolite, 5-FU, were simultaneously observed. Also pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with each others. On the other hand, most previous studies of lymphatic transport have not addressed the question of whether an increase in mesenteric or thoracic lymph transport by the manipulation of a suspected variable was due to a selective delivery to the intestinal lymphatics or an overall increase availability. Therefore, based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model which represents the characteristics of lymphatic systems, we are also going to determine the contributions of mesenteric lymph transport versus thoracic lymph transport of tegafur reported in reference(13). In comparison with tegafur solution, AUC and mean residence time of plasma tegafur were significantly increased in W/O emulsion but significantly decreased in O/W emulsion. Lymph flow rates were similar in both solution and W/O emulsion but half in O/W emulsion. AUC of tegafur in mesenteric lymph and in plasma for W/O emulsion were 3.7 times and 2.9 times more than those for O/W emulsion, respectively. And AUC of 5-FU in thoracic lymph for W/O emulsion was 3.7 times more than that for O/W emulsion. These results suggested that lymphatic delivery or tegafur by W/O emulsion was more effective than that by on emulsion due to its differences or formation ability of chylomicrons.

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Studies on the Development of a Microbial Cryoprotectant Formulation Using a W/O/W Multiple Emulsion System

  • Bae, Eun-Kyung;Cho, Young-Hee;Park, Ji-Yong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 2004
  • A microbial cryoprotectant formulation using a W/O/W multiple emulsion system was developed. The psychrotolerant microorganism, B4, isolated from soil in South Korea, was observed by the drop freezing method, in which the microorganism sample inhibited ice nucleation activity. The antifreeze activity was eliminated when the microorganism sample was treated with protease, indicating that the antifreeze activity was due to the presence of antifreeze protein. The result of the l6S rDNA sequencing indicated the B4 strain was most closely related to a species of the genus Bacillus. Culture broth of B4 strain (Bacillus sp.) and rapeseed oil containing 1 % polyglycerine polyricinolate (PGPR) were used as core and wall material, respectively. The most stable W/O emulsion was prepared at a core/oil ratio of 1:2. The highest W/O/W emulsion stability was achieved when the primary emulsion to external aqueous phase containing 0.5% caster oil polyoxyethylene ether $(COG25^{TM})$ ratio was 1:1. Microcrystalline cellulose showed better W/O/W emulsion stability than other polymer types. The viability of cells in a W/O/W emulsion was higher than free cells during storage at $37^\circ{C}$. An acidic pH and UV exposure decreased the viability of free cells, but cells in W/O/W emulsion were more stable under these conditions.

Effect of Surfactant Micelles on Oxidation in W/O/W Multiple Emulsion (Surfactant micelle이 W/O/W multiple emulsion의 산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Woen-Seup;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1611-1616
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of surfactant micelles on lipid oxidation in W/O/W multiple emulsions. The content of ferric irons and hydroperoxide in the continuous phase in W/O/W multiple emulsions was measured as a function of Brij micelle. The concentration of ferric iron and hydroperoxide in the continuous phase increased with increased storage time (1~6 days). Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, TBARs and headspace hexanal, in the W/O/W multiple emulsions containing ferric iron decreased when 3% surfactant micelles were exceeded. These results indicate that excess surfactant micelles could alter the physical location and prooxidant activity of iron in W/O/W multiple emulsions.

Formula Optimization of a Perilla-canola Oil (O/W) Emulsion and Its Potential Application as an Animal Fat Replacer in Meat Emulsion

  • Utama, Dicky Tri;Jeong, Haeseong;Kim, Juntae;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.580-592
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    • 2018
  • The formulation of an oil/water (o/w) emulsion made up of a mixture of perilla oil and canola oil (30/70 w/w) was optimized using a response surface methodology to find a replacement for animal fat in an emulsion-type meat product. A 12 run Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the effect of potential ingredients in the (o/w) emulsion, including polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), fish gelatin, soy protein isolate (SPI), sodium caseinate, carrageenan (CR), inulin (IN) and sodium tripolyphosphate. The PBD showed that SPI, CR and IN showed promise but required further optimization, and other ingredients did not affect the technological properties of the (o/w) emulsion. The PBD also showed that PGPR played a critical role in inhibiting an emulsion break. The level of PGPR was then fixed at 3.2% (w/w total emulsion) for an optimization study. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the addition levels of SPI, CR or IN in an (o/w) emulsion and to observe their effects on emulsion stability, cooking loss and the textural properties of a cooked meat emulsion. Significant interactions between SPI and CR increased the cooking loss in the meat emulsion. In contrast, IN showed interactions with SPI leading to a reduction in cooking loss. Thus, CR was also removed from the formulation. After optimization, the level of SPI (4.48% w/w) and IN (14% w/w) was validated, leading to a perilla-canola oil (o/w) emulsion with the ability to replace animal fat in an emulsion-type meat products.

The stabillty of Double-Capsulated Retinol on O/W Eulsion

  • Park, Dong-Soon;Lee, Ok-Sub;Kang, Hak-Hee;Kim, Jong-Il
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.24-38
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    • 1997
  • Using the all-trans-retinol which is double-capsulated with matrix, we investigated its stability and the change of the epidermal thickness. The proprietary MDC comprise two steps of capsulation of retinol, i.e., primary microcapsulation with collagen and then secondary capsulation with gellan gum. We compared the activity of all-trans-retinol in various forms such as (1) simply in O/W, (2) in W/O emulsion, (3) in primary capsulted form in O/W emulsion, or (4) in MDC in O/W emulsion. After storage at 45$^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks, retinol in MDC in O/W emulsion retained 92% of the activity compared to the standard material upon HPLC analysis, whereas the primary capsule gave 70%, the O/W emulsion form 47% and the W/O emulsion 78%. The retinol in MDC in O/W induced the siginificant increase in epidermal thickness compared to the vehicle.

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Lymphatic Delivery of Oral Anticancer Tegafur by Emulsion Formulations

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Koh, Ik-Bae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 1993
  • The influence of emulsion type of tegafur, an oral anticancer agent, on lymphatic transport was studied in rats. The water-in-oil-type of emulsion and the oil-in-water-type emulsion of tegafur each in 50 mg, calculated in terms of tegafur, were prepared by adding tegafur aqueous solution to sesame oil containing hydrogenated castor oil following ultrasonic treatment, and then the prepared emulsions and aqueous solution as a comparative formulation were administered orally to rats (50 mg/5 ml/kg). The concentration levels of tegafur in plasma of femoral artery and lymph from thoracic duct cannula were measured simultaneously along a time course after administration and the pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. At the same time, we examined the above described factors of 5-FU which is known as an active metabolite of tegafur. In comparison with tegafur solution, AUC and mean residence time of plasma tegafur were significantly increased in w/o-emulsion but significantly decreased in o/w-emulsion. Lymph flow rates were similar in both solution and w/o-emulsion but half in o/w-emulsion. Ratios between area under the lymph and plasma concentration time curves were always less than 1 reflecting the passive lymphatic delivery after oral administration of the prepared tegafur emulsions, but those to the 5-FU in the case of w/o-emulsion were more than 1. These results suggested that lymphatic delivery of tegafur by w/o-emulsion was more effective than that by o/w-emulsion due to its differences of formation ability of chylomicrons.

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Stability of Water-in-Oil Emulsion by Gelation;Application of Sun-Block Cream containing Titanium Dioxide($TiO_{2}$) (겔화에 의한 Water-in-Oil에멀젼의 안정성;이산화티타늄($TiO_{2}$)이 함유된 Sun-block Cream의 응용)

  • Kim, In-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2000
  • Cosmetic industries have recently developed sun-block products, which are composed of W/O or O/W emulsion system. It was very difficult for waterproofing product to show the stability in W/O emulsion with $TiO_{2}$. To enhance the stability of W/O emulsion, it needs to be combined with the water and oil soluble components as the gelling agents. The emulsifiers used in W/O were 3.0% of cetyl dimethicone copolyol, 2.0% of sorbitan sesquioleate as the basic emulsifiers, and 0.6% of quaternium-18 bentonite and 1.5% of dextrin palmitate as stabilizer were used. The content of titanium dioxide was optimized up to 8.0%. Titanium dioxide was used as the UV scattering powder coated with $Al_{2}O_{3}$(UV-sperse T40/TN). The sunscreen cream prepared with W/O emulsion system by using QB and DP showed higher stability than that of W/O emulsion system by using each QB and DP. W/O emulsion from Formula 3 for passing one year was very durable more than F1 and F2. Within W/O emulsion by observing F1, F2 and F3 for one year, F3 was more excellent than F2 and F3 when they were observed at RT, $4^{\circ}C$, $40^{\circ}C$, because F3 used the mixed QB and DP in W/O emulsion. The zeta potential for F1, F2, and F3 after one year were 21, 30 and 43, respectively. From these result F3 was found best stable emulsion. The in-vitro SPF value for F3 was 35 for the initial product at room temperature and also, the in-vitro SPF values of F3 was 32 for after one year. Finally, the mean in-vivo SPF value of 10 volunteers for F3 was 27.3 by the Korea cosmetic association made the rules of SPF.

Evaluation of Glyceryl Monooleate(GMO) W/O Emulsion Stability by using Turbiscan®LAB (Turbiscan®을 이용한 Glyceryl Monooleate(GMO) 함유 W/O 유제의 안정성 평가)

  • Cho, Kyung-Jin;Cho, Won-Kyung;Lee, Jeon-Pyung;Kim, Min-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2009
  • The main object of this study was to prepare of w/o emulsion including glyceryl monooleate(GMO) and to evaluate its stability by using the recently developed $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$. GMO is the polar oily surfactant with the low HLB value, and it forms the gel phase of cubic structures after dissolves in aqueous media. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 7.4 was prepared as the water phase and Marcol 52(mineral oil) was used as the oil phase in this study. GMO was used as the surfactant of W/O emulsion. W/O emulsion using GMO alone as a surfactant was very unstable. But the emulsion using both GMO and poloxamer 407 was more stable. The stability of W/O emulsions was evaluated after centrifuging the emulsions. But it was difficult with naked eye because an opaque and concentrated system like W/O emulsion was very turbid. So $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$ was used to detect the destabilization phenomena in non-diluted emulsion. As a result, the W/O emulsion using the proper amounts of GMO and poloxamer 407 was more stable among them using GMO of various amounts. But it seems that the other element for the stability of W/O emulsion including GMO was required. Furthermore, the $Turbiscan^{(R)}LAB$ was a very efficient analyzer for evaluating the physical stability of emulsion.

Development of W/O/W Multiple Emulsion Formulation Containing Burkholderia gladioli

  • KIM, HWA-JIN;CHO, YOUNG-HEE;BAE, EUN-KYUNG;SHIN, TAEK-SU;CHOI, SUNG-WON;CHOI, KEE-HYUN;PARK, JI-YONG
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2005
  • W/O/W (water-in-oil-in-water) type multiple emulsion was applied to improve the storage stability of an antagonistic microorganism, Burkholderia gladioli. Encapsulation of microorganism into a W/O/W emulsion was conducted by using a two-step emulsification method. W/O/W emulsion was prepared by the incorporation of B. gladioli into rapeseed oil and the addition of polyglycerin polyriconolate (PGPR) and castor oil polyoxyethylene (COG 25) as the primary and secondary emulsifier, respectively. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as an emulsion stabilizer. To evaluate the usefulness of W/O/W emulsion formulation as a microbial pesticide for controlling the bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum), the storage stability and antagonistic activity of emulsion formulation were tested in vitro. The storage stability test revealed that the viability of formulated cells in emulsion was higher than that of unformulated cells in culture broth. At $4^{\circ}C$, the viabilities of formulated cells and unformulated cells at the end of 20 weeks decreased to about 2 and 5 log cycles, respectively. At $37^{\circ}C$, the viability of formulated cells decreased to only 2 log cycles at the end of storage. On the other hand, the viable cells in culture broth were not detected after 13 weeks. In activity test, formulated cells in emulsion were more effective in inhibiting the growth of pathogen than unformulated cells in culture broth. Unformulated cells completely lost their antagonistic activity during storage under similar conditions. The W/O/W multiple emulsion formulation was shown to be useful as the novel liquid formulation for biological control.