• Title, Summary, Keyword: OECD 국가

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International Comparative Study on Sports for All Policy Patterns (생활체육정책 유형에 관한 국가 간 비교연구)

  • Jo, Woog-Yeon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.457-467
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study was to explore the general characteristics of sports for all through the patterns of sports for all policy and analysis of causal relation of the determinants. To achieve this goal, 26 countries among OECD 30 members which provide useful data sources were selected. The data were analyzed by Qualitative Comparative Analysis(QCA) with cluster analysis. GDP, leisure time, social expenditure, Gini's coefficient, poverty rate and tax burden ratio were used as casual variables for Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The findings of this study were as follows. First, three patterns were examined and Korea was classified into the pattern which has low sports for all participation and sportsclub participation. Second, as a result of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for analyzing the determinants of sports for all patterns, the pattern in which includes Korea showed that GDP, leisure time, social expenditure, tax burden ratio had negative relationship and Gini's coefficient, poverty rate had positive relationship.

Effects of Fisheries Technological Innovation on Growth per Capita across OECD Countries (수산부문 기술혁신이 OECD 회원국의 성장률에 미친 효과)

  • Lee, Yoonsuk;Chang, Jae Bong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 2017
  • The environmental problems affecting marine resources and slow growth in the fisheries industry is causing many countries to look for alternative inputs that can boost the fisheries sector. This study focuses on the effects of technological innovation in the fisheries industry on the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita across Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Using a panel dataset, this study attempts to estimate the different effects of technological innovations in the fisheries industry from country to country using the differences-in-differences (DiD) method. After the DiD method, the Granger causality test is applied to determine the interactive relations between economic growth and the selected variables associated with technological innovation in the fisheries industry, such as government spending on fisheries R&D, the number of patents in fisheries, and employment. The results obtained from the DiD estimation show that government spending on fisheries R&D, fisheries technology development, and fisheries employment positively influences the GDP per capita across OECD counties. From the causality test, we found different bi-directional causal relationships between the GDP per capita and (spending) on fisheries technology development across countries.

Recent Trends of Social Security Expenditures in OECD Countries (1980년대 이후 OECD 국가의 사회보장비지출 변화추세)

  • Kim, Hwan-joon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • no.39
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    • pp.167-187
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    • 2008
  • This study explores the trends of social security expenditures after financial crisis in welfare states. For the purpose, this study analyzes changes in social expenditures during 1980~2003 in 22 OECD countries. The results show that average total social security expenditure(as a percentage of GDP) among the 22 countries increased from 18.0% in 1980 to 22.3% in 2003. Compared to sharp increases during the great expansion period of the welfare state before 1980s, the increase in social expenditures after 1980s is substantially weakened. The slowdown in the increases of social expenditures is remarkable in the social democratic welfare states where social expenditures have already reached a high level. On the other hand, social expenditures are considerably increased in the lagged welfare states such as South European countries and Japan. As a result, the cross-national difference in social expenditures has continuously decreased. These findings suggest that financial crisis is a key factor of welfare-state reorganization. Countries where social expenditures are in high level need more reforms under the pressure of financial deficits. Since 1980s, they have tried various reforms especially in pensions and unemployment benefits. Facing new and increasing demands for social security as well as financial limitations, the welfare state needs major reforms in the social security system to increase effectiveness/efficiency of existing programs and to iron out priorities among programs.

Is Fertility Rate Proportional to the Quality of Life? An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Better Life Index (BLI) and Fertility Rate in OECD Countries (출산율은 삶의 질과 비례하는가? OECD 국가의 삶의 질 요인과 출산율의 관계에 관한 추이분석)

  • Kim, KyungHee;Ryu, SeoungHo;Chung, HeeTae;Gim, HyeYeong;Park, HeongJoon
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.215-235
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    • 2018
  • Policy concerns related to raising fertility rates are not only common interests among the OECD countries, but they are also issues of great concern to South Korea whose fertility rate is the lowest in the world. The fertility rate in South Korea continues to decline, even though most of the national budget has been spent on measures to address this and many studies have been conducted on the increase in the fertility rates. In this regard, this study aims to verify the effectiveness of the detailed factors affecting the fertility rate that have been discussed in the previous studies on fertility rates, and to investigate the overall trend toward enhancing the quality of life and increasing the fertility rate through macroscopic and structural studies under the recognition of problems related to the policy approaches through the case studies of the European countries. Toward this end, this study investigated if a high quality of life in advanced countries contributes to the increase in the fertility rate, which country serves as a state model that has a high quality of life and a high fertility rate, and what kind of social and policy environment does the country have with regard to childbirth. The analysis of the OECD Better Life Index (BLI) and CIA fertility rate data showed that the countries whose people enjoy a high quality of life do not necessarily have high fertility rates. In addition, under the recognition that a country with a high quality of life and a high birth rate serves as a state model that South Korea should aim for, the social characteristics of Iceland, Ireland, and New Zealand, which turned out to have both a high quality of life and a high fertility rate, were compared with those of Germany, which showed a high quality of life but a low fertility rate. According to the comparison results, the three countries that were mentioned showed higher awareness of gender equality; therefore, the gender wage gap was small. It was also confirmed that the governments of these countries support various policies that promote both parents sharing the care of their children. In Germany, on the other hand, the gender wage gap was large and the fertility rate was low. In a related move, however, the German government has made active efforts to a paradigm shift toward gender equality. The fertility rate increases when the synergy lies in the relationship between parents and children; therefore, awareness about gender equality should be firmly established both at home and in the labor market. For this reason, the government is required to provide support for the childbirth and rearing environment through appropriate family policies, and exert greater efforts to enhance the effectiveness of the relevant systems rather than simply promoting a system construction. Furthermore, it is necessary to help people in making their own childbearing decisions during the process of creating a better society by changing the national goal from 'raising the fertility rate' to 'creating a healthy society made of happy families'

Measurement of Sustainability on Production Units based on Material Flow Approach (물질균형접근에 기초한 생산단위의 지속가능성 계측)

  • Kang, Sang-Mok
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.125-153
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this article is to measure sustainability of countries based on material flow approach by connecting fossil fuel vs. economy, and fossil fuel vs. environment, respectively. The focus of the article is to confirm where each country concentrates more between economic growth and environment. Even though most of countries exclaimed the growth harmonized between economy and environment, the empirical results proved that they had weight on economic growth over environment. Of three country groups, the sustainability in OECD countries was the lowest, whereas that of low income countries was the highest. It has been known that the main offenders of global warming are developing countries and backward countries, but emission of greenhouse gas per capita in OECD countries was higher and as a result, their sustainability was much lower than those of other countries. Accordingly, because the OECD countries have more responsibility for the emission of greenhouse gas, it is necessary that they have to bear a larger portion of emission reduction.

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The Effect of Non-regular and Female Employment Rate on Total Fertility Rate(TFR) in OECD Countries (비정규직 고용률과 여성 고용률이 출산율에 미치는 효과: OECD 국가를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jaehee;Park, Jinbaek
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to analyze effects of non-regular employment rate and female employment rate on fertility rate in OECD county. We adopted dynamic panel model after classifying OECD county to high and low fertility rate. The results of analysis showed that the higher non regular employment rate, the lower female employment rate, and the lower economy growth rate decrease fertility rate especially in low fertility rate country. While, only the higher house rental decrease in high fertility country. This results indicate that low fertility country including Korea should improve a labor policy such as strengthening employment security and encouraging female employment to increase fertility rate.

Current Policies of the OECD Countries for Reducing Standby Power(I) (대기전력 절감을 위한 OECD 국가들의 계도 및 정책(I))

  • Seo, Kil-Soo;Kim, Nam-Keun;Kim, Eun-Dong
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1383-1385
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    • 2003
  • 본 논문은 가전 및 사무용 전기전자기기에 있어서 대기전력의 정의를 조사하고 대기전력 절감을 위한 OECD국가들의 제도를 기술하였다. 대기전력 절감을 위한 주요국들의 제도는 규제와 자발참여 프로그램으로 대별하여 조사하였다. 대기전력 규제로는 일본의 top runner 프로그램과 스위스의 제도즐 소개하였으며 자발 참여 효율등급제로서 미국의 에너지 스타 제도와 기타제도에 대하여 기술하였다.

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행복과 거시경제변수 관련성에 관한 소고(小考) - 행복 : 소비자심리지수를 대용변수로 활용 -

  • Kim, Jong-Gwon
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.105-108
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    • 2009
  • 기존의 연구논문들에서는 1975년부터 1992년 사이의 OECD 국가들에서 집권정부별 국민들이 느끼는 행복감을 알아보기 위한 분석들이 주로 이루어졌다. 이러한 행복감을 알아보는 데에는 특히 인플레이션율과 실업률이 주요 변수로 활용되고 있다. 각국별로 살펴볼 때, 진보정부의 경우에 있어서는 실업률에 더 주안점을 두는 반면에 보수정부는 인플레이션율에 더 민감하게 대처함을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 점들을 살펴보면, OECD 국가들에서 빈곤층은 진보정부를 선호하고 상대적으로 소득수준에서 상위계층은 보수정부를 선호할 것으로 추정된다. 이 논문에서는 한국의 경우 시계열 관계상 진 보정부와 보수정부로 나누지 않고 행복감에 대하여 소비자심리지수를 대용변수로 사 용하였을 경우 경기회복에 따른 산업생산 증가와 이를 위한 정부지출이 중요한 변수 임을 알 수 있었다.

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Health Care Reform in OECD Countries : A Comparative Policy Analysis (OECD 국가의 보건의료개혁 : 역사적 전망과 정책적 과제)

  • 이종찬
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 1996
  • The paper analyzes OECD health systems from the perspective of historical institutionalism. Criticizing the dependence of Korea's national health program on Pacific countries such as Japan and the U.S., it suggests that European experiences of national health programs can be a model of the Korean health system in the future. Based on an inquiry into Italian and British cases of national health systems, the author emphasizes (1) the role of local governemts in national health programs, and (2) the integration of a national health program with public health programs.

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지혜 깊어지는 건강 - 50대를 지켜라 - 음주, 피할 수 없다면 똑똑하게!

  • O, Seung-Won
    • 건강소식
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.18-20
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    • 2011
  • OECD 'Health Data 2007' 음주관련 지표를 살펴보면 우리나라의 주류 소비 수준은 OECD 30개국 중 22위에 해당한다. 또 우리나라의 1인당 음주량은 8.1L로 OECD 국가의 평균인 9.5L에 못 미치는 수준이나, 폭음하는 비율은 매우 높은 편이다. 또한, 술 마시는 문화가 사회적으로 조성된 우리나라는 음주에 대해 관대하게 생각하는 경향이 있다. 직장 생활을 하려면 술은 마실 줄 알아야 하고, 남자라면 술을 잘 먹는 게 자랑할만한 일이 되는 게 우리나라 문화이다. 특히 모임과 행사가 많은 연말에는 음주로 인한 사건 사고가 많이 일어난다. 이럴 때일수록 건강을 해치지 않는 음주에 대해 실천이 필요하다.

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