• Title, Summary, Keyword: OECD countries

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Comparison of Nursing Workforce Supply and Employment in South Korea and Other OECD Countries (OECD 국가의 간호인력 현황과 한국 간호인력의 특성 분석)

  • Hong, Kyung Jin;Cho, Sung-Hyun
    • Perspectives in Nursing Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study aims to report on and compare the conditions of practicing nurses and nursing graduates in Korea and other OECD countries to suggest policy to improve nurse staffing in Korea. Methods: Data on nurses and nursing graduates from 34 OECD countries in 2015 (or the nearest year) were analyzed. The proportion of practicing nurses among nurses who were licensed to practice and nursing graduates per population and per the number of practicing nurses were examined. Results: The number of practicing nurses per 1,000 population in Korea was 5.9 and, in Korea, only 31.0% of licensed nurses were practicing, whereas the OECD average was 69.5%. Korea had the highest number of nursing graduates (109.0) per 100,000 population and the highest number of nursing graduates (183.5) per 1,000 practicing nurses in the OECD countries. Skill-mix analysis indicated that 52.2% of the practicing nurses in Korea were professional practicing nurses, which was the second-lowest among the OECD countries. The ratio of nurses' wages to those of physician specialists was 0.43 in the OECD countries. Conclusion: Nurse staffing and skill-mix in Korea were very low in comparison to other OECD countries. Policies for retention of nurses via improved working conditions are required.

Differences between Korea and Other OECD Countries in the Relationships between Suicide and Socioeconomic Factors (자살과 사회경제적 요인과의 관계에 있어서 한국과 다른 OECD 국가들과의 차이)

  • Kang, Eunjeong;Lee, Suehyung
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study aimed to examine how the relationship between socioeconomic factors at the macro level and suicide mortality rate of Korea was different from that of other OECD countries. Methods: We created OECD panel data of 29 OECD countries from 1985 to 2006 and analyzed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and suicide mortality rate for separate age and sex groups using a fixed-effect model. Economic factors included per capita GDP, per capita GDP growth rate, unemployment rate, and women's economic participation rate. Social factors included birth rate, alcohol consumption, and the percentage of population 65 and older. Results: Unemployment rate had a positive relationship with suicide in other countries but it had a negative relationship in some groups of Korea. Women's economic participation rate was both positively and negatively related with suicide in Korea but it did not relate to suicide in others. The negative relationship of birth rate and the positive relationship of alcohol consumption with suicide were evident in Korea, which were not found in other countries. The percentage of population 65 and older was negatively correlated in some female groups in Korea, while no significant relationship was found in other countries. Conclusions: Korea was substantially different from other OECD countries in the relationship between socioeconomic factors and suicide mortality rate.

Comparison of Energy Efficiency by Production Frontier Approach: Based on OECD Countries (생산 프론티어 접근을 통한 에너지효율 비교: OECD 국가를 중심으로)

  • Kang, Sangmok;Kim, Haechang
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.33-60
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of the article is to compare the impacts of energy efficiency and economic growth for energy demand through production frontier approach in OECD countries. We compared the traditional energy intensity with energy efficiencies of production frontier approach, slack efficiency on the frontier, and estimated elasticity of energy demand for GDP growth. First, the energy intensity has a low relationship with energy efficiency by radial approach, but has constant correlations with slack energy efficiency, slack-adjusted efficiency by non-radial approach, and energy efficiency by horizon approach. If we measure energy efficiency only with energy elasticity, it may make a mistake. Especially the energy efficiency by radial approach has a tendency to overestimate most OECD countries. Second, as many countries have excess energy consumption of 17.3% even on the points of the frontier, reduction of energy consumption is necessary in addition. Third, the average energy elasticity of OECD countries is 1.1 close to elasticity 1. There exists the difference of elasticity among countries and the energy demands are also high in countries with high elasticity.

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Assessment of Korea's GHG Reduction Targets through Comparative Analysis of OECD Countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) (OECD 국가의 온실가스 감축공약(NDC)의 비교 분석을 통한 우리나라 온실가스 감축 목표 평가)

  • Lee, Manhee;Park, Sun-Kyoung
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.313-327
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    • 2017
  • Korea has introduced Korea Emissions In 2015, the United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP21) was held in Paris. The Paris Agreement indicates that all nations are in charge of mitigating climate change. Prior to COP21, 197 Parties submitted the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), which are greenhouse gas reduction targets. On June 30, 2015, Korea also submitted an NDC target of 37% reduction compared to BAU in 2030. However, Korea's NDC was evaluated as "Inadequate" by the Climate Action Tracker (CAT). In addition, the domestic environmental group expressed a negative opinion as well. In view of this situation, it is necessary to conduct an objective assessment of quantitative analysis of NDC goals in Korea. The goal of this study is to evaluate NDC of Korea by comparing with those of OECD member countries. For comparative analysis, data such as population, GDP, primary energy supply affecting GHG emissions were obtained from the OECD homepage. The results indicate that emission reduction goal of 37% of Korea was $4^{th}$ highest goal among OECD member countries. If Korea achieves the emission reduction goal, the greenhouse gas emissions per capita in 2030 are $10^{th}$among OECD member countries. The greenhouse gas emissions per GDP are $13^{th}$, and emissions per TOE are $9^{th}$ among OECD member countries. The results show that greenhouse gas intensity of Korea is relatively high among OECD member countries. Therefore, it is needed to continuously endeavor to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate the global climate change. This study can be further used as a fundamental document to establish the future greenhouse reduction policy in Korea.

The Determinants of Population Health in OECD countries (OECD 국가들의 건강수준 결정요인)

  • Tchoe, Byong-Ho;Nam, Sang-Ho
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2010
  • This article examines social determinants of population health in OECD countries, where life years, infant mortality, and PYLL are used as proxy variables of health. The unit of analysis is a country which is the OECD affiliate. A panel regression estimation is chosen as a method, using OECD Health Data. The results are: the increasing national health expenditure affected positively to improve population health. Education was rather a significant determinant of health than income level. The government direct investment for public health did not contribute positively to enhance population health. The expansion of health care coverage was working positively for improving health, but with a time lag. The supply of doctors was a most influential determinant of health. In case of Korea, the coverage expansion of health care was the most important determinant of health. The supply of doctors was, however, not a positive factor for better health, which is different result with the case of OECD countries.

Mortality and Potential Years of Life Lost of lung cancer between Korea and OECD countries before and after the year 2000 (우리나라와 OECD 국가 간의 2000년 전과 후 폐암 사망률과 잠재수명손실연수(PYLL)에 관한 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Park, Ji-Won;Kang, Soo-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.3138-3148
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    • 2011
  • This present study is designed to analyze the mortality and potential years of life lost (PYLL) by malignant neoplasm of lung between OECD countries and Korea before and after the year 2000. We used the methods of Wilcoxon Singed Ranks Test between korean and other 30 OECD countries between 1993-1999 and 2000-2006 year using 2009 OECD Health data(2010) of 30 contries. At the results, the mortality of lung cancer in male korean was significantly increased after 2000 year whereas those in other 23 countries decreased. The mortalities in female were increased in 20 countries including Korea. PYLL in male and female korean were significantly decreased and male PYLL in other 26 countries was decreased, but female PYLL in other countries showed various patterns; increase in 12 countries and decrease in 3 countries. Therefore, the present study elucidated that the lung cancer-induced PYLL in the comparison between korean and OECD countries can be more important parameter.

An Efficiency Analysis of OECD Countries and Korea in Health Service Industry (한국과 OECD 국가의 의료서비스산업의 기술효율성 분석)

  • Jang, Young-Jae;Yang, Dong-Hyun
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.87-109
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed technical efficiencies of health service industry of OECD countries with DEA and SFA approaches using 10 year data from OECD Health Database. The results can be summarized as follows: First, Korea was found the best practice among 15 OECD countries based on CRS nondirectional SBM models. Second, it was found that some inefficiencies were due to environmental factors. Third, we found that environmental factors were important factors in efficiencies of health service industry by observing that there were large efficiency changes after adjusting slacks due to environmental factors. From the above, Korea led the OECD countries in health service industry and was the most competent. But this study has some limitation since the quality and cost of health care was not taken into account.

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Trend and Perspective of Agricultural Knowledge System in OECD Member Countries (OECD 회원국들의 농업지식체계(AKS) 동향과 전망)

  • Im, Jeong-Nam;Park, Moo-Eon;Park, Kyung-Chul
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.13-29
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    • 2000
  • During the last 10 year period, OECD member countries were in a trend of 'less government' from 'more government', thus resulted in restructuring and reducing staffs in government agricultural institutions including the Agricultural Knowledge System. In recognizing the crisis of 'less government', member countries were in a trend of paradigm shift to the 'better government;. In producing and transferring agricultural information, member countries are more concerned about consumers as well as producers as the target of good quality services of the 'better government'. The general consensus of member countries identified the importance of food safety and environmental protection as new agendas for the 21st century. Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS) in OECD member countries were in a trend of reorganization in addressing food safety, and agriculture / environmental issues. The approaches, functions and responsibilities were diversified to multi-governmental institutions from the ministry of agriculture. Thus the importance of institutional cooperation and coordination were emphasized more in the newly changed AKS paradigms. The objectives, functions and approaches of AKS in OECD member countries as well as in Korea will be directed to emphasize the importance of environment, sustainable agriculture, food safety, and rural development. They will also focus on establishing mutual cooperative systems among policy makers, consumes, non-governmental organizations, and agri-related organizations as necessary for sustainable development in the future.

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The Impact of Labor Flexicurity Policy on the Labor Market Performance in the OECD countries (노동의 유연안정화 정책이 노동시장에 미치는 영향분석 - OECD 국가를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.25-46
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    • 2010
  • The outstanding performance of some nations in Central and Northern Europe such as Denmark and the Netherlands in the labor market is much indebted to their policy to help labor flexicurity. In this study, the possibility of replicating the Dutch or Danish performance in the labor market is explored in case of adopting such policy in the 22 OECD countries. If implementing the flexicurity policy in the 22 member countries of the OECD leads to strong performance in the labor market, this policy can be globally shared as universal labor policy to provide a win-win situation among the labor, management and the authorities on the matter, paving the way for replacing the Anglo-Saxon policy characterized by high flexibility and low security, or the European alternative with a lower level of flexibility and a higher level of security. According to findings from our research, flexicurity policy can not produce any tangible accomplishments in the labor market by only itself. Therefore, we may safely reach the conclusion that flexicurity policy has a limited positive influence on the labor market of some northern or central European countries. Given the striking difference in inherent conditions between such European countries and OECD countries, it is not sensible for OECD nations to adopt labor policy in the direction of flexicurity.

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Mortality and Potential Years of Life Lost of Colorectal cancer between Korea and OECD countries before and after the year 2000 (우리나라와 OECD 국가 간의 2000년 전과 후 대장암 사망률과 잠재수명손실연수에 관한 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Kang, Soo-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5261-5270
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    • 2012
  • The present study is designed to compare the mortality and potential years of life lost of colorectal cancer between OECD countries and Korea before (1990-1999) and after (2000-2009) to provide data of more accurate strategy of public health policy and education about cancer treatment and prevention through examining differences of changes among the OECD countries. We statistically compared mortality and potential years of life lost from 32 OECD countries including Korea, except 2 nations with inadequate data, between before (1990-1999) and after the year 2000 (2000-2009) using 'OECD Health Data 2012' using the method of paired t-test. Male mortality of colorectal cancer was increased in 8 OECD countries including Korea and the female mortality was only increased in Chile and Korea. In particular, the increased rate of mortality was significantly high in Korean male and female. Moreover, increased rate of potential years of life lost for colorectal cancer was also significantly high in Korea: the rate in Korean male was increased over three times than in Mexico (2nd rank of the increase) and the rate of female was only increased in Korea compared with other countries, interestingly. Therefore, the present study suggested that most OECD countries well controlled the incidence and treatment of colorectal cancer after 2000 but Korea did not. From these, to control future problems, the further studies for the reason of the increase of potential years of life lost in female will be needed.