• Title, Summary, Keyword: ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity)

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Relation of Serum Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity with Metabolic Risk Factors in Human Volunteers

  • Kwak, Ho-Kyung;Yoon, Sun
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 2005
  • Oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC) is known to be a sensitive and simple method to determine total antioxidant capacity(TAC) in biological samples. While TAC has received great attention with its relation to pathogenesis in the progression of several diseases, little is known about association of ORAC with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ORAC and serum lipid profiles, fasting glucose and anthropometric measures. One hundred seventeen volunteers participated in the study. Perchloric acid treated serum was used to determine $ORAC_{pca}$. Mean$ORAC_{pca}$ of subjects whose serum total cholesterol(TC) concentrations were $\geq$ 200 mg/dl was significantly(P < 0.05) higher than that of subjects whose TC concentrations were < 200mg/dl. There were significantly positive correlations between $ORAC_{pca}$ and serum concentrations of TC(P < 0.05) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol(P < 0.01). The positive relation between cholesterol concentrations and $ORAC_{pca}$ in serum may suggest an elevated TAC against oxidative stress associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. (J Community Nutrition 7(4): $215\∼219$, 2005)

Microplate-Based Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) Assay of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Compartments in Plasma

  • Kwak Ho Kyung;Blumberg Jeffrey B.;Chen Chung Yen;Milbury Paul E.
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2006
  • Methods have been developed to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of foods and plasma but limitations are associated with their ability to determine precisely the contribution of lipophilic antioxidants in a lipid milieu as well as interactions among them Thus, we modified the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay to determine the peroxyradical scavenging ability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments in plasma The hydrophilic ORAC assay was performed in a phosphate buffer system utilizing 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a peroxyradical generator and fluorescein as the target The lipophilic ORAC assay was carried out in a dimethylsulfoxide :butyronitrile (DMSO/BN, 9:1 v/v) system using 2,2'-azobis (2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile) as a peroxyradical generator and BODIPY C11 581/591 as the target Analyses were conducted in bovine serum supplemented with water - and lipid - soluble antioxidants and in human plasma. Albumin (0.5$\sim$5 g/dL) and uric acid (0.1$\sim$0.5 $\mu$mol/L) increased hydrophilic ORAC values in a dose-dependent fashion ($R^{2}$=0.97 and 0.98, respectively) but had no impact on lipophilic ORAC values. $\alpha$-Tocopherol (15$\sim$200 $\mu$mol/L) increased lipophilic ORAC values in a dose-dependent fashion ($R^{2}$=0.94); neither $\alpha$-tocopherol nor $\beta$-carotene had an impact on hydrophilic ORAC values. However, addition of $\beta$-carotene at physiological concentration (0.23$\sim$1.86 $\mu$mol/L), either alone or in combination with other carotenoids, had no significant impact on lipophilic ORAC values. Thus, while assays of 'total antioxidant capacity' in biological matrices would be a useful research and clinical tool, existing methods are limited by the lack of complete responsiveness to the full range of dietary antioxidants.

In vitro and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Arginyl-fructose and Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose

  • Lee, Jung-Sook;Kim, Gyo-Nam;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Eui-Su;Ha, Kyoung-Soo;Kwon, Young-In;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Jang, Hae-Dong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1505-1510
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    • 2009
  • Arginyl-fructose (AF) and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG) were chemically synthesized and purified. Their in vitro and cellular antioxidant activity was investigated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity assay, respectively. The peroxyl radical scavenging activity of AF was much higher than that of AFG, which was in good agreement with their reduction capacity to donate electrons or hydrogen atoms. On the other hand, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of AF was weaker than that of AFG, which was consistent with their metal chelating activity, suggesting that AFG-$Cu^{2+}$ complex may be less redox-active than AF-$Cu^{2+}$ complex due to 1 glucose molecule attached. The cellular antioxidant activity of AF and AFG appeared to depend on both their permeability into cell membrane and the scavenging activity on peroxyl or hydroxyl radicals. These results indicate that AF and AFG, Maillard reaction products, may have a high potential as a material for the development of nutraceutical food with antioxidant activity.

In vitro $\alpha$-Glucosidase Inhibitory Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Lamiaceae Species Inhabited in Korean Penninsula

  • Kim, Dong-Soo;Kwon, Hyun Jeong;Jang, Hae-Dong;Kwon, Young-In
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2009
  • In the current study, inhibitory activity of 8 selected Korean edible plants of Lamiaceae family against $\alpha$-glucosidases, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powder was evaluated. Total flavonoids and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were also investigated. Methyl alcohol extracts of Scutellaria indica (SI) had the highest $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity relevant for potentially managing hyperglycemia, followed by Clinopodium gracile (CG) and Thymus quinquecostatus (TQ). These 3 species also showed significant antioxidant activity in ORAC system. The $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared to selected phenolics. Among the standard phenolics tested quercetin which was major flavonoid in the extracts had the highest $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity. CG, TQ, and SI which had high quercetin content and ORAC values also exhibited significant sucrase inhibitory activity. Results suggested that selected 3 Korean Lamiaceae species have the potential development of effective dietary strategy for postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress-linked diabetes complications.

Determination of the Antioxidant Capacity of Korean Ginseng Using an ORAC Assay (ORAC Assay 에 의한 인삼의 항산화 활성 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Young-Mok
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Korean ginseng using an ORAC(Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay. Four fractions each (80% ethanol, ethyl acetate, water saturated 1-butanol, and water) were obtained from different ginseng samples (White Ginseng: ; 6 yrs-., 5 yrs-., ; Cork Ginseng: ; 5 yrs-., 4 yrs-.). The saponin content of each fraction was quantified by LC/MS, and the antioxidant capacity of the ginseng was measured by the ORAC assay. The ORAC method, which was recently validated using automatic liquid handling systems, has been adapted for manual handling with the use of a conventional fluorescence microplate reader. Furthermore, the ORAC assay provides a direct measure of hydrophilic chain-breaking antioxidant capacity against peroxy radical, which is the exiting and emission of 2,2'-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine)-dihychloride (AAPH). As a result of our experiments, ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 were the two major saponins found in the ginseng samples, and Rc, Rb2, Re, Rd, Rg3, and Rh1 were detected in a small quantities. For the antioxidant capacities of the fractions (80% ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water), we found that the organic solvent fraction had similar antioxidant capacities, and were higher than the capacity of the water fraction. When determining the similarities in each fraction, only the ethyl acetate fraction showed similarity compared to other fractions (p>0.05). The antioxidant capacity of ginseng may come from phenolic compounds and some nonpolar saponins. However, based on the results of this study, we hypothesize that some acidic polysaccharides and other biological components may contribute to its antioxidant capacity. Additional research is required to determine other possible biological response modifiers that contribute to the antioxidant capacity of ginseng.

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Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities of Natural Components of Artemisia iwayomogi

  • Yan, Xi-Tao;Ding, Yan;Lee, Sang Hyun;Li, Wei;Sun, Ya-Nan;Yang, Seo Young;Jang, Hae Dong;Kim, Young Ho
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2014
  • The antioxidant activities of 29 components isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia iwayomogi were evaluated in vitro and in cell culture. Among the tested compounds, 2, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14 exhibited the greatest peroxyl radical-scavenging activities in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2, 10, and 14 also showed significant reducing capacities. However, all compounds showed weak metal chelating activities. Their cellular antioxidant activities were evaluated in HepG2 cells. At $10{\mu}M$, compounds 6, 8, and 14 exhibited stronger protection against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress than compounds 2, 10, and 13. Moreover, Compounds 2 and 8 were more effective in protecting against $Cu^{2+}$-induced oxidative stress than compounds 6, 10, 13, and 14 at $10{\mu}M$. These results suggest that the phenolic compounds in A. iwayomogi have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Antioxidant Activity of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Peel Extracts Obtained as Onion Byproducts (산업체 적용을 위한 양파껍질 추출물의 항산화활성)

  • Joung, Eun Mi;Jung, Kwang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.364-368
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the antioxidant activity of onion peels extracted from onion byproducts by hot water treatment. Hot water extraction of freeze dried onion peel powder was analyzed for total polyphenol content, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryllhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Total polyphenol content was the highest (233.90 mg/g) in onion peel extract mix with ethanol (OPME-1). The DPPH radical scavenging activity ($IC_{50}$), reducing power, and ORAC obtainbed from onion peel extract mix with ethanol precipitation (OPMPE-1) were the highest at 1.15 mg/mL, 1.69 $A_{700}$, and $318,509{\mu}M\;TE/mL$, respectively. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was the highest at 432.78 mg amino acids (AA) eq/g in the OPM. The results of this study suggest that onion peel extracts have marked antioxidant activity, which can have significant health benefits.

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases-12 (MMP-12) and Anti-oxidant Effect of Xanthohumol from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

  • Lee, Keyong Ho;Yoon, Won Ho
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.261-265
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    • 2012
  • Xanthohumol was isolated from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), and then investigated anti-oxidant effect by AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cell and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORCA) assays and MMP-12 inhibitory effect by direct MMP-12 inhibition assay. The treatment of xanthohumol protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage such as cell viability, SOD and GSH-px reduction in a dose dependant manner (0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$), the SOD value was 2.98, 4.51, and 5.77 U/mg protein, and GSH-px value was 30.12, 49.32, and 60.11 U/mg protein. ORAC value of xanthohumol was showed as 4320, 12004, and $14209{\mu}M$ TE/g at the concentration 0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$, respectively. The change of SOD and GSH-px values was significantly correlated with the results of ORAC assay, that is, AAPH-induced cell and ORCA assays. In addition, inhibition of MMP-12 that is known to play an important role in skin aging was 14%, 37%, 46%, and 79% at the concentration of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$, respectively. On the basis of these results, xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) showed interesting biological and pharmacological activity such as anti-oxidant effect and anti-aging.

Increase of Antioxidant Activities of Egg White Protein Hydrolysate by Fractionation without Using Toxic Chemicals

  • Park, Eun Young;Sato, Kenji
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2018
  • The objectives of the present study were to examine the antioxidant activity of autofocusing fractions from egg white protein hydrolysates and obtain higher antioxidant peptide fraction, which could be applied to the food model system. Alkaline protease hydrolysate of egg white protein exerted higher antioxidant activities than other protein hydrolysates and were fractionated on the basis of the amphoteric nature of sample peptides by preparative isoelectric focusing without toxic solvents and reagents, which is termed autofocusing. Neutral and basic fractions showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the acidic fractions. The acidic and neutral fractions showed higher hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values than the basic fractions. The acidic fractions showed higher metal chelating activity than basic fractions. Antioxidant activities of some autofocusing fractions except for ORAC showed higher compared to the crude hydrolysate. These results suggest that peptides fractions from egg white protein are effective antioxidant, and that autofocusing could be useful to increase antioxidant activity for application to food system.

Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Concentrates and Purees (음료 농축액 및 퓨레의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Dan Bi;Shin, Gi Hae;Cho, Ju Hyun;Baik, Soon Ok;Lee, Ok-Hawn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.997-1002
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the physicochemical properties (pH, Brix), total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), and nitrite scavenging activity of beverage concentrates and purees. All concentrates and purees were produced from natural materials and have been used as the main ingredients in health-related beverages. Our results show that the pH values and Brix of all concentrates and purees ranged from 2.81 to 5.12 and 1.70 to 70.30 Brix, respectively. The highest total phenol content (182.71 mg GAE/mL), DPPH radical scavenging activity (69.88%) and nitrite scavenging activity (28.19%) were obtained from acai berry puree. The concentrate from wild blueberry had the highest ORAC value ($27,514{\mu}M$ TE/mL). Among the correlation coefficient data, the total phenol content exhibited a high correlation coefficient (r=0.9099) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that concentrates and purees from natural materials contribute to antioxidant activities in healthy beverages.