• Title, Summary, Keyword: Opisthorchis viverrini

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Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J.;Rujirakul, Ratana;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5245-5249
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    • 2012
  • Background: Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public-health problem in Southeast Asia especially in Lao PDR and Thailand. It is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases and the evidence strongly indicates that liver fluke infection is the major etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to determine actual levels of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during a one year period from October 2010 to September 2011. O. viverrini infection was determined using a modified Kato's thick smear technique and socio-demographic data were collected using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 1,168 stool samples were obtained from 516 males and 652 females, aged 5-90 years. Stool examination showed that 2.48% were infected with O. viverrini. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the different was not statistically significant. O. viverrini infection was most frequent in the 51-60 year age group and was found to be positively associated with education and occupation. Positive results were evident in 16 of 32 districts, the highest prevalence being found in Non Daeng with 16.7%, followed by Pra Thai with 11.1%, Kaeng Sanam Nang with 8.33%, and Lam Ta Men Chai (8.33%) districts. Conclusion: This study indicates that O viverrini is still a problem in some areas of Nakhon Ratchasima, the patients in this study bing suitable for the purpose of monitoring projects.

Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

  • Dao, Thanh Thi Ha;Abatih, Emmanuel Nji;Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang;Tran, Ha Thi Lam;Gabriel, Sarah;Smit, Suzanne;Le, Phap Ngoc;Dorny, Pierre
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.357-361
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    • 2016
  • Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection and Associated Hepatobiliary Disease Is Associated with Iron Loaded M2-like Macrophages

  • Bility, Moses T.;Sripa, Banchob
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.695-699
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    • 2014
  • Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection.

Re-examination of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in Northeast Thailand

  • Yeoh, Kheng-Wei;Promthet, Supannee;Sithithaworn, Paiboon;Kamsaard, Supot;Parkin, Donald Maxwell
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3413-3418
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    • 2015
  • Background: Liver fluke infection caused by the parasite Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini), a human carcinogen, is endemic in north-eastern Thailand and remains a major health problem. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to (1) resurvey the prevalence of O. viverrini infection in a field site from the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (in newly recruited subjects as well as previous cohort subjects surveyed in 1992); (2) investigate how subjects' lifestyle habits and their exposure to health promotion initiatives influence changes in prevalence of O. viverrini infection. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the cohort subjects (as well as new subjects) was investigated using faecal egg counts. Information on demographic factors, lifestyle and awareness of health promotion initiatives were obtained through questionnaires. Results: O. viverrini infection rates in the same individuals of the cohort were lower in 2006 than in 1992. Also, by studying the period effect, the current 35-44 year olds had a 12.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 20.9%) lower prevalence of O. viverrini infection than the 35-44 year olds in 1992 (24.2% versus 11.8%). Lifestyle choices showed that smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased chance of acquiring O. viverrini infection with adjusted odds ratios of 10.1 (95%CI 2.4-41.6) and 5.3 (95%CI 1.2-23.0), respectively. Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated that although the prevalence of O. viverrini infection over a 14-year period has decreased, unhealthy lifestyle was common with smoking and alcohol consumption being associated with increased chances of infection, emphasising the double burden of disease which developing countries are facing.

Carcinogenic Human Liver Fluke: Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J.;Ueng-Arporn, Naporn;Rujirakul, Ratana;Churproong, Seekaow;Matrakool, Likit;Auiwatanagul, Suprakrit;Sripa, Banchob
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1235-1240
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    • 2012
  • Background: Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public-health problem in Southeast Asia. It is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases and the evidence strongly indicates that liver fluke infection is the etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate Opisthorchis viverrini metacercarial infection in cyprinoid fish collected from 32 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand during one year period from February 2010 to February 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, data being collected with pepsin-HCl digestion and stereomicroscope, respectively. Analysis was performed using SPSS Windows Version 12.0. Results: A total of 640 Cyprinidae family fish including 5 species were collected from different study sites, and investigated for O. viverrini metacercariae. The infection rate was 12.3% (79/640), predominantly in Cyclocheilichthys armatus, C. repasson, Puntioplites proctzysron, Hampala macrolepitota and Hampala dispar, respectively. The prevalence of O. viverrini metaceria in Nakhon Ratchasima area was 78.1%, predominantly in Sida and KiaKham Thale So. Conclusion: This findings stress that natural fish species in rural communities are still a source of O viverrini infection and put local people at risk, therefore public awareness and prevention campaigns are urgently required.

Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Wakkuwattapong, Parichart;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Pengsaa, Prasit;Jomkoa, Darawan;Joosiri, Apinya;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2973-2977
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income <4,000 baht per month (4.82%), and living in Khon Sawan district (8.43%). Participants had a high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Carcinogenic Human Liver Fluke in Elderly from Surin Province, Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J.;Rujirakul, Ratana;Ueng-Arporn, Naporn;Matrakool, Likit;Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai;Churproong, Seekaow;Wongkaewpothong, Patcharaporn;Nimkuntod, Porntip;Sripa, Banchob;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4285-4288
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    • 2012
  • Background: Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public-health problem in Southeast Asia. It is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases and the evidence strongly indicates that liver fluke infection is the etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to determine Opisthorchis viverrini infection in elderly people in Surin province, Northeastern Thailand. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 333 elderly in 17 districts of Surin province, during one year period from January to December 2011. O. viverrini infection was determined using Kato's Thick Smear technique and socio-demographic were collected using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires, respectively. Results: A total of 333 elderly including 116 males and 217 females were selected from different study sites. Overall intestinal parasitic infection was 16.2%, predominantly in O. viverrini (9.91%) and followed by Strongyloides stercolaris (4.80%) and hookworm (1.50%), respectively. The O. viverrini infection was found higher in males (13.8%) than females (7.83%), and frequently in elderly 60-70 year old with 14.2%. Chi-square testing indicated that education and occupation were significantly associated with O. viverrini infection (P value = 0.02). The distribution of O. viverrini infection was found in 11 districts which was covered 64.7% of the studies areas. The highest prevalence was found in Thatum with 39.1%, and followed by Sangkha (24.0%), Buachet (21.1%), Samrong Thap (19.1%), Si Narong (15.0%), and Ratanaburi (13.3%) districts. Conclusion: This findings stress that O viverrini is still a problem in Thailand. We confirmed, for the first time, the high endemicity of human O. viverrini infections in elderly in Surin province of Thailand, underlying the fact that mass treatment and health education are urgently required.

Re-Examination of Opisthorchis viverrini in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand, Indicates Continued Needs for Health Intervention

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Loyd, Ryan A;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Kompor, Porntip;Norkaew, Jun;Chavengkun, Wasugree;Kujapan, Jirawoot;Polphimai, Sukanya;Phatisena, Tanida;Eaksunti, Thawatchai;Polsripradist, Poowadol;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.231-234
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma particularly in the cases of chronic or re-infection. This presents a serious health problem in northeastern and northern Thailand. A community base approach is required for surveillance. Therefore, in a pilot project, re-examination of O. viverrini infection was conducted in the 3 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during June and October 2015. A total of 355 participants from a 194,152 population, was selected through multi-stage sampling. O. viverrini infection was determined using modified Kato Katz thick smear technique. Participants were 229 males and 126 females, and aged ${\geq}30$ years old. Prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 2.25% (8/355 participants). O. viverrini infection was slightly higher in females (3.17%), and age group between 41-50 years (4.49%). Mueang Yang district had a highest of O. viverrini infection rate (2.82%), and followed by Bua Yai (2.48%), and Chum Phuang (1.84%), respectively. O. viverrini infection rate was increased from year 2012 to 2015 particularly in Bua Yai and Mueang Yang. These re-examinion results indicate that opisthorchiasis is still problem in community of Nakhon Ratchasima province, therefore, the provincial-wide scale is need required. Furthermore health education is need intervened in the infected group, and screening of cholangiocarcinoma is urgently concerned.

Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn;Kompor, Ponthip;Chavenkun, Wasugree;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Norkaew, Jun;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Rujirakul, Ratana;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Pholsripradit, Poowadol;Eksanti, Thawatchai;Phatisena, Tanida;Loyd, Ryan A;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6825-6830
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    • 2015
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini among Rural Community People in Northeast Thailand: a Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study using Multistage Sampling Technique

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Rujirakul, Ratana;Ueng-arporn, Naporn;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7803-7807
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    • 2015
  • Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia especially in the northeast and north of Thailand. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling was conducted from the rural communities of Surin province, Thailand, during September 2013 to July 2014. O. viverrini infection was determined using Kato's thick smear technique. Socio-demographic, information resources, and history data were collected using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 510 participants completed interviews and had stools collected. Some 32 (6.47%) participants were infected with O. viverrini. The rate was slightly higehr in males (6.61%) than females (6.32%). High frequencies were found in the age groups 61-70 (19.4%) and 71-80 years (19.4%), those involved in agriculture (10.5%), and in primary school (10.3%). The distribution of high infection was found in Tha Tum (16.7%) and Sankha district (16.7%), followed by Samrong Thap (13.3%), Si Narong (13.33%), and Buachet district (13.33%). Chi-square testing indicated that age (61-70 and 71-80 year old), education (primary school) and occupation (agriculture), were significantly associated with O. viverrini infection (p-value<0.05). Of 72.6% participants who had past histories with stool examination, 17.0% of them had been infected with O. viverrini and 43.2% treated with praziquantel. This finding confirmed that O. viverrini is still a problem in Surin province, Thailand, and therefore, interventions are urgently required for mass treatment and health education implementation.