• Title/Summary/Keyword: Oral cancer

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Clinical Diagnosis of Oral Cancer (구강암의 임상적 진단)

  • Choi, Sung Weon
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.136-145
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    • 2011
  • Oral cavity cancer accounts for approximately 3-4% of all malignancies and is a significant worldwide health problem. The Korea Central Cancer Registry estimates that there will be approximately 1500 new cases of oral cancer in Korea. Oral cancer occurs most commonly in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The majority of oral malignancies occur as squamous cell carcinomas and despite remarkable advances in treatment modalities, the 5-year survival rate has not significantly improved over the past several decades, hovering at about 50% to 60%. The unfavorable 5-year survival rate may be attributable to several factors. First, oral cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage, with late stage 5-year survival rates as low as 22%. Additionally, the development of secondary primary tumors in patients with early stage disease has a major impact on survival. The early detection of oral cancer and premalignant lesions offers the promise to cure chance of oral cancer. The major diagnostics moddalities for oral cancer include oral cavity examination, supravital staining, oral cytology, and optical detection systems. But the clinical finding of oral mucosa is the most important key to confirm the oral cancer until now. The traditional clinical examination of oral cavity can be performed quickly, is without additional diagnostic expense to patients, and may be performed by health care professionals. Therefore, clinicians must be well-acquainted with clinical characteristics of oral cancer and practice routine screening for oral cancer in dental clinic to decrease the morbidity and mortality of disease.

Oral precancerous lesion and oral cancer prevention (구강 전암병소 및 구강암 예방)

  • Cha, In-Ho
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2011
  • Oral precancerous lesion is a morphologically altered tissue in which oral cancer is more likely to occur than is apparently normal counterpart. As dentists always do oral examination and dental treatment, with fundamental knowledge and attention of this lesion, it is relatively easy to find one. If followed by proper treatment and management, it is possible to minimize its oral cancer progression, or at least delay it. Even if it were to progress to oral cancer, very early detection is possible. However, no specific biomarkers are present at the moment that could reveal oral precnacerous lesion that is high risk of oral cancer progression. Since early detection of oral cancer followed by treatment could show good prognosis with just a simple ablative surgery. Dentists should also instruct people to avoid risk factor related oral cancer progression and take natural compound having anticancer effect. Hereby, As a primary care givers, dentists play an important role in prevention of oral cancer.

Diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer (구강암의 간편 진단 기법)

  • Bang, Kang-Mi;Kim, Soung-Min;Myoung, Hoon;Kim, Myung-Jin;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.146-152
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    • 2011
  • Historically, the screening of patients for signs of oral cancer and precancerous lesions has relied upon the conventional oral examination. A variety of commercial diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are developed to potentially assist in the screening of healthy patients for evidence of occult cancerous change. This paper is reviewing the literature associated with current oral cancer screening aids such as spectroscopy, chemoiluminescence, exfoliative cytopathology, vital staining and saliva as a diagnostic tool. Despite the increased public awareness of oral cancer, no technique or technology to date has provided definitive evidence to suggest that it improves the sensitivity or specificity of oral cancer screening beyond clinical oral examination alone.

Dentists' Perception of the Role they Play in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

  • Saleh, Amyza;Kong, Yink Heay;Vengu, Nedunchelian;Badrudeen, Haja;Zain, Rosnah Binti;Cheong, Sok Ching
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2014
  • Background: Dentists are typically the first professionals who are approached to treat ailments within the oral cavity. Therefore they should be well-equipped in detecting suspicious lesions during routine clinical practice. This study determined the levels of knowledge on early signs and risk factors associated with oral cancer and identified which factors influenced dentist participation in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

Foundation and management of oral cancer research center in korean association of oral and maxillofacial surgeons (대한구강악안면외과학회의 구강암 연구소 설립 및 운용)

  • Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 2010
  • Today, one in four Koreans dies of cancer. Cancer is fast becoming one of the most serious diseases faced by not only Koreans, but for human kind, and this trend is forecasted to continue in the future. Korean association of oral and maxillofacial surgeons(KAOMS) have founded oral cancer research center since 1995. Now, KAOMS oral cancer research center is playing essential role as headquaters for conquering oral cancer. KAOMS oral cancer research center currently functions in the following areas: 1. performing basic and clinical research on oral cancer 2. promoting oral cancer prevention act 3. offering education and training about cancer treatment for oral and maxillofacial surgeons

Promoting Oral Cancer Awareness and Early Detection using a Mass Media Approach

  • Saleh, Amyza;Yang, Yi-Hsin;Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah Wan Abd;Abdullah, Norlida;Doss, Jennifer Geraldine;Navonil, Roy;Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul;Ismail, Siti Mazlipah;Talib, Norain Abu;Zain, Rosnah Binti;Cheong, Sok Ching
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1217-1224
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    • 2012
  • Background and Aim: Less than 50% of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at early stages of the disease and this is in part due to poor awareness and lack of knowledge on the signs and symptoms of oral cancer. This study sought to measure the baseline awareness of oral cancer in Malaysia and aimed to increase public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer using a mass media campaign. Methods: Baseline awareness and impact of the campaign was measured using self-administered questionnaires sent via email to individuals. The campaign was aired on two national television channels and the reach was monitored through an independent programme monitoring system. Results: 78.2% of respondents had heard of oral cancer, and this increased significantly after the campaign. However, the ability to recognize signs and symptoms remains unchanged. We found that the level of awareness differed between the distinct ethnic subgroups and the reach of the campaign was not uniform across all ethnicities. Conclusion: This substantial study to measure the oral cancer awareness in Malaysia provides important baseline data for the planning of public health policies. Despite encouraging evidence that a mass media campaign could increase the awareness of oral cancer, further research is required to address the acceptability, comprehensiveness and effectiveness. Furthermore, different campaign approaches may be required for specific ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic country such as Malaysia.

Dilemmas of Oral Cancer Screening: An Update

  • Kujan, Omar;Sloan, Philip
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3369-3373
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    • 2013
  • Oral cancer is a global health burden with high mortality and morbidity. Advances in treatment have failed to improve the relatively poor survival rate due to late-stage diagnosis. Early detection and screening have been shown to be effective in reducing mortality and morbidity of most common cancers. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of oral cancer screening programs but clear results were not obtained. This narrative commentary aimed to give a critical insight into the dilemma of oral cancer screening and to suggest recommendations for future trends. Conventional oral examination still constitutes the gold standard screening tool for potentially malignant oral lesions and cancer. Interestingly, the findings of the most lasting (15-year) randomized controlled trial on oral cancer screening using visual examination (Kerala) supported the introduction of a screening program in high-risk individuals. Several screening adjuncts exist but are still not at the introduction stage. Further research to find an appropriate adjunct reliable tool for oral cancer screening is needed. In conclusion, oral cancer fulfills most of the essential principles of cancer screening but still many points need to be clarified. Therefore, there is a striking need to establish a global consortium on oral cancer screening that will oversee research and provide recommendations for health authorities at regular intervals.

Oral Cancer: Knowledge, Practices and Opinions of Dentists in Yemen

  • Alaizari, Nader Ahmed;Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5627-5631
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    • 2014
  • Background: Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Results: Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. Conclusions: These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

Quantitative Review of Oral Cancer Research Output from Pakistan

  • Khan, Zohaib;Muller, Steffen;Ahmed, Shahzad;Tonnies, Justus;Nadir, Faryal;Samkange-Zeeb, Florence
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4733-4739
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    • 2015
  • Background: Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men and second only to breast cancer among women in Pakistan. For the effective control and prevention of oral cancer, Pakistan needs to recognize the importance of research and generation of the evidence-base which can inform policy making and planning and implementation of intervention programs. The objective of this review was to quantify oral cancer research output in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A systematic electronic search in "Medline", "ISI-Web of Science" and "Pakmedinet", supplemented by a Google search, was carried out in January and February, 2014, to identify literature from Pakistan relevant to oral cancer. The selection of publications for the review was carried out according to preset criteria. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 166 publications comprising 62 case series, 36 cross sectional, 31 case control, 10 basic laboratory research, eleven reviews and two trials, were included in this review. Some 35 % of the publications focused on risk factors for oral cancer. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the institution with the highest contribution. Conclusions: There is a lack of research in the field of oral cancer research in Pakistan. Focused efforts should be put in place to improve both quality and quantity of oral cancer research in the country.

Lysophosphatidic Acid-Induced TWIST1 and Slug Expression in Oral Cancer Cell Invasion

  • Cho, Kyung Hwa
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2017
  • Relative to its incidence, oral cancer has serious negative social effects. The exact causes of oral cancer have not been clarified, but many studies have implicated smoking and drinking. However, the fundamental mechanism of oral cancer causation has yet to be elucidated. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) augments epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and development of various cancer cells. However, a detailed mechanistic explanation for LPA-induced EMT and the effects of EMT-promoting conditions on oral squamous cell carcinoma development remain elusive. In the present study, a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze TWIST1, Slug, E-cadherin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcript expression. Immunoblotting was used to analyze TWIST1, Slug, E-cadherin, and GAPDH protein expression. siRNAs were used to silence TWIST1 and Slug transcript expression. A matrigel-coated in vitro invasion insert was used to analyze oral cancer cell invasion. The results of the present study show that the expression levels of TWIST1 and Slug, which are EMT factors, were increased by LPA treatment in YD-10B oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conversely, E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced. In addition, transfection of the cells with TWIST1 and Slug siRNA strongly inhibited LPA-induced oral cancer cell invasion. The present study shows that TWIST1 and Slug mediate LPA-induced oral cancer cell EMT and invasiveness. The present study confirmed the mechanism by which LPA promotes oral cancer cell development, with TWIST1 and Slug providing novel biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for oral cancer cell development.