Purpose - This study sought to discuss definitions of organizational culture taking into consideration different views, and the historical and philosophical elements of organizational culture. Research Design, Data, and Methodology - This paper is a relatively conceptual study that has attempted to define organizational culture, a topic that has been debated among scholars and practitioners. Various studies in the literature related to organizational culture have been reviewed in an effort to reduce the complexities and ambiguities in definitions of organizational culture. Results -This study summarized and synthesized different studies related to organizational culture, and identified the main streams for defining organizational culture as being from the historical and philosophical elements of organizational culture. Conclusions -The concept of organizational culture continues to be an important factor affecting organizational effectiveness and initiating organizational development. However, the definition of organizational culture has not been well-established. In this sense, this paper seems to be significant and meaningful as it attempts to define organizational culture from different perspectives.
Jo, Heui-Sug;Cho, Woo-Hyun;Chun, Ki-Hong;Moon, Ok-Ryun;Lee, Sun-Hee
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Objectives: Organizational culture has beer important in field of organizational behavior research for the past decade. Although there has been a growing interest in the organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, there is few research in health care field. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of organizational culture and organizational effectiveness at general hospital. Methods: Data was collected by self-administrated questionares. Organizational cultures were measured by using Likert scale. A general hospital in Kyunggi-Do was selected and survey was conducted to 675 workers. Data was analyzed with computer package, PC-SPSS. Results: There were four types of organizational culture in this hospital consensual culture, developmental culture, hierarchical culture, rational culture. Many workers recognized their culture as rational culture and developmental culture. This finding showed that the hospital had both human related and task related climate. There were some differences in recognition of sub-organizational culture by occupational group, but perceived organizational culture was in accordance with sub-organizational culture in general. Multiple regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted to find the relationship of organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. As a result, developmental culture showed a strong relationship with organizational commitment and job-satisfaction. Conclusions: These results showed that types of organizational culture were significantly related to organizational effectiveness and understanding the existing culture is essential to develope their organizational effectiveness.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: The purpose of this research is, by investigating organizational characteristics, types of nursing organizational culture and team effectiveness in ICU, to ascertain the type of nursing organizational culture and the organizational characteristic that can improve the team effectiveness. Method: The research targeted 427 nurses from 33 ICUs of 14 general hospitals which have more than 250 beds and the data were gathered by using self-report questionnaires from April 10, 2003 to April 24, 2003. For this research, the following tools were used; the tool for measuring organizational characteristics and organizational cultures and the tool for measuring team effectiveness. Result: The most significant nursing organizational characteristic in ICU is the centralization. The organizational culture in ICU is generally rank-oriented culture. There was a significant difference (p<.01) in four types of organizational cultures; relation-oriented, innovation-oriented, rank-oriented and task-oriented. Verifying influence power of organizational cultures upon team effectiveness of ICU, relation-oriented culture had 49.2% of an influence upon team effectiveness, innovation- oriented and relation-oriented culture had 60.4% of an influence, and rank-oriented, innovation-oriented and relation-oriented culture had 61.2% of an influence. The organizational culture profiles according to the types of nursing organizational cultures in 33 ICUs were found by a cluster analysis. They were classified into five culture profiles; strong balance culture profile, weak balance culture profile, innovation-oriented and task-oriened culture profile, strong relation culture profile and strong rank culture profile(p<0.5). According to me organizational culture profiles, a significant difference of team effectivenesses(coworker satisfaction, team performance perception, team satisfaction and team commitment) was found(p<.01). The strong balance culture profile had the best team effectivenesses. Conclusion: For nursing culture management, a nursing administrator should identify the relevant nursing organizational culture at first by utilizing an innovative team-leader. After identifying the organizational culture, the administrator should make strategic plans and practices that can distinguish good organizational cultures to be expanded from ones to be sublated so that a strong balance culture can be developed.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect dietitians' perceived organizational culture has on organizational commitment at hospital foodservices. A total of 382 dietitians working at general hospitals with 500 beds or more participated in the survey from January 16 to February 8, 2017. The result of perceived organizational culture showed hierarchical culture, rational culture, development culture, and group culture scored to be 5.29, 5.25, 5.15, and 4.97 out of 7, respectively. Differences in the perception of organizational culture and organizational commitment were observed according to the general demographics of subjects, but no significant differences were shown according to the general characteristics of hospitals. For organizational commitment perception, affective commitment (5.14), normative commitment (4.41), and continuance commitment (4.21) were identified. There were differences according to age, work experience at the present job, position, and education level by type of organizational culture. In terms of organizational commitment, there were significant differences in age, work experience at the present job, employment status, and possession of clinical dietitian certificate, position by type of commitment. A positive correlation between dietitians' perceived organizational culture and organizational commitment such as overall organizational commitment, affective commitment, and normative commitment was observed (P<0.01). Group culture, development culture, and hierarchical culture positively affected overall organizational commitment (P<0.001). Development culture, group culture, and hierarchical culture had positive effects on affective commitment, whereas rational culture had a negative influence. Development culture (P<0.05), group culture (P<0.001), and hierarchical culture (P<0.01) positively influenced normative commitment. Results suggest that it is necessary to develop plans for the improvement of rational culture, group culture, and development culture at hospital foodservice organizations.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture types and organizational effectiveness in the hospitals and to identify the cultural and organizational characteristics of the hospitals with high organizational effectiveness. Data were collected from May 12 to June 14. 1997 through questionnaire taken by 1.118 nurses working in 10 hospitals with more than 800 beds and from annual reports published by the hospitals. The instruments were used for collecting the data: Organizational Culture Questionnatire and Organizational Characteristics Questionnatire developed by the researcher. Mowday's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Taylor & Bovver's General Satisfaction Scale. The Results were as follows: 1. The meta culture of the hospital organizations was the conservative culture. 2. There were significant differences of the four organizational cultural types - affiliative culture. innovative culture. conservative culture. task culture among the hospitals(p=.00). 3. The hospital organizations were classified in to three cultural patterns. each of which had similar cultural composition. on the basis of the scores indicating the similarity and difference of the foul' organizational cultural types among the hospitals. The organization of each group represents conservative- dominant culture. innovative-dominant culture and competitive culture. 4. Nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction were significantly different among the cultural patterns(p=.00). In other words. the hospitals with innovative-dominant culture showed higher organizational commitment and job satisfaction than ones with conservative-dominant culture and competitive culture. And also. the growth rate of outpatients and inpatients were significantly different among the cultural patterns(p<.05). The hospitals with innovative -dominant culture showed higher growth rate of outpatients and inpatients than ones with conservative-dominant culture and competitive culture. 5. The hospitals with conservative-dominant culture and competitive culture showed higher level of centralization than ones with innovative -dominant culture(p=.00) And the hospitals with competitive and innovative-dominant culture showed higher level of communication than those with conservative-dominant culture(p=.00) Finally. the hospitals with innovative-dominant culture showed higher level of managerial strategy than those with conservative-dominant and competitive culture. among which the latter showed higher level of managerial strategy than the former(p=.00).
The purpose of this study was to the impact of organizational culture on the organizational effectiveness in hospitals were empirically analysed. Data were collected by 151 social workers including general hospitals with one social worker at least and single-department hospital with two social workers or more, were identified nationwide through the registry of Korean Association of Medical Social Workers and Korean Association of Hospitals. The results of this study were summarized as follows; First, most social workers report that characteristic of culture in their hospitals are group culture the first, hierarchial culture the second, rational culture the third, and developmental culture finally in order of social worker's recognition. Second, according to the types of organizational culture, there were significantly different levels of organizational effectiveness. Social worker's perceived group cultures in hospital showed higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment than other culture patterns. And also, social worker's perceived developmental cultures in hospital showed higher organizational commitment quality of social service than other culture patterns. Third, multiple regression analysis was conducted to find the relationship of organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. As a result, developmental culture showed a strong relationship with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and quality of social services Finally, as for the cultural affects on the organizational effectiveness depended on intensive attention to developmental culture in hospital Consolidating the attribute of developmental culture in hospital is also proposed to improve the organizational cultures.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of Organizational Culture on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in nursing organization. Methods: The sample consisted of 264 nurses of 2 tertiary medical institutions. The instruments used in this study were the nursing organizational culture questionnaire (Han, 2001), job satisfaction scale (Paula, 1978), and Organizational Commitment scale (Mowday et al., 1979). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, t-test, Pearson Correlation. Coefficient, and multiple regression using the SPSS Win 14.0 program. Results: The dominant organizational culture of nursing organization was rank-oriented culture. The mean score of job satisfaction and organizational commitment was 3.28 and 3.40 respectively. Organizational commitment and Job satisfaction were positively correlated with affiliative-oriented culture, innovative-oriented culture, and task-oriented culture. Affiliative-oriented and task-oriented culture were major variables influencing on job satisfaction and affiliative-oriented culture was a major variable influencing organizational commitment. Conclusion: Organizational culture, especially affiliative-oriented culture had a significant influence on nurses' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Therefore, we have to develop strategies to enhancing the affiliative-oriented culture to improve the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of nurses.
The purpose of this study was to identify job satisfaction and organizational commitment depends on their organizational cultures. A survey, including the Organizational Culture Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and Organizational Commitment Scale, was administered to 276 nurses working at 4 small to medium sized hospitals in B city. The dominant organizational culture of nursing organization was relation-oriented culture. The mean score of job satisfaction and organizational commitment was 2.68 and 4.25 respectively. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment were positively correlated with innovation-oriented, task-oriented and relation-oriented culture. Organizational commitment was negatively correlated with rank-oriented culture. Innovation-oriented, clinical career, relation-oriented and rank-oriented culture were variables influencing on job satisfaction and innovation-oriented and rank-oriented culture were major variables influencing organizational commitment. In conclusion, innovation-oriented and rank-oriented culture had a significant influence on nurses' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Therefore, we have to develop strategies to enhancing the innovation-oriented culture and to reducing the rank-oriented culture.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: The Purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between 7S factors of the nursing organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. Method: The data were gathered from the self-reported questionnaires of 717 nurses who work for eight different general hospitals located around Seoul and Kyounggi province. The period of data collection was from November 12 to December 7, 2002. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, clustering analysis, and t-test with SPSS Program were used. Result: The nurses who highly perceived 7S factors of nursing organizational culture showed higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment in comparison with the nurses who lowly perceived 7S factors of nursing organizational culture. And the nurses who highly perceived 7S factors of nursing organizational culture showed higher organizational citizenship behavior in comparison with the nurses who lowly perceived 7S factors of nursing organizational culture. Among subdimension of organizational citizenship behavior, altruism and civic virtue were significant. Conclusion: From the above results, the high group with 7S factors of nursing organizational culture has strong culture, therefore nursing organization with strong culture is very implicative to enhance the organizational effectiveness.
Purpose: The purpose of this study examines the mediating effect of clan leadership in the relationship between hierarchy culture and organizational commitment. Most previous research focused on the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance or organizational culture and job satisfaction. There are few empirical studies that focus on organizational commitment data because it is difficult to collect in many cases of export-driven small and medium sized enterprises. However, this research measures affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment differently than previous research, which is mostly focused on the hierarchy culture, clan leadership, and organizational commitment measurements. Research design, data, methodology: Conceptual research model is based on the studies of Cameron and Quinn (2011), and Gungor and Sahin (2018). The model is designed with three constructs such as hierarchy culture, organizational commitment, and clan leadership. The monitor culture and coordinator culture are as proxy for the hierarchy culture. The affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment are as proxy for the organizational commitment. And also the facilitator leadership and mentor leadership are as proxy for the clan leadership. Based on three hundred cases such as export-driven small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), this study verify the hypothesis. Hypothesis was analyzed with the structural equation modeling. Results: In case of export-driven small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), clan leadership acts as a mediator in the relationship between hierarchy culture and organizational commitment. In case of export-driven small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) with high organizational commitment, clan leadership acts as a mediator in the relationship between hierarchy culture and organizational commitment. In case of export-driven small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) with low organizational commitment, clan leadership did not act as a mediator in the relationship between hierarchy culture and organizational commitment. Conclusions: By controlling for the mediating effect of clan culture, this study have improved the academic contributions as well as policy and practical implications through empirical study of clan leadership that affect organizational commitment in the fields of hierarchy culture. In addition, this study means that the mediating effects on the variables of clan leadership were examined.
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