• Title, Summary, Keyword: Oxytetracycline

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Control of Witches'-broom Disease of Jujube with Oxytetracycline Injection (Oxytetracycline 수한주입에 의한 대추나무 비짜루병 방제)

  • La Yong-Joon;Brown William M.;Moon Dong-Sik
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.107-110
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    • 1976
  • A Witches'-broom disease of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) with which mycoplasma-like bodies are associated is wide spread in South Korea. Jujube trees with witches'-broom symptoms were selected from 15-20 year old planting and treated with solution of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (Terramycin). Treatments were 1) one injection on April; 2) one postharvest injection on October; 3) two injections (April and July); 4) three injections (April, June and August) and 5) an untreated control. Each injection consisted of 500ml of 1,000 p.p.m. solution of oxytetracycline HCl transfused into affected trees from plastic reservoir through plastic tubes connected to 3 small holes drilled in the basal part of the tree trunks. Complete remission of witches'-broom symptoms was accomplished within one growing season by one spring (April) injection. One postharvest (Oct.) injection also prevented the symptoms in the following growing season. Two and three injection treatments prevented the symptoms for at least two growing seasons and restored previously severely diseased trees to normal or near normal conditions. Remission of symptoms was found only above the injection site while current season witches'-brooms developed from areas below the injection site and from untreated main scaffolds. The results of this experiment demonstrates that transfusion treatment with oxytetracyclin HCl is feasible for the practical control of witches'-broom of jujube.

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Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Elastase by Tetracyclines and Mechanism of the Inhibition (Tetracycline계 항균제에 의한 호중구 Elastase의 효소 활성도 억제 및 그 작용 기전)

  • Kim, Woo-Mi;Kang, Koo-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 1993
  • Human neutrophil elastase (HNE, EC 3,4,21, 11), a mediator of tissue breakdown, was inhibited by tetracycline, oxytetracycline and demeclocycline. Among them, oxytetracycline showed the most potent inhibitory effect on the activity of HNE. IC50 of this drug at our specific condition was less than 1 mM. Tetracycline inhibited human neutrophil elastase non-competitively, and oxytetracycline inhibited competitively. Ki values of tetracycline and oxytetracycline were 4.9 mM and 0.39 mM, respectively. Structural modified tetracycline, de-dimethylaminotetracycline, which showed no antibiotic activity since the active dimethylamino radical was removed from the position #4 of the tetracycline, showed similar inhibition effect on the activity of human neutrophil elastase to that of tetracycline. Thus, we speculated that inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by tetracyclines was not depended on the dimethylamino radical which is a critical active site for antibiotic effect, rather it was depended on the hydoxyl radical of tetracyclines. Therefore, the property of inhibiting elastase may be an additional molecular biochemical mechanism of action of these drugs at the inflammatory sites.

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Chemical Control of bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit (참다래 궤양병의 약제 방제)

  • 고영진
    • Plant Disease and Agriculture
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 1999
  • Chemical control of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae was attempted by spraying of streptomycin sulfate ·oxytetracycline WP streptomycin WP streptomycin ·copper hydroxide WP kasugamycin SL kasugamycin·copper oxychloride WP and copper hydroxide WP. The control efficacies of the bactericides were variable depending upon the spraying schedule,. Application of streptomycin WP and streptomycin sulfate·oxytetracycline WP from middle April to early May was found to be the most effective in controlling the bacterial canker. For copper hydroxide WP the spraying from middle January to early February showed the highest control efficacy. Kasugamycin SL was the most effective in controlling the disease by spraying from middle April to early May but it was still relatibvely effective during other spray periods. Foliar application of copper hydroxide WP and copper-antibiotic formulaions after middle April caused severe phytotoxicity. Kasgamycil SL streptomycin WP streptomycin·copper hydroxide WP and copper hydroxide WP were potential bactericides which could substitute streptomycin sulfate·oxytetracycline WP. Selective applications of the bactericides according to their optimum spray time can enhance the control efficacies against bacterial canker of kiwifruit and retard the emergency of resistant strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae to the bactericides. The optimum spray number of streptomycin sulfate·oxytetracycline WP was 3 times with 15-day-intervals or 4 times with 10-day-intervals. The result suggested that the potential bactericides to bacterial canker of kiwifruit should be also used according to their optimum spray schedules in order to get their highest control efficacies.

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Comparison between Source-induced Dissociation and Collision-induced Dissociation of Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, and Oxytetracycline via Mass Spectrometry

  • Lee, Seung Ha;Choi, Dal Woong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2013
  • Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very powerful instrument that can be used to analyze a wide range of materials such as proteins, peptides, DNA, drugs, and polymers. The process typically involves either chemical or electron (impact) ionization of the analyte. The resulting charged species or fragment is subsequently identified by the detector. Usually, single mass uses source-induced dissociation (SID), whereas mass/mass uses collision-induced dissociation (CID) to analyze the chemical fragmentations Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. While CID is most effective for the analysis of pure substances, multiple-step MS is a powerful technique to get structural data. Analysis of veterinary drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and oxytetracycline serves to highlight the slight differences between SID and CID. For example, minor differences were observed between ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline via SID or CID. However, distinct fragmentation patterns were observed for ampicllin depending on the analysis method. Both SID and CID showed similar fragmentation spectra but different signal intensities for chloramphenicol. There are several factors that can influence the fragmentation spectra, such as the collision energy, major precursor ion, electrospray mode (positive or negative), and sample homogeneity. Therefore, one must select a fragmentation method on an empirical and case-by-case basis.

Analysis of Residual Oxytetracycline in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Following OTC Treatment) (전복에 Oxytetracycline의 처리에 따른 잔류성 분석)

  • Kim, Na-Young;Jo, Hee-Sung;Han, Ji-Do;Park, Min-Woo;Kim, Jin-Woo;Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Jee, Bo-Young;Won, Kyoung-Mi
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2015
  • Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used in aquaculture field as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and negative bacteria. Residual oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied after spray treatment of cultured abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Muscle concentration of OTC was determined after spray treatment ( 4,000, 7,000, 10,000 ppm) in the abalone. Muscle samples were taken at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330 and 360 day post-dose. OTC analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In 4000, 7000 and 1000 ppm treatment for small size abalones, OTC levels at 1 day post-dose, have been dramatically decreased by 8.34, 3.35 and 4.47 ug/g, respectively. For medium size abalones, concentration were measured as 7.58, 15.62 and 7.8 ug/g, respectively. Those of large size abalones also were observed as 11.31, 12.38 and 15.28 ug/g, respectively, at 1 day post-dose. No significant differences in residual OTC depletion in muscles were observed between the size of abalones. More than 0.2 mg/kg of OTC was detected in muscle tissues and the residues were found over 60 days after treatment. It is expected that these results would contribute to improve recommended withdrawl periods of OTC for a safer seafood supply.

Preparation and evaluation of microcrystallized cellulose xanthate-metal-oxytetracycline complexes as antibacterial agents with prolonged antibacterial activity

  • Kong, Hyo-Sik;Lee, You-Na;Lee, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Young-Mi;Jung, Yun-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2009
  • Microcrystallized cellulose xanthate-metal-oxytetracycline complexes (MCX-metal-OTC) were prepared and evaluated as a controlled release system for the antibiotics. Microcrystallized cellulose (MC) was chemically modified to xanthated microcrystallized cellulose (MCX). One-bath method, where MCX was reacted with OTC-metal complexes, afforded greater amount of OTC bound to the polymeric matrix than did two-bath method, where MCX-metal complexes were treated with OTC. The OTC release from MCX-metal-OTC was greatly sustained compared with that from a mixture of MC/metal/OTC. Furthermore, MCX-metal-OTC manifested antibacterial activity, which lasted for 11-18 days. These results suggest that MCX-metal-OTC is a polymeric antibiotics with prolonged antibacterial activity.

Selection of Bactericides for Controlling Soybean Bacterial Pustule (콩 불마름병 방제를 위한 살균제 선발)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Lee, Bong-Choon;Yoon, Young-Nam;Park, Sung-Tae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.266-273
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    • 2010
  • Bacterial pustule of soybean (Glycines max) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines is one of the most prevalent bacterial diseases of soybean. This bacterium shows strong pathogenicity to the plants and distributes throughout Korea. However, no good control measures including bactericides and resistant cultivars are available to control the disease in Korea. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop chemical control method against soybean bacterial pustule. The present study was undertaken to find out the growth inhibitory effect bactericides (8 antibiotics, 2 copper compounds, quinoline, 18 agro-chemicals) on bacterial pustule pathogen. Antibiotics test showed that tetracycline and streptomycin sulfate significantly suppressed the growth of bacterial pustule pathogen. Also, application of oxolinic acid was found to be effective for pathogen inhibition. However, vancomycin, polymyxin B sulfate and copper compounds did not show the positive suppressive effect on growth of the pathogen. Among the eighteen agro-chemicals, streptomycin sulfate + oxytetracyclin (18.8 + 1.5%) WP, oxytetracycline (17%) WP and oxolinic acid (20%) WP were found to be effective for the inhibition of the pathogen in vitro. The selected 5 agro-chemicals were also applied on soybean in field and their control effects against the soybean bacterial pustule were tested. The foliar application of streptomycin sulfate + oytetracyclin WP and oxytetracycline WP on the naturally infected soybean (Taekwangkong) showed high control value (above 70%). Therefore, it is concluded that the bactericides used in this study showed strong inhibitory effect to soybean bacterial pustule and they can be recommend to farmers to control the disease.

Removal Characteristics of Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Trimethoprime and Caffeine in Biological Activated Carbon Process (생물활성탄 공정에서 Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Trimethoprime 및 Caffeine 제거특성)

  • Son, Hee-Jong;Hwang, Young-Do;Yoo, Pyung-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2009
  • In this study, The effects of three different activated carbon materials (each coal, coconut and wood based activated carbons), empty bed contact time (EBCT) and water temperature on the removal of pharmaceutical 4 species (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprime and caffeine) in BAC filters were investigated. Experiments were conducted at three water temperature (5, 15 and $25^{\circ}C$) and four EBCTs (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). The results indicated that coal based BAC retained more attached bacterial biomass on the surface of the activated carbon than the other BAC, increasing EBCT or increasing water temperature increased the pharmaceutical 4 species removal in BAC columns. In the coal-based BAC columns, removal efficiencies of oxytetracycline and tetracycline were 87~100% and removal efficiencies of trimethoprime and caffeine were 72~99% for EBCT 5~20 min at $25^{\circ}C$. The kinetic analysis suggested a firstorder reaction model for pharmaceutical 4 species removal at various water temperatures (5~$25^{\circ}C$). The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants and half-lives were also calculated for pharmaceutical 4 species removal at 5~$25^{\circ}C$. The reaction rate and half-lives of pharmaceutical 4 species ranging from 0.0360~0.3954 $min^{-1}$ and 1.75 to 19.25 min various water temperatures and EBCTs, could be used to assist water utilities in designing and operating BAC filters.

Present Situation of Diseases Occurred with Cultured Marine Fishes in Kamak Bay (가막만 가두리 양식자의 어류질병에 관한 연구)

  • 최상덕
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1997
  • The pathogenic organisms occurred in cultured marine fishes in Kamak Bay were investigated from March to November in 1993. The samples were collected at 7 sampling stations once a month. Nine species of pathogenic organisms (Vibrio sp., Edwardsiella sp., Flexibacter sp., Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Caligus sp., Trichodina sp., Lymphocystis and Staphylococcus sp.) were identified as pathogenic organisms from four different species of fish (Sebastes schlegeli, Paralichthys olivaceus, lateolabrax japonicus and Pagrus major) collected in the study areas. Most of pathogenic organisms were found at over 20^{\circ}C$ of sea water temperature from June to October in 1993. On the test of drug sensitivity, Vibrio sp. (KS-9303) was sensitive to oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol ; Edwardsiella sp. (KP-9315) to oxytetracycline ; Flexibacter sp. (KP-9318) to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and oxolinic acid ; Streptococcus sp. (KP-9319) to erythromycin, chlorampheicol and oxytetracycline. However, all these 4 isolated bacteria were resistant to ampicilin, steptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and nitrofurazone.

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Effects of Six Antibiotics on the Activity of the Photosynthetic Apparatus and Ammonium Uptake of Thallus of Porphyra yezoensis

  • Oh, Min-Hyuk;Kang, Yun-Hee;Lee, Choon-Hwan;Chung, Ik-Kyo
    • ALGAE
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 2005
  • The modern integrated fish-seaweed mariculture has been tested to reduce the environmental impacts of an intensive fed culture. To obtain the best seaweed bioremediation performance, the effects of therapeutants used for fish disease control on the selected seaweed species should be considered. As a selected seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis was tested with six commercial antibiotics including erythromycin thiocyanate_A, erythromycin thiocyanate_B, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, pefloxacin, and amoxicillin trihydrate under the batch incubation at a photon flux density of 10 $\mu$mol ${\cdot}m^{-2}\;{\cdot}\;s^{-1}$ at 15$^{\circ}C$. Among the tested commercial antibiotics, erythromycin thiocyanate_A, erythromycin thiocyanate_B, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline showed decreases in Fv/Fm, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, with a dose-dependant and time-dependant manner. From the quenching analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, three differential patterns were observed in the antibiotics-treated Porphyra: (1) high nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and low photochemical quenching (qP) in the cases of Erythromycin thiocyanate_B and amoxicillin trihydrate, (2) high NPQ and high qP in the case of pefloxacin and (3) low NPQ and low qP in the case of oxytetracycline. These results indicated that antibiotics affected in various ways on the photosynthetic apparatus, reflecting differential lesion sites of antibiotics. In addition, the rates of ammonium uptake also decreased with a decrease of Fv/Fm in P. yezoensis thalli treated with erythromycin thiocyanate_B and oxytetracycline. Therefore, the four antibiotics mentioned could affect the bioremediation capacity of the selected seaweed species in the integrated fish-seaweed mariculture system due to the decrease of photosynthetic activity and the simultaneous decrease of ammonium uptake.