• Title, Summary, Keyword: Oxytetracycline

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Chemicals for the Control of Streptomycin-resistant Tobacco Hollow Stalk Pathogen, Erwinia carotouora subsp. carotovora (Streptomycin 내성 담배줄기속썩음병균 방제약제 선발)

  • 강여규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 1996
  • Chemicals including antibiotics and bactericides were screened for suppression of streptomycin-resistant Erwinia cmutouom subsp. cmutovom (Ecc) strains in laboratory and field conditions. Oxytetracycline, ethoquinolac and dichlorophen suppressed the growth of streptomycin-resistant Ecc strains in vitro. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of oxytetracycline and ethoquinolac mixed with streptomycin against the Ecc strains were equal to and less than one, respectively. Consequently the efficacy of those chemicals in mixture with sorptomycin were non-antagonistic But that of dichlorophen mixed with streptomycin was more than one, therefore the efficacy of the mixture was antagonistic. Spray of oxyteoucycline, ethoquinolac and agrimycin-100 on the topped burley tobacco plants was efficacious in reducing tobacco hollow stalk at the same level of sorptomycin treatment in three-year field trials, which suggests that those are promising chemicals to be alternative to streptomycin for control of tobacco hollow stalk.

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Transformation Conditions of Bacillus subtilis by Streptomyces rimosus Plasmid DNA (Streptomyces rimosus Plasmid DNA에 의한 Bacillus subtilis의 형질전환 조건)

  • Hong, Yong-Ki;Seu, Jung-Hwn
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 1983
  • To exploit a suitable vector and recipient strain for molecular cloning in Bacillus subtilis, oxytetracycline-resistant plasmic DNA has been prepared from Streptomyces rimosus by phenol-buffer extraction of lysozyme-lysed cells and introduced into B. subtilis KPM 60 [St $r^{R}$-mutant of RM 125 (leu A8, arg 15, hsm $M^{-10}$ , hsr $M^{-10}$ )] by transformation. Oxitetracycline-resistant plasmid was well transferred into B. subtilis KPM 60 with average frequency of 10$^{-4}$ per $\mu\textrm{g}$ of DNA. The highest frequency of plasmid transformation was obtained after 3 hours incubation of recipient cells in the growth medium and 30 to 60 minutes incubation in the competence medium, and then 20 minutes contact of DNA and host cells. Optimum pH for competence was 7.5, and optimum temperature for transformation was 2$0^{\circ}C$.>.

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Synergistic effects of oxytetracycline and tiamulin against swine respiratory bacteria and their pharmacokinetics in the pigs (돼지호흡기세균에 대한 oxytetracycline과 tiamulin의 시험관내 상승작용 및 돼지에서의 약물동태학)

  • Park, Seung-chun;Yun, Hyo-in;Lee, Keun-woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2002
  • The study was carried out to characterize the pharmacokinetics after intravenous (iv, 20 mg/kg) and oral (p.o. 100 mg/kg) administration as oxytetracycline (OTC) and tiamulin (TIA) mixture in swine and to determine interaction between OTC and TIA against various pig pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effects of OTC in combination with TIA in vitro showed synergistic effect against Salmonella typhimurium 1925, Pasteurella multocida Type A, P. multocida Type D, Krebsiella Pneumoniae 2001, K. Pneumoniae 1560, K. Pneumoniae 2208, Haemophillus pleuropneumonia S 2, and H. pleuropneumonia S 5, but against additive effect E. coli K88ab and S. choleraesuis on the basis of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. On the while, after i.v. and p.o. administration of OTC and TIA mixture, each OTC and TIA concentrations in plasma were fitted to an open two-compartment model. After i.v. administration of OTC-TIA mixture, the mean distribution half-life ($T_{1/2{\alpha}}$) of OTC and TIA in plasma showed 0.29 h and 0.17 h, and the mean elimination half-life ($T_{1/2{\beta}}$) of those was 4.36 h and 6.64 h, respectively. The mean volume of distribution at steady state ($Vd_{ss}$) of OTC and TIA was $0.85{\ell}/kg$ and $2.44{\ell}/kg$, respectively. After oral administration of OTC and TIA mixture, the mean maximal absorption concentrations ($C_{max}$) of OTC and TIA were $0.60{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ at 1.07 h ($T_{max}$) and $1.68{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ at 1.85 h ($T_{max}$), respectively. The mean elimination half-life ($T_{1/2{\beta}}$) of those showed 6.84 h and 6.36 h. In conclusion, we could suggest in this study that the combination of OTC and TIA may be recommended for the antibacterial therapy against polymicrobial infections, and both OTC and TIA showed large distribution to tissues and high $C_{max}$ after p.o. administration.

Responses of Castanea crenata to Injection Wound for Oxytetracycline(OTC) (옥시테트라사이크린(OTC) 수간주입 상처에 대한 밤나무의 반응)

  • Cha, Byeong-Jin;Yun, Jeong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 1996
  • Chestnut(Castanea crenata) were trunk-injected by two methods to check the changes around the injection wound. In September 1993, high concentration of oxytetracycline(OTC) was injected through the injection wound of 1cm diameter and low concentration of OTC through 0.5cm diameter. Trunk diameter of injected trees ranged from 10cm to 20cm. All trees were in their vigorous conditions. Tree reaction was examined in June, 1994. None of them showed any sign of decay by the time. However, under the bark, sapwood was remarkably discolored. But, more severe discoloration was found in 1cm-injection wound than in 0.5cm one. Sapwood of some trees split from the injection wound, and the split was longer in 1cm-injection wounded trees than in 0.5cm trees. From the split, callus grew out and the split was closing. In this kind of trunk injection, the damage was more severe in 1cm-injection wound than in 0.5cm-injection wound.

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Pharmacokinetics of Oral Administration of Oxytetracycline in Eel, Anguilla japonica (Oxytetracycline의 경구 투여에 따른 뱀장어 체내 약물동태학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Do;Seo, Jung-Soo;Kim, Ju-Wan;Lee, Joo-Seok;Jung, Sung-Hee;Ji, Bo-Young;Kim, Jin-Woo;Kim, Eung-Oh
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 2008
  • Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used in eel culture as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The oral treatment dosage of OTC approved for the treatment of edwardsiellosis, furunculosis and vibriosis in eel is 50 mg/kg/day for 3-7 days in Korea. To determine new optimum dose of OTC in eel, the pharmacokinetics of OTC after single oral administration (100 mg/kg B.W., 200 mg/kg B.W.) in cultured eel, Anguilla japonica was examined. In oral dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the highest plasma concentrations of OTC were 1.19±0.42 ㎍/㎖ and 2.69±0.57 ㎍/㎖, respectively. Plasma concentrations of OTC were not detected after 720 h post-dose in all experiments. The kinetic profile of absorption, distribution and elimination of OTC in plasma wwas calculated fitting to a 1- and 2-compartment model by WinNonlin program. The following parameters were obtained for a single dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively: 1-compartment model, AUC= 82.48 and 432.68 ㎍*h/㎖, Tmax= 3.93 and 14.24 hr, Cmax= 0.94 and 2.34 ㎕/㎖; 2-compartment model, AUC= 448.73 and 530.65 ㎍*h/㎖, Tmax= 6.37 and 8.96 hr, Cmax= 0.90 and 3.21 ㎕/㎖.

Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) by dipping and oral administration (Oxytetracycline의 약욕 및 경구투여에 따른 넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 체내 약물동태학적 특성)

  • Jung, Sung-Hee;Choi, Dong-Lim;Kim, Jin-Woo;Jo, Mi-Ra;Seo, Jung-Soo;Jee, Bo-Young
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 2008
  • The pharmacokinetic properties of oxytetracycline (OTC) were studied after dipping and oral administration to cultured olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (600 g). Plasma concentrations of OTC were determined after oral dosage (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and dipping (50, 100 and 200 ppm, 1 h) in olive flounder (average 600 g, 23±1℃). Plasma samples were taken at 3, 5, 10, 15, 24, 32, 48, 72, 120, 168 and 240 h post-dose. In oral dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the peak plasma concentrations of OTC, which attained at 3 h post-dose, were 0.34, 0.44 and 1.18 ㎍/㎖, respectively. In dipping of 50, 100 and 200 ppm, those of OTC which also observed at 5 h post-dose, were 0.43, 0.38 and 0.64 ㎍/㎖, respectively. Plasma concentrations of OTC were not measurable at 240 h post-dose in all experiments. The kinetic profile of absorption, distribution and elimination of OTC in plasma were analyzed fitting to a one-compartment model by WinNonlin program. The following parameters were calculated for a single dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively: AUC (the area under the concentration-time curve)=31.40, 28.07 and 32.97 ㎍∙h/㎖; T1/2 (half-life)􀆫0.89, 1.12 and 0.43 h; Tmax (time for maximum concentration)= 5.25, 3.70 and 7.30 h, Cmax (maximum concentration)=0.25, 0.38 and 0.61 ㎕/㎖. Following dipping at 50, 100 and 200 ppm, these parameters were AUC􀆫15.51, 14.63 and 19.72 ㎍∙h/㎖; T1/2= 0.75, 0.41 and 0.74 h; Tmax=4.90, 7.08 and 4.68 h, Cmax=0.40, 0.32 and 0.46 ㎕/㎖.

A study on The Effect of Antibiotics Usage too The Efficiency of Biological Piggery Wastewater Treatment (축산물에 사용되는 항생제가 축산폐수의 처리효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Mi Kyeong;Tran, Hung Thuan;Kim, Dae Hee;Jia, Yu Hong;Oh, Se Jin;Ann, Dae Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2007
  • The presence of antibiotics in the wastewater from livestock farm due to its over-application should be concerned because they could change microbial ecology, increase the proliferation of antibiotic resistant pathogens, provoke toxic effect on aquatic species. In addition, these antibiotics can cause negative effect on the performance of biological wastewater treatment due to its antibacterial properties. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effect of some common used antibiotic in Korea piggery farm such as oxytetracycline (OTC) to nitrification efficiency as well as organic compounds removal rate in biological system for treating piggery wastwater. The experiment was conducted in aeration batch reactor and lab-scale $A_2/O$(Anoxic-Anoxic-Oxic) system. From this study, it would be suggested that the piggery wastewater characterization should be examined in order to assess the fraction of common used antibiotics. The alternative treatment processes for piggery wastewater having high-strength antibiotics might be suggested in the future work.

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In vitro Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of an Ecklonia cava Extract against Anti biotic-Resistant Streptococcus parauberis

  • Eom, Sung-Hwan;Santos, Jeniel A.;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Jung, Won-Kyo;Kim, Do-Hyung;Kim, Young-Mog
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2015
  • In an effort to discover alternative phytotherapeutic antimicrobial agents to combat Streptococcus parauberis, a fish pathogenic bacterium, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of seaweed extracts in vitro. A methanolic extract of Ecklonia cava exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. parauberis isolated from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Furthermore, the n-hexane soluble (Hexane) fraction of the E. cava methanolic extract exhibited the greatest antibacterial effect on S. parauberis strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 256 to $1,024{\mu}g/mL$. In addition, the MIC values of oxytetracycline against antibiotic-resistant S. parauberis were markedly reduced up to 64-fold in combination with the Hexane fraction, suggesting that the antibacterial activity of the antibiotic was restored when combined with the Hexane fraction. The interaction between both antibiotics and the Hexane fraction was assessed by the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. The Hexane fraction and oxytetracycline combination against antibiotic-resistant S. parauberis strains resulted in a median ${\sum}FIC$ range of 0.502 to 0.516. Thus, the synergistic ranges of median ${\sum}FIC$ < 1 were observed for all combinations of the Hexane fraction and oxytetracycline against S. parauberis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the efficacy of an E. cava extract against fish pathogenic bacterium S. parauberis.

Studies on the Antibiotic Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Isolated from a Doctorless Area and Seoul National University Hospital (일부(一部) 무의촌지역(無醫村地域)과 병원(病院)에서 분리(分離)한 E.coli의 항생제(抗生劑) 감수성(感受性)에 대(對)하여)

  • Kim, Ik-Sang;Shin, Hee-Sup;Rhee, Kwang-Ho;Cha, Chang-Yong;Chang, Woo-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1977
  • 40 strains of E. coli isolated from residents of a doctorless area in Korea in 1976 and 40 strains of E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University Hospital from 1975 to 1976 were examined for susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. The susceptibilities of the two groups to each antimicrobial agent were compared and correlations in the antimicrobial susceptibility of the 80 strains of E. coli among the 14 antimicrobial agents were also analyzed. The results were obtained as follow: 1. With Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline and Ampicillin, the mean MIC's of E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University Hospital were 8.6 to 14 times higher than. those of E. coli isolated from residents of a doctorless area. 2. With Streptomycin, Minocycline and Carbenicillin, the mean MIC's o{ E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University Hospital were 4.1 to 5.6 times higher than those of E. coil isolated from residents of a doctorless area. 3. With Kanamycin, Penicillin and Cotrimoxazole, the mean MIC's of E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University Hospital were 2.6 to 3.7 times higher than those of E. coli isolated from residents of a doctorless area. 4. There were no significant differences in susceptibility to Erythromycin respectively between E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University coli isolated from residents of a doctorless area. 5. E. coli isolated from patients of Seoul National University Hospital were resistant to Erythromycin(100%), Streptomycin(75%), Tetracycline(72.5%), Oxytetracycline(72.5%), Doxycycline(72.5%), Minocycline(67.5%), Penicillin(82.5%), Ampicillin(60%) and Carbenicillin(65%) respectively and were sensitive to Gentamicin(97.5%), Cephalexin(92.5%) and Kanamycin(72.5%) respectively. 6. E. coli isolated from residents of a doctorless, area were resistant to Erythromycin(100%), Streptomycin(40%) and Penicillin(50%) respectively and were sensitive to Gentamicin(100%), Kanamycin(92.5%), Tetracycline(87.5%), Oxytetracycline(87.5%), Doxycycline(87.5%), Minocycline(87.5%), Ampicillin(95%), Carbenicillin(92.5%) and Cephalexin(97.5%) respectively. 7. There were high correlations among the suscebtibilities of the 80 strains of E. coli to Tetracycline analogues(Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline and Minocycline) and among susceptibilities of the 80 strains of E. coli to Penicillin analogues(Penicillin, Ampicillin and Carbenicillin). 8. There were relatively high correlations between the susceptibilities of the 80 strains of E. coli to Penicillin analogues and those to Tetracycline analogues, between the susceptibilities to Penicillin analogues and those to Streptomycin and between the susceptibilities to Tetracycline analogues and those to Streptomycin.

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