• Title, Summary, Keyword: PA66

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The Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Nylon 66 Nano-web (전기방사된 나일론66 나노웹의 열적·기계적 특성에 전자선 조사가 미치는 영향)

  • Jeun, Joon Pyo;Kang, Hyo-Kyoung;Kang, Phil Hyun
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2011
  • Polyamide 66 (PA66) nanofibers with Triallyl cyanurate (TAC) were obtained by electrospinning of formic acid and chloroform solution. Electron beam irradiation of PA66 nanofiber with and without TAC was carried out over a range of absorbed doses (20~100 kGy) in nitrogen. The characterization of the irradiated PA66 nanofibers and PA66 nanofibers with TAC was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and universal testing machine (UTM). The results of the SEM image analysis confirmed that the morphology of PA66 nanofibers was not altered by electron beam. The amount of TAC in PA66 nanofiber with TAC was identified by $^1H-NMR$ analysis. The degradation temperature of PA66 nanofibers with TAC at an absorbed dose of 20~100 kGy was higher than the irradiated PA66 nanofiber without TAC. On the other hand, the decreasing rate of modulus of irradiated PA66 nanofibers with TAC was less than PA66 nanofibers.

Measurement of Degree of Hydrolysis of a PA66/GF Composite using a py-GC/MS analysis

  • Lee, Jong-Young;Kim, Kwang-Jea
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2017
  • The effect on the hydrolysis resistance properties by the addition of maleic anhydride grafted EMDM (MA-g-EPDM) and PP (MA-g-PP) to a PA66/GF composite was investigated with respect to the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and morphology. The degree of hydrolysis of the PA66/GF composite was measured using py-GC/MS analysis. When compared to the PA66/GFcomposite in MEG/water solution, the composites where MA-g-EPDM and MA-g-PP were added to PA66/GF showed a higher degree of hydrolysis resistance, impact strength, and thermal properties, whereas their tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus decreased. As immersion time in the solution increases, the rate of tensile strength drop of the MA-g-PP added composite appeared lower than that of the PA66/MA-g-EPDM/GF and PA66/GF composites. The py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the formation of PA66 hydrolysis reaction by products such as carboxylic acid and alkylamine with increasing immersion time.

Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Oxide Reinforced Polyamide-66 Composites

  • Hwang, Seok-Ho
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2015
  • Magnesium oxide (MgO) reinforced polyamide-66 (PA66) composites were prepared through melt-compounding method in order to determine the possibility of using MgO particle as conductive filler in the polymer-based composite. The effects of MgO filler content on the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties for the PA66/MgO composites were investigated. The results showed that the addition of MgO filler to the PA66 matrix led to a large increase in thermal conductivity of the PA66/MgO composites. Tensile strengths of the PA66/MgO composites were slightly decreased as MgO filler loading increased. However, flexural strength and flexural modulus were improved with increasing filler loading. Notched Izod impact strengths were dramatically lowered by the addition of MgO filler.

A Study on the Commercialization of Polyamide 66/Polypropylene Blend (폴리아마이드 66/폴리프로필렌 블렌드의 상업화 연구)

  • Kim, Seog-Jun;Nam, Byeong-Uk
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.262-272
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    • 2003
  • Maleic anhydride-grafted-polypropylene(PP-g-MA) were used as a blend component and a compatibilizer, respectively, for two reactive blends of polyamide 66(PA 66)PP-g-MA binary blends and PA 66/polypropylene(PP)/PP-g-MA ternary blends. The goal of this work was to investigate the property differences between binary and ternary blends. Tensile strength, flexural modulus, heat deflection temperature, impact strength, melt flow index, and the dependence of melt viscosity on the shear rate were examined. The impact strengths of binary blends were higher than those of ternary blends at all compositions, since the in situ synthesis of PP-g-PA 66 copolymer through the imide formation between the amine end group of PA 66 and the anhydride group of PP-g-MA gave the increase of molecular weight and was more popular in binary blends than in ternary blends. In case of ternary blends, most of the properties were superior to those of binary blends, owing to the better properties of PP compared with PP-g-MA. The toughened binary blends with 70/30(PA 66/PP-g-MA) and 80/20 ratios were not commercially applicable due to their poor processibility. So, the ternary blends which showed lower melt viscosities were recommended for the commercial applications.

A Study on the Manufacturing and Mechanical Properties of the PA66/EPDM/PP Composites for Enhanced Low Temperature Fracture Resistances (저온 내충격성 향상을 위한 PA66/EPDM/PP 복합체 제조와 기계적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Tae-Sik;Yoon, Chang-Rok;Bang, Dae-Suk;Ahn, Dae-Young;Kye, Hyoung-San;Shin, Kyung-Chul
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.164-174
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    • 2009
  • PA66/EPDM/PP-g-MA and PA66/EPDM-g-MA/PP-g-MA composites were manufactured by a modular intermeshing twin screw extruder for enhanced low temperature impact resistance with different content of PP-g-MA. The results showed that composite containing 90 wt% of PA66, 8 wt% of EPDM-g-MA, and 2 wt% of PP-g-MA has a optimum value in the thermal and mechanical properties. The characteristics of the composites were analyzed by TGA, DSC, and SEM. From above results, we established that the low interfacial strength and the impact resistance at low temperature shown in a pre-existing PP/EPDM composite were enhanced by grafting with compatibilizer such as maleic anhydride. These results show the possibility of local manufacturing process and cost down with optimum screw configuration for best mixing quality in the twin screw extruder.

Hydrolysis Resistance and Mechanical Property Changes of Glass Fiber Filled Polyketone Composites Upon Glass Fiber Concentration

  • Kim, Sung Min;Kim, Kwang-Jea
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • Hydrolysis resistance and mechanical property changes of polyketone (POK)/glass fiber (GF) composites were investigated for GF concentrations varying between 30 and 50%. The hydrolysis resistance of GF filled POK and polyamide66 (PA66, hydrolysis resistant grade) composites were compared. As shown by the experimental results, increasing the immersion time of the composites in a monoethylene glycol (MEG)/water solution at $120^{\circ}C$ had no impact or resulted in slightly decreased mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and strain at break in case of POK composites, whereas the mechanical properties of PA66 composites showed a significant drop. Increasing GF concentrations increased the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, and flexural modulus of POK composites; however, impact strength did not show significant changes. Hydrolysis mechanisms of POK and PA66 are discussed.

Characterization of Thermal Degradation of Polymide 66 Composite: Relationship between Lifetime Prediction and Activation Energy (폴리아미드 66 복합소재의 열 열화 특성: 수명 예측과 활성화 에너지의 상관관계)

  • Jung, Won-Young;Weon, Jong-Il
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.712-720
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    • 2012
  • Thermal degradation for glass fiber-reinforced polyamide 66 composite (PA 66) with respect of thermal exposure time has been investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. As the thermal exposure time was prolonged, a slight increase in tensile strength for only initial stage and afterward, a proportional decrease of tensile strength was observed. These results can be explained by the increase of crystallinity, followed by the increase of crosslinking density, chain scission and the decrease in chain mobility, due to thermal oxidation with the exposure time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed the increase of ketone peak and silica peak on the surface of thermally exposed PA 66. In addition, the thermal decomposition kinetics of PA 66 was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis at three different heating rates. The relationship between activation energy and lifetime-prediction of PA 66 was investigated by several methodologies, such as statistical tool, UL 746B, Ozawa and Kissinger. The activation energy determined by thermogravimetric analysis had a relatively large value compared with that from the accelerated test. This may result in over-estimating the lifetime of PA 66. In this study, a master curve of exponential fitting has been developed to extrapolate the activation energy at various service temperatures.

Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Polyamide/Polypropylene Blends

  • Kim, Su Young;Ha, Jin Uk;Shin, Donghyeok;Jung, Wooseok;Lee, Pyoung-Chan
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2020
  • This study examined the effects of the addition of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) and polyolefin elastomer (POE) on polyamide 66 (PA66) and polypropylene (PP) blends. The blends of PA66/PP with PP-g-MA and POE were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Mechanical testing results revealed that the tensile, flexural, and izod impact strengths of the blends were maximized at a PP-g-MA content of 2 phr. The increased mechanical strength of the blends with PP-g-MA was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of the PA66 and PP blends. In addition, as the POE content increased, the impact strength of the blends increased. However, at a high POE content, the tensile and flexural strengths decreased, seemingly because of the lower mechanical properties of POE.

Hydrophilicity Improvement of Polyamide66/Polyphenylene Blends by Plasma Surface Treatment (Polyamide66/Polyphenylene 블렌드의 플라스마 표면처리를 통한 친수성 향상)

  • Ji Young-Yeon;Kim Sang-Sik
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.391-396
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    • 2006
  • It has been reported that plasma treatments are used to modify surface properties of polymers such as adhesivity hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Using plasma treatment, interfacial pro-perty can be introduced to a polymer surface without affecting the desired bulk properties of a material. In this study, commercial polyamide66 (PA66) /polyphenylene (PPE) polymer was modified by plasma treatment under a various gas specious for elimination of organic compound and polymer surface property with hvdrophilicity. PA66/PPE polymer with hydrophilicity was treated by RF plasma vacuum system under a various parameter such as gas specious, processing time and partial pressure. Hydrophilicity of PA66/PPE was confirmed by calculation of the surface free energy from contact angle measurement. The highest surface free energy of $50.03 mJ/m^2$ with the lowest contact angle of $14^{\circ}$ was obtained at plasma process power of 100 W, treatment time of 2 min and $Ar/O_2$ gases of 100 and 200 sccm. Moreover the change of organic compounds on the polymer surface was analyzed by fourier transforms infrared spectrometry (FTIR).

Effect of Irrigation Starting Point of Soil on Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stem Sap Flux Relative Rate and Leaf Temperature of Cucumber in Greenhouse (시설 토양 오이재배에서 관수개시점 처리가 광합성 형광반응, 줄기수액흐름 및 엽온에 미치는 영향)

  • An, Jin Hee;Jeon, Sang Ho;Choi, Eun Yong;Kang, Ho Min;Na, Jong Kuk;Choi, Ki Young
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.46-55
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    • 2021
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect on chlorophyll fluorescence, stem sap flux relative rate (SFRR) and leaf temperature of cucumber when irrigation is controlled using a soil moisture tensiometer. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) 'Chungchun' was irrigated of 10-10-20 kPa and 20-10-10 kPa by soil starting point of irrigation at each growth stage. At the 66 days after treatment (DAT) of 736 to 854 W·m-2 and above 32℃, chlorophyll fluorescence variables (Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm) values showed significantly different between treatments. The Fo and Fv/Fm value in the daytime (10:30 am to 6:00 pm) at 66 DAT was higher in 20-10-10 kPa treatment than in 10-10-20 kPa treatment. The Fv/Fm value decreased when the leaf temperature was increased. There was no difference in leaf growth (length, width and area) at 28 and 66 DAT, but the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) was significantly higher in 20-10-10kPa treatment. SFRR and leaf temperature increased with light intensity and temperature increased. In both treatments, the SFRR started to increase sharply between 8 am and 9 am when the solar radiation is 170 W·m-2 or higher. The soil temperature of the treatments decreased after irrigation, that showed 31.0℃ at 10-10-20kPa and 28.5℃ at 20-10-10kPa on July 5 (820W·m-2 at 1 pm). However, there was no difference in SFRR, leaf temperature, temperature difference (leaf temperature - air temperature) and VPD between treatments. SFRR was significantly positive correlate with the leaf temperature (p < 0.01, r = 0.770). The SFRR and leaf temperature showed positive significant correlation with solar radiation, temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture content and VPD. There was a negative significant correlation with relative humidity and temperature difference.