• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAHs

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Pollution Characteristics and Loading Flux of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Riverine Waters of Jinhae Bay, Korea (진해만 하천에서 다환방향족탄화수소 유입부하량과 오염특성)

  • You, Young-Seok;Kim, Jwa-Kwan;Cho, Hyeon-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2009
  • PAHs(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) compounds may enter into the marine environment in a number of ways, and PAHs in coastal area and estuary adjacent to urban area and industrial activities region are mainly introduced into marine environment via atmosphere or river. The field surveys to evaluate the pollution of PAHs in rivers of Jinhae bay were carried out in August, 2008. The water samples collected from seven main rivers and Deokdong WWTP(Waste water Treatment Plant) which lead to Jinhae bay. 16 PAHs which had been selected as priority pollutants by EPA were analyzed. The range and mean of dissolved Total PAHs concentrations in the rivers and Duckdong WWTP that lead to Jinhae bay were shown to be 9.79~128.25(mean 36.94)ng/L, while the range and mean of Total PAHs concentrations in SPM(Suspended Particulate Matter) were shown to be 1,81434~8,893.37(mean 4,657.73)${\mu}g$/kg dry wt. The dissolved Total PAHs and Total PAHs in SPM were shown to be high concentrations in the Semhocheon which leads to Masan bay that is the most polluted area of Jinhae bay, while those were shown to be low concentrations at rivers which lead to the west area of the bay. The ranges and means of the loading fluxes from rivers and Duckdong WWTP were calculated at 0.06~12.05(mean 1.86)g/day for dissolved Total PAHs and at 0.12~16.00(mean 2.41)g/day tor Total PAH in SPM. The loading flux of Total PAHs from Duckdong WWTP was shown to be the greatest, occupying more than 80% of Total loading flux from all rivers and WWTP to Jinhae bay. The composition patterns of PAHs compound by the number of benzene ring between dissolved PAHs and PAHs of SPM were different each other. Low molecuar weight PAHs of dissoloved compounds were in high concentration, while high molecular weight PAHs of SPM were in high concentration. These results were due to physical and chemical characteristics of PAHs and were similar to those of other studies. The total PAHs concentrations of dissolved and SPM in this study are lower than those of other studies. The extent of PAHs pollution appeared to be not serious in reverine waters of Jinhae bay.

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Day and Night Distribution of Gas and Particle Phases Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Seoul (서울 대기 중 기체 및 입자상 다환방향족탄화수소 (PAHs)의 낮·밤 분포 특성)

  • Lim, Hyung Bae;Kim, Yong Pyo;Lee, Ji Yi
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.408-421
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    • 2016
  • Day and night sampling for gas and particle phases PAHs were carried out in Seoul to characterize gas and particle phases PAHs concentrations in day and night times. There was no significant difference between day and night time for particle phase PAHs concentrations and phase distribution of PAHs, while, gas phase PAHs concentrations in daytime were about 1/2 of nighttime concentrations in both summer and winter due to photochemical reaction of gas phase PAHs during daytime. A high fraction of cancer risk for PAHs was attributed to particle phase PAHs and the excess cancer risk in winter was higher than in summer. The excess cancer risk level of total(gas+particle) PAHs in summer was partially observed when both gas and particle phase PAHs concentrations were considered as risk assessment. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis of PAHs concentrations, combustion(coal and natural gas) and vehicular emission might be the most significant contributors of PAHs and major factors for determining of PAHs concentration were different between day and night times.

The effect of PAHs on the regualtion of CYP1 gene in ZR-75-1 and MCF7 human breast cancer cells

  • Min, K.N.;Sheen, Yhun Y.;Kim, J.Y.;Cho, M.J.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.193-193
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    • 2003
  • Recent industrial society has human widely exposed to PAHs that are coming from the incomplete combustion of organic material as widespread environmental contaminants. Biological activities of PAHs are not known although PAHs are considered as carcinogens. The mechanism of action of PAHs has been studied extensively, however it is not clear how PAHs turn on CYPlAl in human breast cancer, Our laboratory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. In this study, we examined the ZR-75-1, human breast cancer cells, as a new system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs and to compare the PAHs action with that of MCF-7 cells. ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line is responsible to estrogen and progesterone. We have been able to establish long term culture system of this cells then used for the study to the effect of 13 different PAHs and environmental samples. We demonstrate that PAHs induced the CYP1A1 promoter and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR analysis indicated that PAHs significantly up-regulate the level of CYP1A1 mRNA. Some of PAHs showed stronger stimulatory effect on CYP1 gene expression than TCDD Apparently, ZR-75-1 cells have Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR), therefore it would be a good experimental tool to study the cross-talk between PAHs and steroid actions.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water from the coastal area of Bangladesh

  • Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md.;Ahmed, Md. K.;Masunaga, Shigeki
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.177-200
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    • 2018
  • Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface water from the coastal areas of Bangladesh were analyzed by GC-MS/MS. Samples were collected in winter and summer, 2015. The total concentration of PAHs (${\Sigma}PAHs$) showed a slight variation in the two seasons, which varied from 855.4 to 9653.7 ng/L in winter and 679.4 to 12639.3 ng/L in summer, respectively. The levels of ${\Sigma}PAHs$ were comparable to or relatively higher than other coastal areas around the world. The areas with recent urbanization and industrialization (Chittagong, Cox's Bazar and Sundarbans) were more contaminated with PAHs than the unindustrialized area (Meghna Estuary). Generally, 2-3-ring PAHs were the dominant compounds. Molecular ratios suggested that PAHs in the study areas could be originated from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The risk assessment revealed the extremely high ecological risk of PAHs, indicating an intense attention should be paid to PAHs pollution in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

Estimation and Characteristics of Atmospheric Deposition Flux of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the Masan and Haengam Areas of Korea (마산과 행암 지역으로 유입되는 다환방향족탄화수소(PAHs)의 대기 침적 플럭스 산정과 특성)

  • Lee Su-Jeong;Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Min-kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2006
  • Atmospheric bulk (wet and dry) samples were monthly collected in Masan and Heangam areas of Korea, to assess the deposition flux and seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Deposition fluxes of PAHs in bulk samples were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer detector (GC/MSD). Particle deposition fluxes from Masan and Haengam areas varied from 13 to $87\;g/m^2/year$ and from 5 to $52\;g/m^2/year$, respectively. PAHs deposition fluxes in atmospheric bulk samples in Masan and Haengam areas ranged from 135 to $464\;{\mu}g/m^2/year$ and from 62.2 to $194\;{\mu}g/m^2/year$, respectively. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of particles and PAHs in this study were comparable to or slightly lower values than those from different locations in Korea and other countries. PAHs profiles of atmospheric deposition bulk samples showed slightly different from two sampling areas, however the predominant species of PAHs were similar. Indeno (1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, phenanthrene compounds were the most detected PAHs in deposition bulk samples. Carcinogenic PAHs occupied the contribution of approximately $30-40\%$ of the total PAHs deposition fluxes. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used, to assess the differentiation of PAHs source between two sampling areas. The result suggests that PAHs contamination sources were different according to the location and season surveyed. There was no an apparent relationship between the PAHs deposition flux against temperature and rainfall amount, even though summer season with the highest temperature and the largest amount of precipitation showed the lowest PAHs deposition flux. Benzo(e)pyrene/benzo(a)pyrene ratio indicated that the photo-degradation process was one of important factors to the seasonal variation of PAHs with the lower deposition fluxes.

Estimation of PAHs Fluxes via Atmospheric Deposition and Riverine Discharge into the Masan Bay, Korea

  • Lee Su-Jeong;Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Minkyu;Goo Jun-Ho
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2005
  • Atmospheric deposition and riverine waters were sampled throughout a year, to estimate the loading fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the Masan Bay and its vicinity, Korea. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of total PAHs in the surveyed area varied from 62.2 to 464 ${\mu}g/m^2/year$. Concentration of total PAHs in water samples from six rivers ranged from 34.6 to 239 ng/L. Contribution of the carcinogenic PAHs to the total PAHs occupied $38\%$ and $50\%$ for atmospheric deposition and river waters, respectively. Atmospheric deposition fluxes and water concentrations of PAHs were slightly low or moderate to those in locations from some countries. Correspondence analysis was used to investigate the loading characteristics of PAHs according to transport routes. Atmospheric deposition samples were corresponded to higher molecular aromatics of PAHs, while riverine water samples were associated with lower molecular weight of PAHs. The results indicate that the higher-molecular-weight PAHs can be primarily transported by atmosphere deposition and the lower-molecular-weight PAHs can be mainly contaminated by riverine discharge into the Masan Bay and its vicinity. Loadings fluxes of PAHs into the Masan Bay and its vicinity were 39.2 g/day via atmosphere and 10.3 g/day via rivers, showing that atmospheric input was about 4 times higher than riverine one. Therefore, in order to minimize the contamination burden of PAHs from terrestrial sources to the Masan Bay and its vicinity, the control and management of PAHs deriving from atmosphere will be necessary.

A Review on the Atmospheric Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia Since 2000 - Part I: Data from Developed Countries

  • Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana;Seo, Young-Kyo;Lee, Beom-Seok;Baek, Sung-Ok
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.147-168
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    • 2012
  • Among all hazardous air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are more significant owing to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. Many researchers worldwide have focused on determining the concentrations of PAHs in ambient air. However, the literature survey reveals that the seriousness of air pollution in Asia in terms of PAHs, compared to the rest of the world. Owing to the importance of PAHs in Asia, this paper reviews the concentrations of PAHs in Asia in recent years. For convenience, this paper describes the concentrations of PAHs in developed Asian countries reported during 2000-2011 as Part-I and in developing Asian countries as Part-II. The first section of this review provides a brief description of the properties, sources of PAHs and the health effects caused by their presence in the atmosphere. The ambient air PAH concentrations in both particle and vapor phases in developed Asian countries are then discussed. This study finds the ambient air concentrations of PAHs in developed Asian countries was higher than the Western countries but was lower than the developing Asian countries. The present review predicts the accurate toxicity due to the presence of PAHs in the atmosphere by calculating the Risk Weighted Concentration (RWC), regardless of the total amount of PAHs. The total data obtained during the literature survey is tabulated and presented as supplementary information to the readers.

ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells to study the mechanism of action of PAHs

  • Min, Kyung-Nan;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.286.1-286
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    • 2002
  • Recent industrial society has human widely exposed to PAHs that are comming from the incomplete combustion of organic material as widespread environmental contaminants. Biological activities of PAHs are not known although PAHs are considered as carcinogens. PAHs in the mammalian cells affect CYP 1A1 gene expression as well as other phase II drug metabolizing enzymes as UDPGT, NMOR etc. The mechanism of action of PAHs has been studied extensively, however it is not clear how PAHs turn on CYPIAI in human breast cancer. (omitted)

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Characteristics of PAHs Absorbed on Pine Needles (소나무잎에 침착된 PAHs 특성)

  • Chun, Man-Young
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 2008
  • The characteristics of PAHs accumulated on pine needles which were used as passive samplers of atmospheric POPs were studied. Atmospheric PAHs were accumulated on pine needles. The absorbed rate of PAHs was higher in gaseous state than in particulate and is not constant. The accumulation rate did not change too much among different classes of pine trees. Therefore young pine needles is better as a passive sampler of atmospheric PAHs for short monitoring period.

Relationship between PAHs Concentrations in Ambient Air and Deposited on Pine Needles

  • Chun, Man-Young
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.26
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    • pp.4.1-4.6
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to determine whether or not pine needles can be used as passive samplers of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using the correlation between accumulated PAH concentrations in air (Ca, ng/$m^3$) and those deposited on pine needles (Cp, ng/g dry). Methods: PAHs in ambient air was collected using low volume PUF sampler and pine needles was gathered at same place for 7 months. Results: A good correlation ($R^2$=0.8582, p<0.05) was found between Ca and Cp for PAHs with a higher gaseous state in air (AcPy, Acp, Flu, Phen, Ant, Flt, Pyr, BaA and Chry), but there was a poorer correlation ($R^2$=0.1491, p=0.5123) for the PAHs with a lower gaseous state (BbF, BkF, BaP, DahA, BghiP and Ind123). A positive correlation ($R^2$=0.8542) was revealed between the logarithm of the octanol-air partitioning coefficient ($logK_{oa}$) and Cp/Ca for the PAHs with a higher gaseous state in air, but there was a negative correlation ($R^2$=0.8131) for the PAHs with a lower gaseous state. The Ca-Cp model could not be used to estimate PAHs concentrations in air using deposited PAHs concentrations on pine needles, but the logKoa-Cp/Ca model could be used. Conclusions: It was found that pine needles can be used as passive samplers of atmospheric PAHs.