• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAHs

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Formation of particulate-phase and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke

  • Shimazu, Haruki;Yata, Tsuyoshi;Ozaki, Naoto
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the concentrations of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and gas-phase PAHs in sidestream cigarette smoke. Sixteen PAHs were determined for four brands of cigarettes. The volume of the experimental room is approximately $66m^3$. The air samples in the room were collected before and after smoking. The median total of particulate-phase and gas-phase PAH concentrations before smoking $3.13ng/m^3$and $48.0ng/m^3$, respectively. The median concentrations of them after smoking were $10.0ng/m^3$ and $79.6ng/m^3$. The median increases in the total of 16 PAH concentrations per cigarette during smoking were 271 ng for the particulate-phase PAHs and 1960 ng for the gas-phase PAHs. According to the relationship between particulate-phase and gas-phase PAHs after smoking, the two- to four-ring gas-phase PAHs and the higher molecular weight particulate-phase PAHs were probably formed from similar precursors. The relationship between the total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and the increase in the total particulate-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs per cigarette during smoking were significantly positive. The increase in the total gas-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs tended to increase as the TSP concentration increased. This may indicates that decreasing the amount of TSP produced inhibit the production of PAHs during smoking.

Comparison of Concentration of Urinary Metabolites of PAHs from Smokers and Nonsmokers (흡연자와 비흡연자의 소변 중 다환방향족탄화수소(PAHs) 대사체 농도 비교)

  • Kho, Young-Lim;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.474-481
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urine of smokers and non-smokers by liquid chromatography triple quordrupole tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS). Compounds analyzed for urinary biomarkers of PAHs were five mono-hydroxylated PAHs metabolites; 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), 3-phenanthrol, 2-fluorenol. Urine samples were pretreated by enzymatic hydrolysis and solid phase extraction method. Smokers were composed of 17 men and five women; non-smokers 17 men and 16 women. Smoking increased urinary concentrations of five PAHs metabolites significantly higher than those of nonsmokers. Statistically significant correlations among the five PAHs metabolites were shown. The results suggest that LC/MS/MS technology should be useful in the environmental health discipline.

Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in Jeju City of Jeju Island, Korea (제주시 토양 중 다환방향족탄화수소류(PAHs)의 분포 특성)

  • Jin, Yu-Kyoung;Lee, Min-Gyu;Kam, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.405-415
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    • 2006
  • Sixteen soil samples around six areas (residental area, traffic area, power plant area, incineration area and factory area) where the stationary and mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are estimated to be emitted in Jeju City, were collected during Feburuary to March, 2004, and analyzed for 16 PAHs recommended by US EPA as primary pollutants to investigate their distribution characteristics. The concentrations of total PAHs (t-PAHs) and total carcinogenic PAHs $(t-PAH_{CARC})$ in soils of Jeju City were in the range of $21.7\sim264.2ng/g$ on a dry weight basis with a mean value of 87.2 ng/g and $6.3\sim118.0ng/g$ with a mean value of 33.4 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of t-PAHs were low in comparison with those in soils of other domestic and foreign countries. The mean concentrations of t-PAHs and $(t-PAH_{CARC})$ with area decreased in the following sequences: traffic area> incineration area > factory area > power generation area > harbor area enli residental area. The correlation between t-PAHs and $(t-PAH_{CARC})$ were very high $(\gamma^2=0.9701)$, indicating that $(t-PAH_{CARC})$ concentration increases in proportion with t-PAHs. Comparing the distribution ratio of ring PAHs with area among 16 PAHs, it decreased in the order of 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring > 3-ring > 2-ring in all the areas except for harbor area. whitens for harbor area it was similar among 3-, 4- and 5-ring with high value. Low and no correlations between t-PAHs and soil compositions (organic matter content and particle size distribution) were observed, which is considered to be caused by the complex factors, such as the loading and characteristics of PAHs and diverse soil environment change, etc. From the examination of the three PAH origin indices, such as LMW/HMW (low molecular weight $2\sim3$ ring PAHs over high molecular weight $4\sim6$ ring PAHs), phenanthrene/anthracene ratio and fluoranthene/pyrene ratio, it can be concluded that the soil PAH contaminations were ascribed to strong pyrogenic origin in ail areas except for harbor area and to both pyrogenic and petrogenic origins.

ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells th study the mechanism of action of PAHs

  • Nano, Min-Kyung;Yhong, Sheen-Yhun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.171-171
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    • 2002
  • Recent industrial society has human widely exposed to PAHs that are comming from the incomplete combustion of organic material as widerspread environmetal contaminants. Biological activities of PAHs are not known although PAHs are considered as carcinogens. PAHs in the mammalian cells affect CYP1A1 gene expression as well as other phase II drug metabolizing enzymes as UDPGT, NMOR etc. The mechanism of action of PAHs has been studied extensively, however it is not clear how PAHs turn on CYP1A1 in human breast cancer. Our labolatory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the human breast cancer cell lind MCF7. In this study, we examined the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells as a new system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs. ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line has been estabilished from the breast cnacer patient, has estrogen receptors and progesteron receptors. We have been able to estbilish long term culture system of this cells then used for the study to observe the effect of PAHs. We demonstrate that PAHs induced the transcription of an aryl hydrocarbon-responsive reporter vector containing the CYP1A1 promoter and 7-ethoxyresolufin O-deethylase(EROD) activity of CYP1A1 enzyme in a concentration-dependant manner. RT-PCR analysises indicated that PAHs significantly up-regulate the constitutive level of CYP1A1 mRNA. Apparently, ZR-75-1 cells have Aryl hydrocarbon recetors, therefore it would be good experimental tool to study the cross-talk between PAHs and steroid actions.

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Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed to crude oil-contaminated sediments

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Ji-Hye;Sung, Chan-Gyoung;Moon, Seong-Dae;Kang, Sin-Kil;Lee, Jong-Hyeon;Yim, Un Hyuk;Shim, Won Joon;Ha, Sung Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.371-381
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    • 2014
  • The bioaccumulation of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to sediments artificially contaminated by Iranian Heavy Crude Oil was measured and the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was estimated through laboratory experiments. The proportion of 16 PAHs accumulated in the tissue of R. philippinarum was only from 3 to 7% of total PAHs. Among 16 PAHs, the concentration of naphthalene was highest in the tissue. Alkylated PAHs were highly accumulated more than 93% of total PAHs. The C3 dibenzothiophene was most highly accumulated. The relative composition of alkylated naphthalenes in the tissue of R. philippinarum was lower than in the sediments. In contrast, those of alkylated compounds of fluorenes, phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes were higher in the tissue than the sediments. The BSAF for sum of 16 PAHs was 0.11 to 0.13 g carbon/g lipid and that for alkylated PAHs was 0.05 to 0.06 g carbon/g lipid. Naphthalene showed the highest BSAF value. Alkylated PAHs with the same parent compound, BSAF tended to increase with the number of alkylated branch increased, except for alkylated chrysenes. BSAF of total PAHs lies between that of field-based values, and are also similar to those of other persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs). This study provides the BSAF values of individual alkylated PAHs accumulated in R. philippinarum for the first time and will be used as a basis for further understanding the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the marine benthic organisms.

Fate Analysis and Impact Assessment for Vehicle Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Emitted from Metropolitan City Using Multimedia Fugacity Model (다매체거동모델을 이용한 대도시 자동차 배출 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) 거동 해석 및 영향평가)

  • Rhee, Gahee;Hwangbo, Soonho;Yoo, ChangKyoo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.479-495
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to research the multimedia fate modeling, concentration distribution and impact assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from automobiles, which are known as carcinogenic and mutation chemicals. The amount of emissions of PAHs was determined based on the census data of automobiles at a target S-city and emission factors of PAHs, where multimedia fugacity modeling was conducted by the restriction of PAHs transfer between air-soil at the impervious area. PAHs' Concentrations and their distributions at several environmental media were predicted by multimedia fugacity model (level III). The residual amounts and the distributions of PAHs through mass transfer of PAHs between environment media were used to assess the health risk of PAHs at unsteady state (level IV), where the sensitivity analyses of the model parameter of each variable were conducted based on Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental result at S-city showed that Fluoranthene among PAHs substances are the highest residual concentrations (60%, 53%, 32% and 34%) at all mediums (atmospheric, water, soil, sediment), respectively, where most of the PAHs were highly accumulated in the sediment media (more than 80%). A result of PAHs concentration changes in S-city over the past 34 years identified that PAHs emissions from all environmental media increased from 1983 to 2005 and decreased until 2016, where the emission of heavy-duty vehicle including truck revealed the largest contribution to the automotive emissions of PAHs at all environment media. The PAHs concentrations in soil and water for the last 34 years showed the less value than the legal standards of PAHs, but the PAHs in air exceeded the air quality standards from 1996 to 2016. The result of this study is expected to contribute the effective management and monitoring of toxic chemicals of PAHs at various environment media of Metropolitan city.

Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Riverine Waters of Ulsan Coast, Korea (울산연안 하천에서 다환방향족탄화수소 분포특성)

  • You, Young-Seok;Lee, Jeong-Hoon;Park, Jeong-Chae;Kim, Dong-Myung;Cho, Hyeon-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 2012
  • PAHs(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in coastal area and estuary adjacent to urban area and industrial activities region are mainly introduced into marine environment via atmosphere and river. This study which is evaluated the distribution characteristics of PAHs discharge from rivers and sewage disposal water which flowing into Ulsan bay, and were carried out in Jun of dry season and in Auguest of wet season, 2008. The water samples from eight main rivers and Youngyeon WWTP(Wastewater Treatment Plant) flowed into Ulsan bay were taken for analysis of dissolved PAHs. The range and mean values of dissolved PAHs concentrations showed 10.30 to 87.88 ng/L, its mean 36.94 ng/L in dry season and 10.30 to 69.57 ng/L, its mean 24.37 ng/L in wet season. The distribution of dissolved PAHs showd the high concentrations in the Gungcheoncheon which is flowed from urban and industrial area. The ranges and means values of the loading fluxes were estimated with 0.04 to 8.27 g/day, its mean 2.05 g/day in dry season, and 0.03 to 4.77 g/day, its mean 1.61 g/day, in wet season. The loading flux showed the highest value in Taewha river due to the high flow rate and the urban activity. The composition patterns of dissolved PAHs compound showed most of the trend occupying low molecuar weight PAHs than high molecular weight PAHs. These results were due to physical and chemical characteristics of PAHs compound, and were similar to those of other studies. The concentrations of dissolved PAHs in this study are lower than those of other studies, and the level of PAHs pollution appeared to be not serious in reverine waters of Ulsan coast.

Bioassays of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in ZR-75-1 Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Min, Kyung-N.;Sheen, Yhun-Y.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2003
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are frequently detected in food, water, soil, and sediment and are widespread environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, woods and other organic matter. PAHs are considered to be probable human carcinogens. The mechanism of action of PAHs has been studied extensively, however it is not clear how PAHs turn on CYP1A1 in human breast cancer. Our laboratory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the human breast cancer cell MCF7. In this study, we examined the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells as a new system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs. ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line responses to estrogen and progesteron. We have been able to estbilish long term culture system of this cells then used for the study to observe the effect of PAHs. We demonstrate that PAHs induced the CYP1A1 promoter and 7-ethoxyresolufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in a concentration-dependant manner. RT-PCR analysis indicated that PAHs significantly up-regulate the level of CYP1A1 mRNA. Some of PAHs showed stronger stimulatory effect on CYP1 gene expression than TCDD. Apparently, ZR-75-1 cells have Aryl hydrocarbon receptors, therefore it would be good experimental tool to study the cross-talk between PAHs and steroid actions.

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Characteristics of Concentration and Size Distribution of PAHs of Total Suspended Particulates in urban air (도시대기부유분진중 다환방향족 탄화수소의 농도 및 입경분포 특성)

  • 조기철;이승일;김달호;허귀석;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 1994
  • In order to comprehension of the behaviour of PAHs in air which is known as carcinogens and/or mutagens suspended Particulates in ambient air were collected by Anderson air sampler from 1992. 6 to 1993. 5 in Seoul. Ten species of PAHs( Phen, An, Fl, R, Py, BaAn, BaP, Chry, BeP, DiB(a, h)An, I123p) were analyzed to understand monthly variations of PAHs distribution of PAHs concentration according to particle size, and correlation between PAHs and independent charactierstics of PAHs The highest concentration of TSP was 155.58$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ in May and the lowest was 60$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ in August. Concentration of TSP was more affected by coarse particles in spring, otherwise which was more affected by fine particles in winter. According to results of anaylsis of samples that were collected by Anderson air sampler, concentration of PAHs was more high in winter than that in summer. In almost samples collected by Anderson air sampler, concentration of PAHs was more high in coarse particles than in fine particles, but BaP well known as carcinogenic matter had more high concentration in fine particles(56-97.5%) than that in coarse particles(2.5-46%). Correlation between concentrations of TSP and PAHs was more high in fine Particles than in coarse Particles. Both fine particles and coarse particles have negative correaltion with radiation.

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Compositional Characteristics and Origin of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons[PAHs] of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products (원유와 석유제품 중의 다환방향족탄화수소류[PAHs] 분포특성과 발생원)

  • Chung, Hung-Ho;Park, Eun-Hee;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.397-403
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    • 2006
  • Compositional characteristics and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), which should be strongly regulated for environmental protection in the crude oils and petroleum products, have been investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). In the crude oils analyzed, two-rings compound(naphthalene) of PAHs was detected around $72.3\sim93.5%$, but five- or six-rings compound of PAHs was not detected. In the crude oils analyzed, the molecular ratio indices of Phe/Ant(phenanthrene/anthracene)>15, Fla/Pyr(fluoranthene/pyrene)<1, BaA/Chr(benzo (a)anthracene/chrysene)$\leq0.4$ could be effectively applied, and we found that the origin of PAHs was petrogenic sources. Total PAHs concentrations in the crude oils were increased with increasing API gravity and with decreasing sulfur contents of the analyzed crude oils. Five- or six-rings compound of PAHs were not included in ail petroleum products except bunker-C. Furthermore, the molecular ratio indices of Phe/Ant(phenanthrene/anthracene) vs. Fla/Pyr(fluoranthene/pyrene) could be effectively applied as the standard for the PAHs contamination criterion at the other Korean areas.