• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAHs

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Association between CYP1A1 Expression and Childhood Asthma (CYP1A1 유전자발현과 소아천식의 상관)

  • Yang Mihi
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 2005
  • Due to steady increase of childhood asthma, exposure to air toxics including PAHs have been thought as an etiology for the asthma. PAHs -involvement in airway inflammation, such as IgE production, is the potential mechanism of the PAHs-induced asthma. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs), particularly CYP1A1 is known enzyme to metabolite PAHs and to be induced by PAHs. The CYP1A1 expression has been emphasized as an biomarker for PAHs - exposure. The present study was performed to clarify the etiology of childhood asthma with PAHs-exposure using mRNA expression of CYP1A1 . The study Objects were Korean children who were asthma patients (cases) or other hospital controls (N=20; age,3 $\~$ 16; boys,56$\%$). As result, we detected expression of the CYP1A1 in all peripheral blood specimens which were collected from the subjects. Moreover, we found approx. 300 fold-higher expression of the CYP1A1 in the cases than that in the controls (p(<)0.01). When we considered age which was related to Asthma, the above significant trend was somewhat diluted, however, the relation between asthma and the Cypih i expression waL stronger than that between asthma and age (chi square,7.99 vs. 3.34). Therefore, our study supports that PAHs induce or worse childhood asthma and suggests application of expression of the CYP1A1 as an initiation or progress biomarker for PAHs - induced childhood asthma.

Distribution and Characteristics of PAHs in Bivalves from Gwangyang Bay, Korea

  • Yim, U.H.;Hong, S.H.;Shim, W.J.;Oh, J.R.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 2004
  • Polyeyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantitatively determined in bivalves from Gwangyang Bay. Twenty-four kinds of target PAHs were detected in the entire samples. Total PAHs concentrations ranged 86.1∼1,210 ng g$\^$-1/ dry weight with a average concentration of 309 ng g$\^$-1/, which is much lower than those of other industrialized bays in Korea. Strong tidal currents and artificial interferences like reclamation and dredging activity were suggested as major reason for disparity between highly industrialization and low contamination status. There was no correlation between total PAHs and lipid contents, implying that lipid content is not the one major parameter for the accumulation of PAHs by bivalves. Input sources were inferred as petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. With help of PCA analysis, signals of seasonal variations, not only concentrations but also compositions were found.

Exposure Assessment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Model Menu System of Korean (한국인의 모델식이에 대한 다환방향족탄화수소류(PAHs)의 인체노출량평가)

  • Kim YunHee;Yoon EunKyung;Lee HyoMin;Park KyungAh;Jun EunAh;Lee CherlHo;Choi SangYun;Lim SeungTaek;Ze KeumRyun;Choi KwangSik
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.176-184
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to compare and estimate the daily PAHs dietary intake from both home-cooking and dining-out, through approach of model diet used in exposure assessment of food contaminants. Food commodities reflecting in model diet were selected from the KHIDI report and were analysed in cooked or uncooked edible forms using HPLC-Fluorscence Detector. The PAHs dietary intake comparison between home-cooking and dining-out was based on one meal intake suggested in model diet and PAHs dietary intake was estimated by using food consumption rate and body weight of the Korean adult group. The daily PAHs dietary intake was calculated by permutation and combination method with assumption that a person consumed 2 meals from home-cooking menu and 1 meal from dining-out menu. The total PAHs levels in 36 food commodities with 200 samples were ranged from 2.00 ug/kg to 141.28 ug/kg and a food showing the highest PAHs level was the stir-fried anchovy. The $TEQ_{BaP}$ levels of PAHs were calculated using benzo(a)pyrene equivalents individual congener level and corresponding TEF value and the $TEQ_{BaP}$ level were ranged from $0.03\;ugTEQ{BaP}$ to $1.31\;ugTEQ_{BaP}$ and a food showing the highest $TEQ_{BaP}$ level was the hamburger. The PAHs dietary intakes per one meal from home-cooking and dining-out were $2.4\times10^{-3}\;ugTEQ_{BaP}/kg/meal\;and\;4.0\times10^{-3}\;ugTEQ_{BaP}/kg/meal$, respectively. This data showed the PAHs dietary intake from dining-out was about 1.7 times higher than from the home-cooking. The daily PAHs dietary intakes of general Korean adult having two meals from home-cooking and one meal from dining-out per a day were ranged between $8.0\times10^{-3}\~9.7\times10^{-3}\;ugTEQ_{BaP}/gg/day$ and mean value as $8.9\times10^{-3}\~9.7\times10^{-3}\;ugTEQ_{BaP}/gg/day$.

Pollution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seawater and Marine Sediments from Anmyundo Coastal Area after Oil Spill (유류사고 이후 안면도 연안 해수 및 퇴적물의 다환방향족탄화수소(PAHs) 오염에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Wan-Seok;Park, Seung-Yoon;Kim, Pyoung-Joong;Jeon, Sang-Baeck;An, Kyoung-Ho;Choi, Yong-Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1421-1430
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    • 2010
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in seawater and marine sediment from Anmyundo coastal area after oil spill. The concentrations of total PAHs in surface and bottom of seawater at August were 31.1 to 142.6 ng/L and 5.9 to 50.9 ng/L in August and November, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in sediment were 21.0 to 102.9 ng/g D.W. and 32.3 to 57.4 ng/g D.W. in August and November, respectively. PAHs concentrations in seawater and sediment in August were higher than those in November about 2.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. Diagnostic ratio (PhA/AnT and FluA/Pyr) were investigated to identify source of PAHs in seawater and sediment. The PAHs in seawater originated from pyrolytic source and those in sediment originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic source. The glass, wood and coal origin was higher than petroleum origin on the combustion origin of PAHs in seawater and sediment. The seawater of Anmyundo costal area recovered from oil spill, but the sediments of that were weakly influenced by oil spill until now. Because this area is developed many fishing grounds, demanded Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program (LTEMP). The concentrations of PAHs on depth of sediments were investigated at station 8 and 10. The concentrations of PAHs were decreased with increasing depth.

Proposal of Standard Method for the Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Sediments (해양퇴적물내 다환방향족탄화수소 분석을 위한 표준작업절차서 제안)

  • Lee, Hyo-Jin;Kim, Gi-Beum;Choi, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.163-175
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    • 2011
  • Though polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) in marine sediment has been produced by many colleges and institution in Korea, it is difficult to compare PAHs data in a study area with those in other areas due to the lack of confidence for the quality of data from the other organization. Therefore, we suggested the protocol for PAHs analysis in marine sediment through examining the method of PAHs analysis described in over twenty scientific papers and reports. When a known amount of 23 PAHs were spiked into a sediment and anlyzed following this new protocol, very good recoveries were obtained. In addition, for college and institution with their own method to analyze PAHs can keep producing PAHs data without exchanging to this new PAHs protocol, the method to get a full confidence through the QA/QC for the PAHs data produced by these organization is included to the protocol.

The Influence of Land Use on the Concentration Levels and Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Korea (국내 토지이용도별 토양 중 다환방향족탄화수소류(PAHs)의 농도 수준 및 분포 특성)

  • Noh, Hoe-Jung;Yoon, Jeong Ki;Yun, Dae-Geun;Yu, Soon-Ju;Kim, Tae Seung;Lee, Jai-Young
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 2014
  • We investigated soil contamination depending on the land use by examining the contamination levels and distribution characteristics of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the national soil. Total PAHs (the sum of 16 PAH concentrations) and carcinogenic PAHs (the sum of seven carcinogenic PAH concentrations) were $8.50{\sim}3,437.16{\mu}g/kg$ and $2.94{\sim}2,136.96{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene, one of the contaminants regulated by the soil quality standard in the nation, was $ND{\sim}924.73{\mu}g/kg$. Its maximum value of $924.73{\mu}g/kg$ was detected in railroad (Region 3) and is approximately 13% of the standard value for Region 3 (i.e., 7 mg/kg). We also investigated the characteristics of contamination sources of PAHs in soil of the upland, forests, roads, and railroads, examining the fraction distribution of PAHs concentration by the number of benzene rings against the total PAHs concentration. The results demonstrate that the mean fraction of 4~6-ring PAHs against total PAHs concentration in soil was in the range of 51.8~80.7% with relative abundance of high-molecular PAHs, showing that the origin of contamination is under the category of combustion sources. When the molecular indices (Flu/(Flu/Pyr), Ant/(Ant+Phe), InP/(InP+BP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr)) were applied, they were also categorized as petroleum-based combustion sources. The individual PAH concentrations in soil by the land use were grouped into Regions 1, 2, and 3, which are statistically treated and are the parts of the national category system of soil quality standard. As a result, the concentration level of 16 PAHs was $0.02{\sim}2.63{\mu}g/kg$ in Region 1, $0.05{\sim}4.26{\mu}g/kg$ in Region 2, and $2.36{\sim}178.27{\mu}g/kg$ in Region 3. The concentration level of 6 carcinogenic PAHs was 14.2~320.4% against that of benzo(a)pyrene in Region 3 and sites of recycling waste sleepers. Considering that there were similarities among PAHs in terms of structures and toxicities, it would be recommended to review other types of carcinogenic PAHs together with benzo(a)pyrene when developing the soil quality standards in the nation.

Distribution and emission source of PAHs in ambient air of Seoul (서울지역 대기 중의 PAHs 분포 특성 및 발생원)

  • Park, Jin-Soo;Yoon, Seong-Kyu;Bae, Woo-Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2010
  • Air samples were collected and analyzed to investigate regional level of PAHs and its emission sources. The average concentrations of PAHs in the suburban (Gwanak) and in the urban (Seodaemun) area were $16.52\;ng/m^3$ and $59.1\;ng/m^3$, respectively. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and fluorene were predominant PAHs species, as their sum contributed to 55.6% and 60.8% of the total PAHs, respectively. The possible major source of PAHs was suspect to be the combustion of diesel fueled vehicles in both areas, particularly for Seodaemun.

Biodegradation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in soil using microorganisms under anaerobic conditions (혐기성 미생물에 의한 토양내 다핵성방향족화합물의 생물학적 분해)

  • An, Ik-Seong
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.89-91
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    • 2000
  • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are highly carcinogenic chemicals and common groundwater contaminants that are observed to persist in soils. The adherence and slow release of PAHs in soil is an obstacle to remediation and complicates the assessment of cleanup standards and risks. Biological degradation of PAHs in soil has been an area of active research because biological treatment may be less costly than conventional pumping technologies or excavation and thermal treatment. Biological degradation also offers the advantage to transform PAHs into non-toxic products such as biomass and carbon dioxide. Ample evidence exists for aerobic biodegradation of PAHs and many bacteria capable of degrading PAHs have been isolated and characterized. However, the microbial degradation of PAHs in sediments is impaired due to the anaerobic conditions that result from the typically high oxygen demand of the organic material present in the soil, the low solubility of oxygen in water, and the slow mass transfer of oxygen from overlying water to the soil environment. For these reasons, anaerobic microbial degradation technologies could help alleviate sediment PAH contamination and offer significant advantages for cost-efficient in-situ treatment. But very little is known about the potential for anaerobic degradation of PAHs in field soils. The objectives of this research were to assess: (1) the potential for biodegradation of PAH in field aged soils under denitrification conditions, (2) to assess the potential for biodegradation of naphthalene in soil microcosms under denitrifying conditions, and (3) to assess for the existence of microorganisms in field sediments capable of degrading naphthalene via denitrification. Two kinds of soils were used in this research: Harbor Point sediment (HPS-2) and Milwaukee Harbor sediment (MHS). Results presented in this seminar indicate possible degradation of PAHs in soil under denitrifying conditions. During the two months of anaerobic degradation, total PAH removal was modest probably due to both the low availability of the PAHs and competition with other more easily degradable sources of carbon in the sediments. For both Harbor Point sediment (HPS-2) and Milwaukee Harbor sediment (MHS), PAH reduction was confined to 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Comparing PAH reductions during two months of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of MHS, it was found that extent of PAHreduction for anaerobic treatment was compatible with that for aerobic treatment. Interestingly, removal of PAHs from sediment particle classes (by size and density) followed similar trends for aerobic and anaerobic treatment of MHS. The majority of the PAHs removed during biotreatment came from the clay/silt fraction. In an earlier study it was shown that PAHs associated with the clay/silt fraction in MHS were more available than PAHs associated with coal-derived fraction. Therefore, although total PAH reductions were small, the removal of PAHs from the more easily available sediment fraction (clay/silt) may result in a significant environmental benefit owing to a reduction in total PAH bioavailability. By using naphthalene as a model PAH compound, biodegradation of naphthalene under denitrifying condition was assessed in microcosms containing MHS. Naphthalene spiked into MHS was degraded below detection limit within 20 days with the accompanying reduction of nitrate. With repeated addition of naphthalene and nitrate, naphthalene degradation under nitrate reducing conditions was stable over one month. Nitrite, one of the intermediates of denitrification was detected during the incubation. Also the denitrification activity of the enrichment culture from MHS slurries was verified by monitoring the production of nitrogen gas in solid fluorescence denitrification medium. Microorganisms capable of degrading naphthalene via denitrification were isolated from this enrichment culture.

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Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of Kwangyang Bay in Korea (광양만 연안 퇴적토 중의 다환방향족탄화수소류의 분포특성)

  • Chung, Hung-Ho;Jeong, Ho-Seung;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2006
  • The concentrations of 16 priority PAHs (US EPA standard) were analyzed in the surface sediments obtained from 23 sampling sites near Kwangyang Bay in Korea. There was a local variability in the total PAHs ranged from 0.01 to 171.39 mg/kg, with a mean value of $8.13{\pm}24.8mg/kg$. The major pollution sources of PAHs near Kwanyang Bay were Taeindo, Sueo stream and Wallae stream, whose concentrations were 114.81, 38.37 mg/kg and 19.05 mg/kg, respectively. It showed that PAHs concentrations were increased with the decrease of particle size and with the increase of organic carbon contents in three fractioned sediments. From the analysis of PAHs source using LMW/HMW, Phe/Ant, and Fla/Pyr, pyrolysis by-products were mostly showed in Kwangyang Bay and some place showed the mixure of pyrolysis by-products, and crude oil by-products. Besides, the toxic effects assessment on benthic ecosystem for three major pollution sources showed that the PAHs concentration of Taindo which was mainly accumulated with carcinogenic PAHs exceeds ERM value and the PAHs of Sueo and Wallae streams are the degree of ERL value.

A Study on Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Emitted by Coking Time and Sampling Method in a Coke Oven Plant (코크스제조공정에서 탄화시간과 시료채취방법에 따른 다핵방향족탄화수소 발생에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Chung Sik;Paik, Nam Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 1993
  • The polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from coke oven standpipe were sampled using three sampling systems, including glass fiber filter+silver membrane filter, glass fiber filter+silver membrane filter+XAD-2 adsorbent tube, PTFE membrane filter+XAD-2 adsorbent tube, extracted by methylene chloride and analysed by gas chromathography using flame ionization detector. The results of this study were as follows. 1. Because the amounts of coke oven emissions(COE) were large, the analyses of PAHs were simple and possible without evaporation and concentration. Although the generation of COE was high during early stage of coking, the airborne concentration of PAHs was low and increased during late coking. 2. The contents of PAHs in COE were 1.35-2.81%. 3. The index components of PAHs were fluoranthene and pyrene. Their correlation coefficient to total PAHs were 0.96, 0.95, respectively. 4. The particulate PAHs were sampled by filter and gaseous PAHs by adsorbent tube. The collection efficiency of glass fiber filter+silver membrane filter was 20% of total amount sampled by filters+adsorbent and PTFE membrane filter 50%. Adsorbent tube must be attached to the filter to collect light and small PAH components. 5. The generation of acenaphthene and indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene were low and concentrations of fluorene and anthracene were $20-40ug/m^3$ throughout coking time. Other PAH eoncentrations were sometimes high. The generation of PAHs was low at 4-6 hours of coking time. The gaseous PAHs were generated earlier than particulate PAHs.

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