• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAHs

Search Result 643, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Bioassays of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using cyp1a1-Luciferase Reporter Gene Expression System in Mouse Liver Hepa 1 Cells

  • Min, Kyung-N.;Kim, Ja-Y.;Sheen, Yhun-Y.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.30-34
    • /
    • 2003
  • Recent industrial society has human widely exposed to PAHs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) that are comming from the incomplete combustion of organic material as wider spread environmental contaminants. Biological activities of PAHs are not known although PAHs are considered as carcinogens. Our laboratory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the mouse liver hepa 1 cells. In this study, we examined the mouse liver hepa-l cells as a new bioassay system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs. We have selected 13 PAHs to examine bioassay using cyp1a1-luciferase reporter gene expression system where cyp1a1 1.6 Kb 5flanking region DNA was cloned in front of luciferase reporter gene and this plasmid was transfected into hepa 1 cells transiently. This cells then used for the study to observe the effect of PAHs. We demonstrated that PAHs induced the CYP1A1 promoter and 7-ethoxyresolufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in a concentration-dependant manner. Some of PAHs showed stronger stimulatory effect on CYP1 gene expression than TCDD. Acenaphthene, anthracene, fluorine, naphthalene, pyrene, phenanthrene, carbazole were weak responders to cyp1a1 promoter activity stimulation and EROD induction in hepa 1 cells and these chemicals seemed to respond less to EROD than cyp1a1 promoter activity. Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene showed strong response to cyp1a1 promoter activity stimulation and also EROD induction in hepa 1cells. Results of dose response study suggested that four strong responding PAHs, such as benzo(a)anthracene benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, and dibenzo(a, h)anthracene might be mediated through arylhydrocarbon receptor system in hepa1 cells.

  • PDF

Bioassays of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons using CYP1A1-luciferase Reporter Gene Expression System in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

  • Kim, Ja-Y.;Sheen, Yhun-Y.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.45-50
    • /
    • 2003
  • Biological activities of PAHs are not known although PAHs are considered as carcinogens. Recent industrial society has human widely exposed to PAHs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) that are comming from the incomplete combustion of organic material as wider spread environmental contaminants. Our laboratory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In this study, we examined the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as a new system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs. We have selected 13 PAHs to examine bioassay using CYP1A1-luciferase reporter gene expression system where CYP1A1 1.6 Kb 5flanking region DNA was cloned in front of luciferase reporter gene and this plasmid was transfected into MCF-7 cells transiently. This cells then used for the study to observe the effect of PAHs. We demonstrated that PAHs induced the CYP1A1 promoter, CYP1A1 mRNA and 7-ethoxyresolufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in a concentration-dependant manner. None of PAHs that we have tested showed stronger stimulatory effect on CYP1 gene expression than TCDD. Benz(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were weak responders to CYP1A1 promoter activity stimulation, CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD induction in MCF-7 cells and these chemicals seemed to respond less either CYP1A1 mRNA or EROD than CYP1A1 promoter activity. Benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, and dibenzo(a, h)anthracene showed strong response to CYP1A1 promoter activity stimulation, CYP1A1 mRNA increase and also EROD induction in MCF-7 cells. Results of dose response study suggested that two strong responding PAHs, such as benzo(k)fluoranthene and dibenzo(a, h)anthracene might be mediated through Aryl hydrocarbon receptors system in MCF-7 cells.

  • PDF

Numerical Simulation for the Prediction of PAHs in Jinhae Bay using EMT-3D Model (EMT-3D 모델을 이용한 진해만 PAHs의 거동 예측 시뮬레이션)

  • Kim, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-13
    • /
    • 2011
  • The behavior prediction of PAHs in Jinhae Bay using a three-dimensional ecological model(EMT-3D) was examined. A three-dimensional ecological model(EMT-3D) was applied to the simulation of PAHs behaviors in Jinhae Bay of Korea. The computed results of simulation were in good agreement with the observed values. The result of sensitivity analysis showed that photolysis coefficient and extinction coefficient were important factors in the variation of dissolved PAHs, and POC partition coefficient was important factor in the variation of PAHs in particulate organic matter. In the case of PAHs in phytoplankton, bioconcentration factor of plankton was the most significant and the most effective in all. In simulations of 30%, 50% and 80% reduction in total loads of PAHs, the concentrations of dissolved PAHs were shown to be lower than 24 ng/L, 20 ng/L and 16 ng/L, respectively.

Changes in Concentration Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Associated with Airborne Particulate Matter in Downtown Tokyo after Introducing Government Diesel Vehicle Controls

  • Kojima, Yuki;Inazu, Koji;Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu;Okochi, Hiroshi;Baba, Toshihide;Nagoya, Toshio
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2010
  • The effectiveness of the government regulation on tail-pipe emission for diesel vehicles issued in 2003 in Tokyo was evaluated in this study. Variations in annual average concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs associated with airborne particulate matter were investigated in connection with the variation in airborne elemental carbon (EC) concentration in downtown Tokyo, Japan in 2006-2007 and in 1997-1998. The annual average concentrations of EC, seven different PAHs, and 1-nitropyrene were found to have decreased significantly from 1997-1998 to 2006-2007. The most prominent decrease in atmospheric concentration was observed for 1-nitropyrene, which is a representative nitro-PAH originating from diesel vehicles. This indicated that the government control has worked to considerably reduce both atmospheric mutagens and airborne particulate matter. In contrast, the concentrations of two nitro-PAHs, 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene, remained the same. These nitro-PAHs are known to be formed by atmospheric nitration of their parent PAHs, and this result suggested factors other than the concentration of parent PAHs and $NO_2$ affects the degree of atmospheric formation of nitro-PAHs.

Evaluation of a Method for the Measurement of PAHs in the Ambient Atmosphere - Focusing on High Volume Sampling and GC/MS Analysis (대기 중 다환방향족탄화수소 측정방법의 성능평가 - 하이볼륨 샘플링 및 GC/MS 분석방법을 대상으로)

  • Seo, Young-Kyo;Park, Dae-Kwon;Baek, Sung-Ok
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.322-333
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this study, a measurement method was evaluated for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient atmosphere. PAHs were sampled by high-volume samplers, and were then analysed with a GC/MS system. Particulate PAHs were collected on $8"{\times}10"$ quartz fiber filter, while vapor phase PAHs were adsorbed on polyurethane foam (PUF). Target compounds included a total of 36 PAHs, which are known to be frequently detected in the urban atmosphere. It was not necessary to clean-up samples before samples were analyzed using GC/MS, and the overall performance of the method was tested by a variety of quality control and quality assurance schemes. It is generally known that the clean-up procedure can negatively affect the recovery of samples. Precision and accuracy was evaluated using SRM provided by US NIST, and the results were generally satisfactory and reliable. However, the GC/MS method appeared not to be adequate for 6-rings PAHs, such as coronene, due to its lower sensitivity. In addition, collection efficiencies for low molecular compounds, such as 2-rings PAHs, were poor because of the lower retention volume of the PUF adsorbent. As a result, it was concluded that the method based on high-volume sampling and GC/MS analysis can give very reliable data by simultaneous sampling of both particulate and vapor phases for 3-rings to 5-rings PAHs of environmental concern.

Synchronous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in sediment of Ulsan Bay by synchronous 2nd derivative fluorescence spectrophotometry (이차 미분 형광 분광광도법에 의한 울산만 해양 저질토양 중의 다환 방향족 탄화수소(PAHs)의 동시 분석)

  • Yoo, Kwang-Sik;Jyoung, Jy-Young;Jeong, Seon-Yi
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-52
    • /
    • 2004
  • Determination of some PAHs in sediments at Ulsan bay has been carried out by extraction of the components into n-hexane followed by synchronous spectrofluorimetric technique. 11 PAHs, such as acenaphthene (Ace), anthracene (Anth), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbFt), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkFt) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene (Chry), phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene(Ft), perlyrene (Per), and pyrene (Pyr) in sediment samples were able to determine separately by synchronous spectrofluorimetry. Calibration curves for those components were linear for the concentration range of 0.15~166 ppb PAHs with the correlation factor of 0.9985~0.9999. The total amount of PAHs in sediments varied from 68.8 to 324.4 ng/g. The PAHs concentration was shown a tendency to increase from the outer bay to the inner basin as well the predominant contributors to the aromatic ring groups of the PAHs was 4-ring group.

An Assessment of Korean Housewives Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocabons(PAHs) in Indoor Air (일부 주부의 실내공기 중 PAHs 노출에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Tae-Hyung;Kim, Yun-Sin;Son, Bu-Soon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.323-331
    • /
    • 2007
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known for strong carcinogen. However, the human exposure analysis of PAHs is quite difficult and unreliable because of hard for estimation of actual expose dose. Then urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been a biological marker of exposure to PAHs. The purpose of this study was to investigate total amount from exposure to PAHs soused by indoor occupational exposure, and residence at Seoul metropolitan area and Kyeonggi province in Korea. Thirty-five housewives were included in this study from April 2003 through February 2004. Dietary habit and general characteristics such as age, type of building, existence of passive smoking, period of residence, fuel type for heating and ventilation type were obtained by self administered questionnaire. Urine samples were collected at morning and freeze quickly. Urinary creatinine was measured for converting into 24 hr urine. Concentration of the indoor PAHs was examined by NIOSH method number 5506. Urinary 1-OHP and PAHs were analysed by HPLC. Correlation coefficient between urinary 1-OHP levels and pyrene concentration of indoor air was 0.66 and statistically significant(P<0.01). The difference of urinary 1-OHP level due to dietary habits were not significant. Urinary 1-OHP level of Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter were $0.21{\pm}0.12,\;0.10{\pm}0.17,\;0.16{\pm}0.12,\;0.17{\pm}0.14{\mu}g/g$ cr, respectively. The arithmetic means of urinary 1-OHP for four season tee $0.16{\pm}0.14 {\mu}g/g$ cr. There was a trend that urinary 1-OHP level of residents who dwelling in apartment were higher compared with detached home, Comparison of 1-OHP level between heating by kerosene and LPG, Much higher gas heating type than kerosene type (P<0.05). This result implies that the urinary 1-OHP can be applied as the PAHs exposure indices.

Long-term Changes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of Paddy Soils in Youngnam area (영남지역 논토양에서 다핵방향족탄화수소 농도의 장기변동)

  • Nam, Jae-Jak;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hee-Dong;Park, Chang-Young;Lee, Sang-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.196-200
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was to determine long-term changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in paddy soils. To do this, we analyzed 16 PAHs in soil samples which were stored in the archive of Yeoungnam Agricultural Research Institute, Milyang, Kyeoungnam province, Korea. The samples used in this study were collected every year from 1978 to 2001 at the plough layer (0-12cm). In average, total PAHs accumulated in paddy soil was continuously decreased since 1980 when it peaked to be $237g\;kg^{-1}$. No significant changes were observed for PAHs having 5-6 phenyl rings for the past two decades, whereas PAHs with 3-4 phenyl rings were greatly decreased, reaching at about a half levels of the 1980's. It is worthy to be noted that the large reduction in PAHs with 3-4 phenyl rings has mainly been attributed to the decrease of PAHs in paddy soils for last 20 years. The major compounds accumulated were: phenanthrene > fluoroanthene > chrysene/benzo(b)fluoroanthene. The present results suggest that the switch of main fuels used in Korea from coal to petroleum around at the end of 1970's is likely contributed to decrease in PAH accumulation in paddy soils.

Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Early Development of Sea Urchin Anthocidaris crassispina (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)가 보라성게 (Anthocidaris crassispina)의 초기발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Na Oh-Soo;Moon Sang-Hee;Lee Chi-Hoon;Park Chang-Beom;Kim Byung-Ho;Jin Young-Seok;Hur Sang-Woo;Kam Sang-Kyu;Lee Young-Don
    • Environmental health and toxicology
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-65
    • /
    • 2005
  • Effects of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) constituents (naphthalene, fluorine, fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene) on fertilization and early development of sea urchin egg, sperm and fertilized egg were investigated. The eggs, sperm and fertilized eggs were exposed to several concentrations of PAHs (1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000㎍/L). The rate of fertilization and hatching decreased when the eggs and sperm were exposed to aqueous solution of PAHs. Also, Exposure of fertilized eggs with each PAHs did decrease survival and hatching rate. Concentration-dependent toxic effects on the rate of fertilization, hatching, survival and abnormality in A. crassispina were observed following exposure to PAHs (1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000㎍/L). These data show that PAHs exposure decreased in fertilization success of sea urchin egg and sperm and producted abnormal embryo. It is plausible to suggest that PAHs had the potential to significantly reduce coastal recruitment of sea urchin.

The change of the physiological response of the Crassostrea gigas exposed to PAHs (다환방향족탄화수소 (PAHs) 에 노출된 굴, Crassostrea gigas의 생리 반응 변화)

  • Choi, Eun Hee;Choi, Joong Ki;Lee, Won Young;Yoon, Ju Hyun;Shim, Na Young;Kim, Su Kyoung;Lim, Hyun Jeong
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.169-175
    • /
    • 2014
  • PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs) is the hydrophobic inorganic material composed of carbon and hydrogen that is easily adsorbed biological organisms in the ocean. Bivalves is the indicator of environment monitoring because of reflect growth, physiological response of bivalve followed their habitat environment. The aim of research is understand the change of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) physiological response under exposed PAHs concentration for control, 1, 10 and $100{\mu}g/L$. We investigated induced immune change response for oyster hemocyte and effect of tissue RNA/DNA ratio for mantle, gill and adductor muscle individually. As a result of experiment change of immune response the oyster hemocyte when exposed PAHs showed that viability and adhesion is no significant difference (ANOVA test, p < 0.05). However phagocytosis decreased under the over $10{\mu}g/L$ of PAHs concentration and ROS increased with the increase of PAHs concentration. The change of RNA/DNA ratio is R/D ratio decreased with the increase of PAH concentration in adductor muscle. However gill and mantle showed no change of R/D ratio with PAHs concentration. The oysters when exposed inorganic pollutant that decreased of physiological condition and damaged protein synthesis of adductor muscle.