• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAM

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Pseudo Optical PAM-N Signal Using Externally Modulated Lasers

  • Huh, Joon Young;Lee, Joon Ki;Kang, Sae-Kyoung;Lee, Jyung Chan
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.1120-1128
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    • 2015
  • We propose a pseudo optical N-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PO PAM-N) signal using a few externally-modulated lasers (EMLs) operating at different wavelengths, which is suitable for upgrading the transmission speed over an optical link of < 10 km single-mode fiber with low-cost components. To compare a PO PAM-N signal with that of a standard optical PAM-N signal, we perform experiments for evaluating the performance of a 51.56-Gb/s PO PAM-4 signal and standard 51.56-Gb/s optical PAM-4 signal. The receiver sensitivity (at $BER=10^{-5}$) of the PO PAM-4 signal is 1.5 dB better than the receiver sensitivity of a standard optical PAM-4 signal. We also investigate the feasibility of PO PAM-N (N = 4, 8, and 16) signals operating at 103.12 Gb/s, considering relative intensity noise, timing jitter, extinction ratio (ER) of EMLs, and dispersion. From the results, a PO PAM-8 signal performs better than PO PAM-4 and PO PAM-16 signals at 103.12 Gb/s. Finally, we suggest a timing control method to suppress the effect of dispersion in a PO PAM-N signal. We show that the tolerance to dispersion of a 103.12-Gb/s PO PAM-8 signal can be improved to ${\pm}40ps/nm$ by applying a proposed scheme.

Preparation of PVA/PAM/Zirconium phosphate Membrane for Proton Exchange Membranes (양이온교환용 PVA/PAM/Zirconium phosphate 막의 제조)

  • 임지원;황호상;김영진;남상용
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2004
  • Proton exchange membrane composed of PVA/PAM/ZrP was prepared and effect of PAM and ZrP contents on properties and performance of the membrane were investigated. PAM as a crosslinking agent was mixed into PVA solution with different concentration (7∼11 wt%) and the PVA/PAM solution was cast to prepare PVA/PAM crosslinked membrane. The membrane was treated in the solution of zirconyl chloride and phophoric acid to make a PVA/PAM/ZrP composite membrane. Methanol permeability, ion conductivity, swelling and ion exchange capacity of the membranes with different ZrP concentration were $10^{-8}∼l0^{-6}$ $\textrm{cm}^2$/sec, $10^{-3}~10^{-2}$ S/cm, 0.26∼1.17 g $H_2O$/g membrane and 2.59∼5.1 meq/g membrane, respectively. Hethanol permeability and ion conductivity of the PVA/PAM/ZrP membrane were improved by 18% and 23%, respectively, compared to those of the PVA/PAM membrane.

Effects of the Ge Prearmophization Ion Implantation on Titanium Salicide Junctions (게르마늄 Prearmophization 이온주입을 이용한 티타늄 salicide 접합부 특성 개선)

  • Kim, Sam-Dong;Lee, Seong-Dae;Lee, Jin-Gu;Hwang, In-Seok;Park, Dae-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.12
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    • pp.812-818
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    • 2000
  • We studied the effects of Ge preamorphization (PAM) on 0.25$\mu\textrm{m}$ Ti-salicide junctions using comparative study with As PAM. For each PAM schemes, ion implantations are performed at a dose of 2E14 ion/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and at 20keV energy using $^{75}$ /As+and GeF4 ion sources. Ge PAM showed better sheet resistance and within- wafer uniformity than those of As PAM at 0.257m line width of n +/p-well junctions. This attributes to enhanced C54-silicidation reaction and strong (040) preferred orientation of the C54-silicide due to minimized As presence at n+ junctions. At p+ junctions, comparable performance was obtained in Rs reduction at fine lines from both As and Ge PAM schemes. Junction leakage current (JLC) revels are below ~1E-14 A/$\mu\textrm{m}^{2}$ at area patterns for all process conditions, whereas no degradation in JLC is shown under Ge PAM condition even at edge- intensive patterns. Smooth $TiSi_2$ interface is observed by cross- section TEM (X- TEM), which supports minimized silicide agglomeration due to Ge PAM and low level of JLC. Both junction break- down voltage (JBV) and contact resistances are satisfactory at all process conditions.

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Use of Cationic PAM as a Surface Sizing Additive to Improve Paper Properties

  • Seo, Man-Seok;Lee, Hak-Lae;Youn, Hye-Jung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2006
  • This study was focused on the use of cationic PAM (Polyacrylamide) as a surface sizing additive to improve the surface sizing properties of paper. Effects of the ionic property, viscosity and charge density of PAM on bending stiffness of surface sized papers were investigated. Use of cationic PAM as a surface sizing additive improved bending stiffness while addition of anionic PAM did not show any effect. Increase of starch holdout with the addition of cationic PAM was attributed as a prime reason of stiffness increase. Viscosity of PAM was one of the most important factors affecting surface sizing due to its influence on the interaction between cationic PAM and oxidized starch solution. Greater improvement of bending stiffness of paper was obtained when high charged PAM was used as an additive. The order of addition was found to have significant influence on the effect of additives since it influences the formation of network structure among starch, cationic PAM, and SA (styrene acrylic acid copolymer). Investigation on the penetration of starch solution was carried out with CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy), and it was shown that the addition of cationic PAM to oxidized starch solution made starch molecules stay on the paper surface rather than penetrating into the paper structure because of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged fibers and positively charged cationic PAM.

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Effects of Potassium-Cyanoethylstarch (K-CES) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) on Growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) (토양내 K-CES와 PAM처리가 시금치의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seog-Kyun;Kawabata, Saneyuki;Sakiyama, Ryozo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.226-228
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to observe the effects of potassium-cyanoethylstarch (K-CES), which is a natural polymer derivate,. and polyacrylamide (PAM), which is a synthetic polymer, on the growth of spinach under environment-controlled biotron. K-CES was made from tapioca starch, and introductions of acrylonitrile was confirmed by FT-IR. Water absorbing capacities (WAC) of K-CES and PAM were 37.6 and 47.8 times, respectively. WAC of PAM was slightly higher than K-CES, WAC of PAM m saline solutions were more reduced than those of K-CES. It was introduced that K-CES treatment was more effective than PAM in higher salinity of water and soil. Dry super absorptive polymers were put into solution, and the solution was applied to soil as an soil conditioner. Both amendments, K-CES and PAM, increased the vegetative growth of the spinach when applied at 0.1% of soil weight. In general, the most favorable results for early vegetative growth of the spinach came from the PAM treatment, followed by the K-CES treatment.

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Polyacrylamide, Its Beneficial Application of Soil Erosion Control from Sloped Agricultural Fields (고분자유기응집제 (Polyacrylamide)를 활용한 농경지 사면 토양유실 저감 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Minyoung;Choi, Yonghun;Lee, Sangbong;Kim, Hyunjeong;Kim, Seounghee;Kim, Youngjin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2015
  • This study conducted a series of field experiments using soil conditioners, Polyacrylamide(PAM) and gypsum, to evaluate their effects in reducing sediment loss and surface runoff. In addition, the correction factors (K-alpha) for the erodibility factor (K) were determined to reflect the effects of PAM and PAM+gypsum in applying the USLE equation. Experimental erosion plots individually sized $10m^2$ (5 m long, 2 m wide and 1 m deep) have different slopes (10, 20 and 30%). Erosion plots were prepared for one control (C; no PAM and gypsum) and two treatments (P; PAM 20 kg/ha, PG; PAM 20 kg/ha+gypsum 3,000 kg/ha). The amounts of soil eroded and runoff were continuously monitored from July $1^{st}$ to Oct. $31^{st}$ in 2010 and compared to each other. The amount of sediment loss from a control plot was 399.2 ton/ha and the relative reduction of sediment loss were 11.4% and 33.4% for PAM-treated and PAM+gypsum treated plots, respectively. This study also determined the K-alpha factors in the USLE equation to account for the erosion control effectiveness of PAM and gypsum application. The K-alpha factors were calculated as 0.92 for PAM-treated plot and 0.69 for PAM+gypsum-treated plot. The findings of this study revealed that soil conditioners (PAM and gypsum) could play a significant role in controlling soil erosion. In addition, the modified USLE equation using the K-alpha could provide valuable information to make better decision on establishment of best management practice for soil erosion control in agriculture.

Effect of White Water Quality on the Adsorption of Cationic PAM on Fibers (백수의 수질이 양이온성 PAM의 흡착에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Hak-Lae;Youn, Hye-Jung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2005
  • Many factors which affect the adsorption of cationic polymers on fibers and fines have been investigated by many researchers that include contact time, pH, collision frequency, properties of cationic polymers and adsorbent, etc. But the effect of white water quality on the adsorption of cationic polymer have not been examined throughly. In this study, the adsorption of cationic PAM was analyzed as a function of white water quality. The adsorption of the cationic PAM was analyzed by two analysis methods, Kjeldahl nitrogen content measurement and electrokinetic measurements. When the distilled water was used, adsorbed amount of C-PAM and zeta-potential of fibers increased as a function of the addition of C-PAM. When closure level increased, nitrogen content of fibers increased indicating that the cationic PAM was adsorbed. Zeta-potential of fibers, however, showed no significant change with the increased addition of C-PAM. This showed that adsorption of C-PAM was not reflected by zeta-potential of fibers due to the deteriorated efficiency of C-PAM by the anionic contaminants in white water.

Blend Films of Poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) with Poly(vinyl alcohol) (I) : Thermo-mechanical Properties and Gas Permeability (폴리(비닐 알코올)과 폴리(아크릴산-말레산) 공중합체의 블렌드 필름 (I) : 열적-기계적 성질 및 가스 투과도)

  • Ham Shin-Kyun;Jung Min-Hye;Chang Jin-Hae
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.298-304
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    • 2006
  • Blends of poly (acrylic acid-co-maleic acid)(PAM) with poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) were obtained by solution blending. The blends were solvent-on to a film to examine thermo-mechanical properties and gas permeability. The transition temperatures $(T_g\;and\;T_m)$ of the blends remained constant regardless of PAM contents. However, the values of enthalpy changes corresponding to melting transition $({\Delta}H_m)$ and initial degradation temperature $({T_D}^i)$ were decreased with increasing PAM content. The values of ultimate strength and initial modulus gave the maximum value at the 12 wt% PAM then decreased with further increase of PAM content up to 15 wt%. To measure the gas permeability of the PVA/PAM blend films, the PVA blend solutions were coated onto both biaxially oriented propylene (BOPP) and poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) films. The oxygen transmission rate $(O_2\;TR)$ permeability values mono- tonically decreased with increasing PAM content. However, moisture vapor transmission rate was not affected by PAM content.

Fibers Flocculation and Physical Properties Changes of Paper Depending on Microparticle Retention Mechanisms (마이크로파티클 보류 기작에 따른 섬유의 응집 및 종이 물성 변화)

  • Yoon, Doo-Hoon;Park, Jong-Moon
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2004
  • Flocculation of fibers and its distribution in paper are related to flocculation mechanisms, retention and drainage. Relationship between flocculation mechanisms and physical properties of paper has not been fully studied. In this study, flocculation of fibers was investigated by changing microparticles for flocculation mechanism analysis. When fillers were not added, formation and strength were deteriorated by 100, 300, or 500 ppm of linear PAM (all L-PAM), All L-PAM + 1200 ppm inorganic microparticle (1200-IM), all L-PAM + 120 ppm organic microparticle (120-OM), all L-PAM + 1200 ppm organic microparticle (1200-OM) because of too much flocculation. When 5, 15, $25\%$ (od.w/w) fillers were added, retention and drainage process were not affected by the extent flocculation when 500 ppm L - PAM, 500 ppm L - PAM + 1200- IM, and 500 ppm L - PAM + 120 ppm OM were added.

Effects of Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Potassium-Carboxymethylcellulose (K-CMC) on Soil and Yield of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Empire) (PAM과 K-CMC처리가 토양의 이화학성 및 양배추의 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seog-Kyun;Kim, Kyung-Je
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.222-225
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to observe the effects of potassium-carboxymethyl cellulose (K-CMC), which is a natural polymer derivative, and polyacrylamide (PAM), which is a commercial synthetic polymer, on soil physicochemical properties and yields of the cabbage. To increase water absorbing capacity (WAC), hydrophilic carboxymethyl group was introduced to cellulose chain and it was confirmed by FT-IR. WAC was tested by tea-bag method in distilled water and 3% NaCl solution. PAM is slightly more absorptive than K-CMC in distilled water, but in NaCl solution, K-CMC is more absorptive than PAM. Soil particle sizes above $1_{mm}$ were immediately increased from 9.6 to approximately 16.6% by the application of K-CMC and PAM, respectively. Infiltration rates of soil were approximately twice as great as those of the control when conditioned with the K-CMC and PAM treatment. K content of soil treated with K-CMC was significantly higher than those of PAM and control, but the other components of soil chemical properties were not different. The early growth and vegetative production of cabbage in the K-CMC and PAM treatments were significantly higher than the control. The contents of vitamin C were increased with the treatment of K-CMC. It was proposed that K-CMC treatment influence K component of the soil and vitamin C content of the cabbage, therefore, it improved the yields as well as crop quality.

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