• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAM

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Peptide Amidation: Production of Peptide Hormones in vivo and in vitro

  • Kim, Kyun-Hwan;Baik L. Seong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2001
  • Over half of all biologically active peptide and peptide hormones are $\alpha$-amidated at their C-terminus, which is essential for their full biological activities. Amidation is accomplished through the sequential reaction of the two enzymes encoded by the single bifunctional, peptidyl-glycine $\alpha$-amidating monooxygenase (PAM or an $\alpha$-amidating enzyme). PAM catalyze the forma - tion of a peptide amide from peptide precursors that include a C-terminal glycine, and requires copper molecular oxygen and ascorbate. PAM is the only enzyme that produces peptide amides in vivo. However various strategies utilizing PAM, carboxypeptidase-Y enzymes, and chemical syn-thesis have been developed for producing peptide amides in vitro. The growing need and impor-tance of peptide amide drugs has highlighted the necessity for a efficient in vitro amidating sys-tem for industrial application for the production of peptide hormones, like calcitonin and oxytocin. This review presents the current situation regarding amidation with a special emphasis on the in-dustrial production or peptide hormones.

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휴대 단말 시스템용 전력증폭모듈(Power Amplifier Module)의 기술동향

  • 박타준;변우진
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2003
  • Cellular network을 이용하는 휴대 단말기의 경우 TDMA(GSM, IS-136), CDMA(IS-95) 그리고 WCD-MA 등을 포함해서 년간 약 4억대 정도 생산되고 있고, PAM(Power Amplifier Module)은 단말기 한 대당 1~2개 정도 사용되며, 단말기의 battery 사용시간과 밀접한 관련이 있다. 또한 antenna front-end에 장착되기 때문에, 신호의 왜곡에 의한 인접채널 누설 전력과 harmonic 등 전기적인 규격의 적합성과 ESD, 습기 등 품질 신뢰성 문제에 직접적인 영향을 주는 중요한 부품 중의 하나이다. 이로 인하여 PAM의 핵심 기능을 담당하는 PA IC의 공정 기술과 설계 기술, PAM제조 기술 등의 향상에 대한 많은 연구와 개발이 이루어졌다. 본 고에서는 PAM의 최근 기술 동향과 기능적으로 PAM이 주변 수동 및 능동 부품과 집적화 되고 있는 복합 모듈의 동향에 대해서 기술한다.

Synthesis and Biological Activity of Conformationally Controlled 2-PAM Derivatives

  • Jahng, Yurng-Dong;Park, Jae-Gyu;Yoo, Jung-Whey;Kim, Sun-Young;Kim, Tae-An;Yang, Jae-Ho
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.222-225
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    • 2000
  • A series of conformationally controlled 2-PAM derivatives were prepared from 2-acetylpyridine and 2,3-pyrido[b]cycloalkenones in two steps and their reactivities towards parathion poisoned AChE were evaluated. The most planar 2,3-pyrido[b]cyclohexanone oxime methiodide showed an activity comparable to 2-PAM Implying E-syn is that the most active comformation of 2-PAM in the biological system.

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A study on optimized Blanking size of Brace Center Pillar using Inverse module in PAM-STAMP (PAM-STAMP Inverse 모듈을 이용한 Brace Center Pillar Blanking 사이즈 최적화에 관한 연구)

  • You S.R.;Kim T.H.;Park J.D.;Kim M.J.;Chang S.G.;Jeon E.C.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.349-350
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    • 2006
  • PAM-STAMP is a widely used program which deals with press forming analysis. A blanking used in the press process depends on the experience of the workers. Thus it causes some waste material and demands a lot of time and many costs at the manufacturing mold. So we need to optimize of the blanking size. We have studied the optimal blanking size of the Brace Center Pillar using an Inverse module in PAM-STAMP

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Retention and Drainage Characteristics with Inverse Emulsion Type C-PAM

  • Son, Dong-Jin;Kim, Bong-Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to characterize inverse emulsion type cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) and to compare with powder and salt dispersion type PAMs as a retention and drainage aid. Salt dispersion type PAM has defects of high amount of salt which increases conductivity of white water, low active polymer contents and relatively worse retention and drainage properties than others because of its low molecular weight. Powder type PAM has benefit of high active polymer contents and good retention and drainage properties, but defects of low dissolution speed and insoluble particle generation were observed. However, inverse emulsion type showed the best retention and drainage aids among them by controlling molecular weight and morphology easily and it had relatively higher active polymer contents and better solubility.

Turbidity Reduction for Construction Runoff Using Polyacrylamide (고분자응집제를 이용한 건설현장 탁수처리)

  • Kang, Ji-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.237-241
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    • 2012
  • 많은 건설사업장의 경우 토사 유출에 따른 고농도 탁수가 발생하며, 그 탁도를 낮추기 위해 침전지 혹은 토사탈수백 등의 Best Management Practices(BMPs)를 이용한다. 본 연구에서는 유입되는 탁수에 고분자응집제인 polyacrylamide(PAM)를 액상으로 주입하고, 침전지와 토사탈수백을 통해 탁도를 저감하는 field-scale 실험을 수행하였다. 일반적으로 침전지 중간에는 유입되는 물의 힘을 분산시키기 위해 배플이라는 구조물이 설치되는데, 본 연구결과에 따르면 PAM을 통한 화학적 처리 없이 배플 자체로는 탁도를 낮추는 데 그 효과가 낮았으나, PAM주입을 할 경우 배플 설치 여부에 상관없이 90-98%까지 방류수 탁도를 낮출 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 침사지 이후에 설치한 토사탈수 백은 그 효과가 낮았으나, 침사지 없이 토사탈수백만 사용할 경우 PAM을 이용한 화학적 처리 없이는 만족할 만한 방류수 탁도를 기대하기 어려웠다. 본 연구결과는 향후 미국에서 면적 10에이커 이상의 공사현장에 적용되는 탁도 규제에 대한 대응 방안으로 PAM을 이용한 탁수 처리의 효용성을 보여준다.

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Design of Cost Effective PAM Inverter using 2-Switch Buck-Boost Converter (2-스위치 Buck-Boost 컨버터를 이용한 저가형 PAM 인버터 설계)

  • Kim, Jun-Hyung;Kang, Hyun-Soo;Lee, Byoung-Kuk
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.892-893
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    • 2008
  • 본 논문에서는, 기존의 PAM 인버터와는 달리 저 단가 구현 및 높은 성능을 낼 수 PAM 인버터 구조에 대해 고찰한다. 배터리를 전원으로 사용하는 일반적인 인버터의 경우 초기기동 및 저속운전 영역에서는 배터리 전압으로 인해 전류 및 토크 리플이 크며, 배터리 SOC의 최소치 보다 낮은 역기전력을 갖는 전동기만을 사용할 수 있다. 이를 해결하기 위해 2-스위치 Buck-Boost 컨버터와 4-스위치 인버터로 구성된 새로운 PAM 인버터 시스템을 제안한다. 제안된 시스템은 DC 링크 가변을 통해 역기전력이 낮은 저속운전영역에서는 감압하고 반대로 역기전력이 높은 고속운전영역에서는 승압시킬 수 있어 전류 및 토크 리플을 줄일 수 있다. 마지막으로 시뮬레이션을 통하여 제안된 시스템의 적용 가능성을 검증한다.

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Improvements of Strength and Retention of Cotton Handsheet by Additives(I) - Characteristics of Strength and Retention by Additives - (면 수초지의 지력 및 보류 향상을 위한 첨가제의 적용(제 1보) - 첨가제에 따른 지력 및 보류도 특성 -)

  • Cho, Yu-Je;Kim, Kang-Jae;Eom, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2013
  • Various properties of cotton handsheet were measured to solve the problem of deformation while storing guar gum(natural polymer) and to improve strength and retention by synthetic polymers(A-PAM, C-PAM, CMC). The results of this study were summarized as follow. The cotton handsheet with 0.2% of A-PAM showed the best tensile index and folding endurance. Retention of fines and fillers in pulp slurry with 0.2% and 0.3% of A-PAM were more excellent than that with guar gum.

Evaluation of dynamic behavior of coagulation-flocculation using hydrous ferric oxide for removal of radioactive nuclides in wastewater

  • Kim, Kwang-Wook;Shon, Woo-Jung;Oh, Maeng-Kyo;Yang, Dasom;Foster, Richard I.;Lee, Keun-Young
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.738-745
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    • 2019
  • Coprecipitation using hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) has been effectively used for the removal of radionuclides from radioactive wastewater. This work studied the dynamic behavior of HFO floc formation during the neutralization of acidic ferric iron in the presence of several radionuclides by using a photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA). Then the coagulation-flocculation system using HFO-anionic poly acrylamide (PAM) composite floc system was evaluated and compared in seawater and distilled water to find the effective condition to remove the target nuclides (Co-60, Mn-54, Sb-125, and Ru-106) present in wastewater generated in the severe accident of nuclear power plant like Fukushima Daiichi case. A ferric iron dosage of 10 ppm for the formation of HFO was suitable in terms of fast formation of HFO flocs without induction time, and maximum total removal yield of radioactivity from the wastewater. The settling time of HFO flocs was reduced by changing them to HFO-PAM composite floc. The optimal dosage of anionic PAM for HFO-anionic PAM floc system was approximately 1-10 ppm. The total removal yield of Mn-54, Co-60, Sb-125, Ru-106 radionuclides by the HFO-anionic PAM coagulation-flocculation system was higher in distilled water than in seawater and was more than 99%.