• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAM

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C00rdinated Testing between transformer Tap Selection and Inverter Voilage Control in the PV Distributed Generation system (태양광 분산 발전 시스템의 계통연계용 변압기탭 선정과 인버터전압조정 협조시험)

  • Yoon, kap koo;CHO, SeongSoo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1098-1099
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    • 2015
  • ${\bullet}$ 시험대상: 영월태양광 4,990kW(998kW ${\times}$ 5호) ${\bullet}$ 13.07.31 연계기술검토의뢰 ${\bullet}$ 13.08.28 한전검토결과: 인근변전소 영월S/S(40MW) 초과로 10.8km 지점의 평창 D/L 평창간 347호 주진S/S에 다음의 보완대책과 연계 권고 ${\cdot}$ 문제점: 적정전압이탈 및 순시전압변동률 유지불가 ${\cdot}$ 연계기준만족을 위해 한전에서 제시한 보완대책 : 계통용량증설(설비보강), 연계용량 감소 및 전용선로 연계 ${\bullet}$ 14.01.09 분산형설치자의 용역사(에이스기술단)에서 송배전용전기설비 이용규정과 연계기준 만족을 위한 보완대책 제안 ${\cdot}$ 태양광발전시스템 인버터 자동전압(역률/무효전력) 조정기능 및 감시설비 구비 ${\cdot}$ 최적 공통연결점 선정: 분산형전원으로 부터 전기적으로 가장 가까운 영월D/L 영월S/S측에 개폐장치설치 하고 주진S/S 측으로 연계 ${\bullet}$ 14.01.29~06.19 한전(전력연구원)의 유효성 검토 ${\cdot}$ 보완대책 기술적 유효(실증시험 시행 후 시행공문 발송 예정) ${\bullet}$ 14.08.08 송배전용전기설비 이용규정 개정에 따른 협의 ${\cdot}$ 변압기 대당 20MW에서 25MW ${\cdot}$ 변전소 전체 60MW에서 75MW까지 허용 ${\cdot}$ 영월 S/S 측 문곡/영월 D/L 연계 공사 협의 ${\bullet}$ 14.10.04 사용전검사, 한전계통연계운전 시작 ${\bullet}$ 인버터 고정역률(99.9~100%) 운전 시험 ${\cdot}$ 14.11.21 22.9kV 계전기(SEL-751) 5대, 15분 간격 자료저장 ${\cdot}$ SEL-751/USB to RS232C/노트북 15분간격 측정(첨부) ${\bullet}$ 14.03.07 인버터 역률 95.0% 조정 15분간격 측정(첨부) ${\bullet}$ 변압기탭 선정과 인버터전압조정협조시험 계획 ${\cdot}$ 변압기탭을 현장에서 상하 1탭씩 변경 ${\cdot}$ 인버터역률을 인버터공급사에서 원격조정 ${\cdot}$ 22.9kV 보호계전기 SEL-751, 15분 간격 측정 ${\cdot}$ 인버터 370V 계전기 K-PAM DG3000/현장감시설비 연계 ${\cdot}$ 15분 간격 측정 저장 ${\cdot}$ 현장감시설비/인터넷 연결 원격측정(첨부예정)

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Variations in Nutrients & CO2 Uptake Rates and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Saccharina japonica from the South Coast of Korea (다시마(Saccharina japonica)의 생장에 따른 영양염 및 CO2 흡수율과 광합성 특성 변화)

  • Hwang, Jae-Ran;Shim, Jeong-Hee;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Kim, Sook-Yang;Lee, Yong-Hwa
    • The Sea
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.196-205
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the contribution of macroalgae to biogeochemical nutrients and carbon cycles, we measured the uptake rates of nutrients and $CO_2$ and characteristics of fluorescence of Saccharina japonica (Laminaria japonica Areschoug) using an incubation method in an acrylic chamber. From January to May 2011, S.japonica was sampled at Ilkwang, one of well-known macroalgae culture sites around Korea and ranged 46~288 cm long and 4.8~22.0 cm wide of whole thallus. The production rate of dissolved oxygen by S. japonica (n=25) was about $6.9{\pm}5.8{\mu}mol\;g^{-1}$ fresh weight(FW) $h^{-1}$. The uptake rate of total dissolved inorganic carbon ($TCO_2$), calculated by total alkalinity and pH, was $8.9{\pm}7.9{\mu}mol\;g^{-1}\;FW\;h^{-1}$. Mean nutrients uptake were $175.6{\pm}161.1\;nmol\;N\;g^{-1}\;FW\;h^{-1}$ and $12.7{\pm}10.1\;nmol\;P\;g^{-1}\;FW\;h^{-1}$. There were logarithmic relationships between thallus length and uptake rates of nutrients and $CO_2$, which suggested that younger specimens (<100-150 cm) were much more efficient at nutrients and $CO_2$ uptake than old specimens > 150 cm. There was a positive linear correlation ($r^2$=9.4) existed between the dissolved oxygen production rate and the $TCO_2$ uptake rate, suggesting that these two factors may serve as good indicators of S. japonica photosynthesis. There was also positive linear relationship between maximal quantum yield ($F_v/F_m$) and production/uptake rates of dissolved oxygen, $TCO_2$ and phosphate, suggested that $F_v/F_m$ could be used as a good indicator of photosynthetic ability and $TCO_2$ consumption of macroalgae. Maximum relative electron transport rate ($rETR_{max}$) of S. japonica increased as thallus grew and was high in distal part of thallus which may be resulted from the increase of photosynthetic cell density per area. The annual $TCO_2$ uptake by S. japonica in Gijang area was estimated about $1.0\sim1.7{\times}10^3C$ ton, which was about 0.02-0.03% of carbon dioxide emission in Busan City. Thus, more research should be focused on macroalgae-based biogeochemical cycles to evaluate the roles and contributions of macroalgae to the global carbon cycle.

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Case Confounding with Thyrotoxicosis (과도한 주간 졸림과 탈력발작을 주소로 내원한 환자에서 발견된 갑상선 중독증)

  • Chung, Jae-Kyung;Kim, Eui-Joong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.40-44
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    • 2011
  • Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder, which is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that is typically associated with cataplexy, sleep fragmentation and other REM sleep-related phenomenon such as sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucination. Narcoleptic symptoms can be developed from various medical or neurological disorders. A 17-year-old male patient admitted for the evaluation of EDS which started three-month ago. He slept more than 18 hours a day with cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucination. He was obese with body mass index (BMI) of 30.4 kg/$m^2$. After admission he was newly diagnosed to the thyrotoxicosis. T3 391.2 ng/dL (60-181), free T4 4.38 ng/dL (0.89-1.76), TSH <0.01 ${\mu}IU$/mL (0.35-5.5) were measured. His pulse rate ranged 70-90 beats per minute and blood pressure ranged 150/100-120/70 mmHg. Polysomnography revealed many fragmentations in sleep with many positional changes (81 times/h). Sleep onset latency was 33.5 min, sleep efficiency was 47.9%, and REM latency from sleep onset was delayed to 153.6 min. REM sleep percent was increased to 27.1%. Periodic limb movement index was 13.4/h. In the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), average sleep latency was 0.4 min and there were noted 3 SOREMPs (Sleep Onset REM sleep period) on 5 trials. We couldn't discriminate the obvious sleep-wake pattern in the actigraph and his HLA DQB1 $^*0602$ type was negative. His thyroid function improved following treatment with methimazole and propranolol. Vital sign maintained within normal range. Cataplexy was controlled with venlafaxine 75 mg. Subjective night sleep continuity and PLMS were improved with clonazepam 0.5 mg, but the EDS were partially improved with modafinil 200-400 mg. Thyrotoxicosis might give confounding role when we were evaluating the EDS, though sleep fragmentation was one of the major symptoms of narcolepsy, but enormous amount of it made us think of the influence of thyroid hormone. The loss of sleep-wake cycle, limited improvement of EDS to the stimulant treatmen, and the cataplexy not supported by HLA DQB1 $^*0602$ should be answered further. We still should rule out idiopathic hypersomnia and measuring CSF hypocretin level would be helpful.

Dietary Risk Assessment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foods (식품중 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons의 위해성평가)

  • 이효민;윤은경;박경아;김윤희;정소영;권기성;김명철;송인상;이철호
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2004
  • This study was executed to determine the cumulative dietary risk of PAHs exposed by food ingestion. Food samples including barbecued beef, barbecued pork, grilled chicken, ham, bacon and vegetable oil which were collected from food markets. These samples were saponified, extracted and cleaned up to purify PAHs, and then the purified sample solutions were analyzed by HPLC-FL. Generally, the levels of total PAHs in barbecued beef (0.2 ppb), bacon (0.3 ppb), barbecued pork (0.7 ppb), ham (0.8 ppb), and vegetable oil (1.2 ppb) were low, whereas the level of total PAHs in grilled chicken (9.3 ppb) was significantly high. For the exposure assessment of PAHs due to food ingestion, PAHs levels converted into TEQ$_{BaP}$, the average body weight for 20-73 age group and consumed levels of food proposed from report on the National Health and Nutrition Survey were used. The estimated lifetime average daily intake of dietary PAHs was 4.32${\times}$10$^{-4}$ $\mu\textrm{g}$-TEQ$_{BaP}$kg/day as the mean value. The dietary risk adjusted to cancer potency of benzo(a)pyrene as 7.3 (mg/kg/day)$^{-1}$ was 3.44${\times}$10$^{-6}$ based on current data.ata.

Assessment of Phytoplankton Viability Along the Salinity Gradient in Seomjin River Estuary, Korea (섬진강 하구역에서 염분구배에 따른 식물플랑크톤 활성도 평가)

  • Lim, Youngkyun;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2017
  • We evaluated the viability of phytoplankton along the salinity gradient in the flood and ebb tides of spring tide of February and the ebb tide of neap tide of March 2017 in the Seomjin River Estuary. Additional laboratory experiments were also conducted to determine the reason of the pH changes along the salinity gradient using the field natural sample in February. In field, saltwater was well mixed at downstream vertically and the salinity gradient was horizontally appeared toward upstream of freshwater zone. There were strong negative correlations between salinity and nutrient (nitrate + nitrite R=0.99, p<0.001, and silicate R=0.98, p<0.001), implying that those two nutrients of freshwater origin were gradually diluted with mixing the saltwater. On the other hands, relatively high phosphate concentration was kept in the stations of saltwater over 15 psu, indicating that it was caused by resuspended sediments of Gwangyang Bay and downstream by tidal water mixing.Among phytoplankton community structure in winter, Eucampia zodiacus have occupied to be c.a. 70 % in the most stations. Based on the field survey results for survivability of phytoplankton by phytoPAM instrument, there was positive correlations between salinity and chlorophyll a (R=0.82, p<0.001) and, salinity and active chlorophyll a (R=0.80, p<0.001), implying that the dominant marine diatom species may have significantly damaged in low salinity conditions of upstream. Also, maximum mortality rate of phytoplankton caused by low salinity shock was appered to be 75% in the upstream station. In particular, the pH in spring tides of February had tended to increase with high phytoplankton accmulated stations, suggesting that it was related with absorption of $CO_2$ by the photosynthesis of dominant diatom. In laboratory experiments, phytoplankton mass-mortality caused by low salinity shock was also occurred, which is confirmed with reducing the photosynthetic electron transport activity. Following the phytoplankton mass-mortality, bacteria abundance was significantly increased in 24 hours. As a result, the mass-proliferating bacteria can produce the $CO_2$ in the process of biodegradation of diatoms, which can lead to pH decrease. Therefore, marine phytoplankton species was greatly damaged in freshwater mixing area, depending on along the salinity gradient that was considered to be an important role in elevating and reducing of pH in Seomjin River Estuary.

User-Perspective Issue Clustering Using Multi-Layered Two-Mode Network Analysis (다계층 이원 네트워크를 활용한 사용자 관점의 이슈 클러스터링)

  • Kim, Jieun;Kim, Namgyu;Cho, Yoonho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we report what we have observed with regard to user-perspective issue clustering based on multi-layered two-mode network analysis. This work is significant in the context of data collection by companies about customer needs. Most companies have failed to uncover such needs for products or services properly in terms of demographic data such as age, income levels, and purchase history. Because of excessive reliance on limited internal data, most recommendation systems do not provide decision makers with appropriate business information for current business circumstances. However, part of the problem is the increasing regulation of personal data gathering and privacy. This makes demographic or transaction data collection more difficult, and is a significant hurdle for traditional recommendation approaches because these systems demand a great deal of personal data or transaction logs. Our motivation for presenting this paper to academia is our strong belief, and evidence, that most customers' requirements for products can be effectively and efficiently analyzed from unstructured textual data such as Internet news text. In order to derive users' requirements from textual data obtained online, the proposed approach in this paper attempts to construct double two-mode networks, such as a user-news network and news-issue network, and to integrate these into one quasi-network as the input for issue clustering. One of the contributions of this research is the development of a methodology utilizing enormous amounts of unstructured textual data for user-oriented issue clustering by leveraging existing text mining and social network analysis. In order to build multi-layered two-mode networks of news logs, we need some tools such as text mining and topic analysis. We used not only SAS Enterprise Miner 12.1, which provides a text miner module and cluster module for textual data analysis, but also NetMiner 4 for network visualization and analysis. Our approach for user-perspective issue clustering is composed of six main phases: crawling, topic analysis, access pattern analysis, network merging, network conversion, and clustering. In the first phase, we collect visit logs for news sites by crawler. After gathering unstructured news article data, the topic analysis phase extracts issues from each news article in order to build an article-news network. For simplicity, 100 topics are extracted from 13,652 articles. In the third phase, a user-article network is constructed with access patterns derived from web transaction logs. The double two-mode networks are then merged into a quasi-network of user-issue. Finally, in the user-oriented issue-clustering phase, we classify issues through structural equivalence, and compare these with the clustering results from statistical tools and network analysis. An experiment with a large dataset was performed to build a multi-layer two-mode network. After that, we compared the results of issue clustering from SAS with that of network analysis. The experimental dataset was from a web site ranking site, and the biggest portal site in Korea. The sample dataset contains 150 million transaction logs and 13,652 news articles of 5,000 panels over one year. User-article and article-issue networks are constructed and merged into a user-issue quasi-network using Netminer. Our issue-clustering results applied the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) algorithm and Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), and are consistent with the results from SAS clustering. In spite of extensive efforts to provide user information with recommendation systems, most projects are successful only when companies have sufficient data about users and transactions. Our proposed methodology, user-perspective issue clustering, can provide practical support to decision-making in companies because it enhances user-related data from unstructured textual data. To overcome the problem of insufficient data from traditional approaches, our methodology infers customers' real interests by utilizing web transaction logs. In addition, we suggest topic analysis and issue clustering as a practical means of issue identification.