• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAS

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Sialoglycoproteins of Mammalian Erythrocyte Membranes: A Comparative Study

  • Sharma, Savita;Gokhale, Sadashiv M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1666-1673
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    • 2011
  • The presence of sialoglycoproteins (SGPs) in the membranes from goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) erythrocytes was investigated by partial purification with a chloroform-methanol extraction method followed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate - Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to human (Homo sapiens) erythrocytes. The results show that mammalian erythrocytes possess clear differences in the SGPs numbers and molecular weights although all animals studied in this experiment are from the same class i.e. mammalia. The SGPs number in human, goat, buffalo and pig are four (PAS-1 to PAS-4), ten (PAS-GI to PAS-GX), seven (PAS-BI to PAS-BVII) and four (PAS-PI to PAS-IV) respectively as indicated by staining the polyacrylamide gel with sialoglycoprotein-specific Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) stain. The new SGPs could be observed only after the partial purification of membrane fractions named as PAS-HI with molecular weight (Mr) 190 kDa and PAS-HII 150 kDa in human, PAS-BIA in buffalo and PAS-PIA and PAS-PIVA in pig. The gels were also stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) and Silver stain to check the contamination of other membrane proteins in the purified fractions. The quantitative distribution of SGPs was also determined by densitometry. Present study indicates that there are some basic differences in mammalian erythrocyte membrane SGPs, especially with respect to their number and molecular weights indicating major structural variations.

Air Monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants Using Passive Air Samplers (Passive Air Sampler를 이용한 잔류성 유기오염물질의 대기 모니터링)

  • Choi, Sung-Deuk;Chang, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.481-494
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    • 2005
  • The monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere is a basis for the study of the fate of POPs in multimedia environments. Recently, passive air samplers (PASs) for POPs have been developed. In this paper, we deal with the principle, properties, and applications of the PAS. The principle of PAS, which has no pump, is physical sorption of semi-volatile organic chemicals on various sorbent materials. The PAS is much smaller than a high-volume air sampler and does not need electricity. These properties of the PAS make it possible to conduct various-scaled environmental monitoring all over the world including the Arctic and Antarctic, but the major disadvantage of PAS is its long sampling periods up to 2 years. To date, four kinds of PAS have been developed: polyurethane foam (PUF), polymer-coated glass (POG), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and XAD resin-based PAS. Among them, SPMDs have been commercialized and are most widely used now. Meanwhile, the POPs emitted from China have a large potential to influence the levels and fates of POPs in Korea. Since characteristics of PAS are quite useful to monitor long-range transport of POPs, the use of PAS is highly recommended.

A Role of Plasminogen Activators in Animal Reproductive Cells and Organs

  • HwangBo, Yong;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2014
  • Plasminogen activators (PAs) are serine proteases that convert plasminogen to plasmin. Two type of PAs are urokinase-type PA (uPA) and tissue-type PA (tPA). Plasminogen is present in most extracellular fluids. PAs play in various reproductive processes including implantation, ovulation and fertilization. In the spermatozoa, PAs and PAIs play a role in sperm motility and fertilization. PAs in the sertoli cell are stimulated spermatozoa maturation and sperm activation through the phospholipase A2. The oocyte maturation is the process for fertilization and implantation. PAs in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are related to oocyte maturation by protein kinase A and C. In the ovulatory process, PAs activity are changed and it are related to reducing the tensile strength of ovarian follicle wall. The uterine environment is important for reproduction and the uterus undergo tissue remodeling. In the uterus and oviduct of mammals, expression and activity of PAs are changed during estrous cycle. Thus, expression and activity of PAs are concerned to many reproductive functions. Therefore, PAs seem to important factor of regulator in reproductive events.

A PAS-Containing Histidine Kinase is Required for Conidiation, Appressorium Formation, and Disease Development in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

  • Shin, Jong-Hwan;Gumilang, Adiyantara;Kim, Moon-Jong;Han, Joon-Hee;Kim, Kyoung Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.473-482
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    • 2019
  • Rice blast disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most important diseases in rice production. PAS (period circadian protein, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein, single-minded protein) domains are known to be involved in signal transduction pathways, but their functional roles have not been well studied in fungi. In this study, targeted gene deletion was carried out to investigate the functional roles of the PAS-containing gene MoPAS1 (MGG_02665) in M. oryzae. The deletion mutant ΔMopas1 exhibited easily wettable mycelia, reduced conidiation, and defects in appressorium formation and disease development compared to the wild type and complemented transformant. Exogenous cAMP restored appressorium formation in ΔMopas1, but the shape of the restored appressorium was irregular, indicating that MoPAS1 is involved in sensing the hydrophobic surface. To examine the expression and localization of MoPAS1 in M. oryzae during appressorium development and plant infection, we constructed a MoPAS1:GFP fusion construct. MoPAS1:GFP was observed in conidia and germ tubes at 0 and 2 h post-infection (hpi) on hydrophobic cover slips. By 8 hpi, most of the GFP signal was observed in the appressoria. During invasive growth in host cells, MoPAS1:GFP was found to be fully expressed in not only the appressoria but also invasive hyphae, suggesting that MoPAS may contribute to disease development in host cells. These results expand our knowledge of the roles of PAS-containing regulatory genes in the plant-pathogenic fungus M. oryzae.

Synthesis of Polyaminostyrene and Reverse Osmosis Characteristic of Inte4acially Polymerized Composite Membranes with Acyl Halides (Polyaminostyrene 합성 및 Acyl Halide와의 계면중합 생성 복합막의 역삼투 투과특성)

  • No, Il-Jun;Ha, Wan-Sik
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.947-954
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    • 1996
  • Poly(4-nitrostyrene) was synthesised by nitration of polystyrene and poly(3-ni-trostyrene) was synthesized by free radical bulk polymerization of 3-nitrostyrene. Polyaminostyrene(PAS) was synthesized by reduction of polynitrostyrene. Composite reverse osmosis(RO) membranes were fabricated via interfacial polycondensation of PAS and trimesoyl chloride(TMC) on the polysulfone support membrane surface. As the RO properties, salt rejection of poly(3-aminostyrene)(mPAS) membrane was better than poly(4-aminostyrene) (pPAS), but vice versa for permeate flux. The blend of 1, 3-phenylene diamine(mPDA) monomer in PAS reaction solution increased the salt rejection and the blend of acyl halide monomer in TMC reaction solution increased the permeate flux. The RO performance of mPAS and pPAS, in which various composition of the blended solutions were added, was found to be not much different. In particular, the PAS composite membrane which was prepared by interfacial polymerization of PAS/mPDA(70/30) blend solution and TMC/benzoyl chloride(80/20) blend solution showed a permeate flux of up to 1.0$\ell$/$m^2$.hr.atm and a salt rejection of over 90%.

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Cloning of cDNA Encoding PAS-4 Glycoprotein, an Integral Glycoprotein of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Membrane

  • Hwangbo, Sik;Lee, Soo-Won;Kanno, Chouemon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.576-584
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    • 2002
  • Bovine PAS-4 is an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed in mammary epithelial cells. Complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning of PAS-4 was performed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with oligonucleotide probes based on it's amino terminal and internal tryptic-peptides. The cloned PAS-4 cDNA was 1,852 nucleotides (nt) long and its open reading frame (ORF) was encoded 1,413 base long. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that PAS-4 consisted of 471 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 52,796, bearing 8 potential N-glycosylation sites and 9 cysteine residues. Partial bovine CD36 cDNA from liver also was sequenced and the homology of both nucleotide sequence was 94%. Most of the identical amino acid residues were in the luminal/extracellular domains. Contrary to PAS-4, bovine liver CD36 displays 6 potential N-glycosylation sites, which were located, except for those at positions 101 and 171, at same positions as PAS-4 cDNA. Cysteine residues of PAS-4 and CD36 were same at position and in numbers. Northern blot analysis showed that PAS-4 was widely expressed, although its mRNA steady-state levels vary considerably among the analyzed cell types. PAS-4 possessed hydrophobic amino acid segments near the amino- and carboxyl-termini. Two short cytoplasmic tails of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends constituted of a 5-7 and 8-11 amino acid residues, respectively.

Comparison of Aerodynamic Variables according to the Execution Methods of KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600의 수행방법에 따른 공기역학 변수 비교)

  • Ko, Hyeju;Choi, Hong-Shik;Lim, Sung-Eun;Choi, Yaelin
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2015
  • In case of PAS test, the air is sometimes leaked although the mask is tightly attached to the face, which is not reliable on the measured values. Therefore, this study aimed to assist the clinical practice suggesting the test method of PAS without air leakage. In the healthy subjects with 12 males and 12 females over 19 years old, three types of tests were performed on the voicing efficiency among the protocol of PAS Model 6600. They are; first, to attach the mask tightly to the face holding the handle of PAS with the subject's two hands (Method 1); second, to attach the mask tightly to the face holding the handle of PAS with the subject's one hand and pushing the body of PAS strongly with the other hand (Method 2); and third, to attach the mask tightly to the face pushing the upper part of the mask by the tester when the subject attached the mask to his or her face holding the handle of PAS with two hands (Method 3). Upon the study analyses, the mean negative pressure, the mean phonogram, subglottic air pressure, and voicing efficiency were shown to be statistically significantly different during PAS test in males depending on the methods. (p<.05) In case of females, only the target airflow rate showed significant difference depending on the methods during PAS test. (p<.001) In conclusion, Method 2 enhanced the noise level and strength while Method 1 was likely to leak the air more compared to the other two methods in males. In case of females, Method 1 showed significant leakage of the air flow. Not to allow the air flow leakage without affecting the outcome of PAS test, it will be the most useful for the tester to push the mask to the subject's face tightly (Method 3).

Pain-relieving Effect of the PAS Release Applied to Tender Points (압통점에 적용한 파스이완술이 통증에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ji-Whan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1999
  • PURPOSE; The main purpose of physical therapy is to minimize patient's pain. So this study aimed at evaluating the effect of PAS release applied to tender points in reducing pain of musculoskeletal lesion persons. METHOD; The PAS (capsicum plaster) Release applied at 48 tender points to relieve and assessment pain threshold by Harold Gottlieb's pain scale that was composed of Negligible sensation 4.00, Mild sensation 3.00, Moderate sensation 2.00, Severe sensation 1.00. RESULT; Results show that PAS release was 84.6% effect in achieving a gradual decrease of pain sensitivity at the tender points where it was applied, suggestion a cumulative analgesic effect through sessions. CONCLUSION; This study suggests that PAS release applied to tender points can be effective in relieving soft tissue pain through theses have not become asymptomatic, all referred significant pain relief(p <0.05) after study and at the end of PAS release therapy.

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A Study on the PAS Release Therapy used by Myofascial Release (근막 이완술을 이용한 파스 이완술에 관한 고찰)

  • Park Ji-Whan
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of study on the PAS release therapy used by myofascial release was to Introduce for clinical therapists whose want to relict pain on myofascia or soft tissue lesion patients by pas. According to review the earlier studies for a myofascial pain syndrome, myofascial release is not only to decrease muscle tone but also the effect of pas therapy has to facilitate a circulation of the human energy called Ki, so PAS release which was combined therapy pattern would be Possible relief Pain in the musculoskeletal lesion's Patients. Therefore I would be suggested to physical therapists in domestic the PAS release therapy used by myofascial release.

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Comparative Study on the Personal Assistance System for Persons with Disabilities in South Korea and Japan -Focusing on Self-Determination of People with Disabilities - (장애인활동 지원제도에 관한 한·일 비교 -장애인의 자기결정권 보장을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Mi Jeong
    • 재활복지
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 2013
  • As the social development progress, social welfare policy for people with disabilities also advance to meet rights of people with disabilities. The personal assistance service(PAS) is the primary service system for persons with disabilities based on guaranteeing the self-determination. The purpose of this study was to compare the personal assistance service system between Japan and Korea to propose improvement plan for Korean system. The comparison of two countries was based on current situation analysis of PAS. The analysis on eligibility criteria, information referral, amount and type of services and service provider, appealing process and service fee deductible etc. The result showed that PAS in Korea is served according to administration convenience than personal need based. Korean PAS policies are limited to particular service amount and type of needed services to satisfy personal PAS need. Whereas, Japan PAS system is served on the philosophy of independent living paradigm and therefore, PAS is provided on personal service needs. The service emphasis is on self-determination and rights on service selection for persons with disabilities. The recommendation for improvement of PAS in Korea are as followed. First, PAS should served under independent living paradigm. Paradigm based service is important because it effects the main theme of PAS; the self determination and rights of service selection. Second, reconstruction of PAS system is needed. As it showed on analysis, eligibility criteria, information referral, amount and type of services and service provider, appealing process and service fee deductible need to be supplemented. Last, to better serve PAS, case management method should be apply. Case management would contribute to settlement of PAS system in Korea. Thru case management, participation opportunities of people with disabilities must be provided during the selection of service quantity and type of PAS.