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Characteristics of Metal-Phthalocyanine for Catalytic Combustion of Methanol (메탄올의 촉매연소에 대한 금속-프탈로시아닌의 특성)

  • Seo, Seong-Gyu;Yoon, Hyung-Sun;Lee, Sun-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1809-1816
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    • 2000
  • The catalytic combustion of methanol as a model volatile organic compound(VOC) was been investigated over metal-phthalocyanine(PC) in a fixed bed flow reactor system. The catalytic activity of Co-PC pretreated with air and methanol mixture at $450^{\circ}C$ and 60 cc/min for 1 hr was very excellent. The order of catalytic activity on methanol combustion was summarized as follows: metal free-PC < Zn-PC < Fe-PC < Cu($\alpha$)-PC < Co-PC. By TG/DTA analysis, the tendency of thermal decomposition was increased as follows: metal free-PC < Zn-PC < Cu($\alpha$)-PC < Co-PC < Fe-PC. Under this pretreatment condition, the basic structures of Co-PC, Cu($\alpha$)-PC and Fe-PC were destroyed, and the new metal oxide such as $Co_3O_4$ from Co-PC was confirmed by EA and XRD analysis. But Zn-PC and metal free-PC were retained its basic structure under this pretreatment condition. On the combustion of methanol over Co-PC, HCHO and $HCOOCH_3$ were observed as an intermediate products in the high concentration of reactant or the short contact time(W/F).

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The Photovoltaic Effect of Iodine-Doped Metal Free Phthalocyanine/ZnO System (Ⅰ) (요오드가 도핑된 무금속 프탈로시아닌/산화아연계의 광기전력 효과(Ⅰ))

  • Heur, Soun-Ok;Kim, Young-Soon;Park, Yoon-Chang
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.163-175
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    • 1995
  • Metal free phthalocyanine($H_2Pc$) partially doped with iodine, $H_2Pc(I)x$, has been made to improve photosensitizing efficiency of ZnO/$H_2Pc$. The content of iodine dopant level(x) for $H_2Pc(I)x$ upon $H_2Pc$ polymorphs was characterized as ${\chi}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.92}$ and ${\beta}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.96}$ by elemental analysis. Characterization of iodine-oxidized $H_2Pc$ were investigated by TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), UV-Vis, FT-IR, Raman and ESR (electron spin resonance) spectrum, and the adsorption properties of $H_2Pc(I)x$ on ZnO were characterized by means of Raman and ESR studies. TGA for $H_2Pc(I)x$ showed a complete loss of iodine at approximately 265$^{\circ}C$ and the Raman spectrum of $H_2Pc(I)x$ and ZnO/$H_2Pc(I)x$ at 514.5 nm showed characteristic $I_3^-$ patterns in the frequency region 90∼550 $cm^{-1}$. ZnO/$H_2Pc(I)x$ exhibited a very intense and narrow ESR signal at $g=2.0025{\pm}0.0005$ compared to $H_2Pc$/ZnO. Iodine doped ZnO/$H_2Pc(I)x$ showed a better photosensitivity compared to iodine undoped ZnO/$H_2Pc$. That is, the surface photovoltage of ${\chi}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.92}$/ZnO was approximately 31 times greater than that of ZnO/${\chi}-H_2Pc$ and ZnO/${\beta}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.96}$ was 5 times more efficient than ZnO/${\beta}-H_2Pc$ at 670 nm. And the dependence of photosensitizing effect upon $H_2Pc$ polymorphs was exhibited that the surface photovoltage of ZnO/${\chi}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.92}$ was approximately 5 times greater than ZnO/${\beta}-H_2Pc(I)_{0.96}$ at 670 nm. Therefore Iodine doping of H_2Pc$ resulted in increase in photoconductivity of $H_2Pc$ and photovoltaic effect of ZnO/$H_2Pc$ in the visible region.

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Preparation of Properties of PC/PBT Alloy Using MBS Compatibility (MBS상용화제를 사용한 PC/PET Alloy의 제조와 그 물성)

  • Lee, Yong-Moo;Kang, Doo-Whan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 1994
  • Bisphenol A polycarbonate(PC) and polyethylene terephthalate(PET) was blended with methylmethacrylate-butadiene-styrene(MBS) copolymer for the improvement of impact resistance strength PC/PET alloy blending with PC more than 15 parts to 100 parts of PET usually have poor compatability, but increased the compatability characteristics of PC/PET alloy prepared by addition of MBS compatabilizer. The compatability of PC and PET using compatabilizer, MBS was determined by measuring the thermal characteristics of Tg difference between PC and PET, and crystallization temperature, Tcc. As the Tg difference becoming narrow to $60^{\circ}C$, and Tcc decreasing to $150^{\circ}C$, the comparability of PC and PET was increased. And also tough rate impact strength to PC/PET alloy using MBS was increased, in case more than 15 parts of PC being blended to PET.

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Effects of Molecular Weight of PC on Mechanical Properties of PC/ABS Blends using High-Shear Rate Processing

  • Lee, Eun Ju;Park, Hee Jung;Kim, Se Mi;Lee, Seung Goo;Lee, Kee Yoon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2018
  • Each of the two polycarbonates (PC) of different molecular weights was blended with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) under high-shear rate processing to afford PC/ABS. Sizes of ABS dispersed phases and mechanical properties of PC/ABS blends were investigated and high-shear rate processing of PC/ABS was carried out by changing screw speed and processing time. Prepared specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe morphology changes. Sizes of ABS dispersed phases in PC/ABS blends were observed to decrease gradually as screw speeds increased. Tensile strengths and elongations of specimens were investigated by universal testing method (UTM) to study the influence of molecular weight of PC exerting on PC/ABS blends. As a result, PC1/ABS blends (PC1: higher molecular weight PC) exhibited more strengthened properties than PC2/ABS (PC2: lower molecular weight PC). The tensile strength of PC1/ABS showed an increasing tendency when the screw speed increased, and the elongation did not show a significant decrease, but increased slightly with increasing shear time at a constant screw speed of 1000 rpm.

Study on GO Dispersion of PC/GO Composites according to In-situ Polymerization Method (In-situ 중합방법에 따른 폴리카보네이트(PC)/그래핀 옥사이드(GO) 복합체의 GO 분산성 연구)

  • Lee, Bom Yi;Park, Ju Young;Kim, Youn Cheol
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.336-340
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    • 2015
  • Three different types of polycarbonate (PC)/graphene oxide (GO) composites using diphenyl carbonate as a monomer were fabricated by melt polymerization. Those were the PC/GO composite (PC/GO) using a twin extruder, in-situ PC/GO composite (PC/GO-cat.) using a catalyst, and in-situ PC/GO composite (PC/GO-COCl) using a GO-COCl treated by -COCl, Chemical structures of the composites were confirmed by C-H and C=O stretching peak at $3000cm^{-1}$ and $1750cm^{-1}$, respectively. The slope for the storage (G') versus loss (G") modulus plot decreased with an increase in the heterogeneous property of polymer melts. So we can check the GO dispersion of the PC/GO composites using by the slop for G'-G" plot. According to the G'- G" slopes for three different types of PC/GO composites, GO was well dispersed within PC matrix in case of PC/GO and PC/GO-cat.. It was also confirmed by atomic force microscope (AFM) photos. One of the reasons for the poor GO dispersion of PC/GO-COCl is branching and crosslinking processes occurred during polymerization, which was further confirmed by a plot for the complex modulus versus phase difference.

Cyclic Lateral Loading Test for Cast-In-Place Concrete-Filled Hollow PC Columns Using Permanent Inner form (영구 내부거푸집을 이용한 현장타설 콘크리트 채움중공 PC기둥의 반복횡가력실험)

  • Lee, Ho-Jun;Park, Hong-Gun;Kim, Chang-Soo;Hwang, Hyeon-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2016
  • Cast-in-place concrete-filled hollow PC (HPC) columns are used to reduce lifting load of heavy-weight PC columns and to improve the structural integrity of joints. In the present study, a new type of HPC column was proposed to improve the productivity and structural integrity of the concrete. To form the hollow PC columns, a permanent inner form was prefabricated using structural deck plates and penetrated lateral bars. Half-scale specimens of four HPC columns were tested under combined axial compression and lateral cyclic loading to evaluate the seismic resistance. In the design of test specimens, various parameters such as the spacing of lateral re-bars, the use of steel fiber, and the thickness of PC cover were considered. The test results showed that the proposed HPC columns generally exhibited satisfactory load-carrying capacity and deformation capacity without brittle failure of PC. If closely spaced hoops or fiber reinforcements are used for PC, the deformation capacity can be improved further by restraining PC spalling.

Implementation of Internet-based PA8X System for PC-to-PC Internet Phone services. (PC-to-PC 유형의 인터넷 폰 서비스를 위한 사설교환시스템 구현)

  • 곽정필;최재원;이종혁
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2000
  • 인터넷의 발전과 함께 많은 성장을 하고 있는 멀티미디어 응용서비스의 중의 하나인 인터넷폰은 PSTN이 아닌 인터넷의 U(Internet protocol)을 통해 전화와 관련된 기능을 구현하는 일련의 통신서비스 기술로서 인터넷을 이용하여 음성을 전달하기 위한 기술이 요구된다. 그리고 인터넷폰 시스템은 통화하고자 하는 착발신 단말의 종류에 따라 PC-to-PC, PC-to-Phone, Phone-to-PC 인터넷폰 시스템으로 구분되어 질 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 우선 사내 전화교환기인 사설교환기(PABX) 없이 동일한 UM 상의 임의의 두 PC간의 통신과 서로 다른 MU 상의 임의의 두 PC간에 통신이 가능하도록 PC-to-PC 인터넷폰 시스템의 호제어 메시지 처리, 상태전이도 등의 교환기 및 단말기 시스템의 설계 및 구현에 관해 연구하였다. 향후 PC-to-Phone과 Phone-to-PC 인터넷폰 시스템에 관한 연구를 지속적으로 수행할 것이다.

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Study on the eletronic absorption and surface morphology of phthalocyanine double layer thin films

  • Heo, Il-Su;Ryu, Il-Hwan;Hong, Da-Jeong;Im, Sang-Gyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.337-337
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    • 2011
  • The elecronic absorption and surface morphology evolution of two types of molecular double layer thin films, copper phthalocyanine(CuPc) layer deposited on top of chloro[subphtalocyaninato]boron(III) (SubPc) layer, denoted as SubPc/CuPc, and vice versa, at various thicknesses were invertigated using ultraviolet(UV)-visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both types of double layer structures showed similar broadened absorption patterns in UV-visible region which were well consistent with fitted spectra by a simple linear combination of single layer absorption spectra of two materials. In contrast, the surface morphology of double layer structures was dependent on the order of deposition. For CuPc/SubPc structures, the surface morphology was characterized by elongated grains, characteristic of SubPc thin films, indicating the morphological influence of underlying CuPc layer on subsequent SubPc layer was not large. For SubPc/CuPc structures, however, the underlying SubPc layer acted as a morphological template for the subsequently deposited CuPc layer. It was also observed that the grain size of CuPc layer varied by the thickness of underlying SubPc layer.

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Intercalation of Polycarbonate/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (폴리카보네이트와 몬모릴로나이트 나노복합체의 층간삽입)

  • 이양훈;홍성권;윤광수;최일석;이성구
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.818-825
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    • 2001
  • Polycarbonate(PC)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by solution and melt mixing methods. A d-spacing of the nanocomposites was measured by an X-ray diffractometer. Neat montmorillonite (MMT-Na) and MMTs modified by dodecyl ammonium (MMT-DA) or dimethyl hydrogenated tallow 2-ethylhexyl ammonium (MMT-25A) were used. The d-spacing value of PC/MMT-25A and PC/MMT-DA was higher than that of PC/MMT-Na. The d-spacing increased from around 12 to $37AA$ depending on the mixing method. PC was more readily introduced to the gallery of MMT as the molecular weight of PC reduced and the mixing time increased. PC/MMT-25A showed higher thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) than PC/MMT-DA and PC/MMT-Na.

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Study on Electronic Absorption and Surface Morphology of Double Layer Thin Films of Phthalocyanines

  • Park, Gyoo-Soon;Heo, Il-Su;Ryu, Il-Hwan;Yim, Sang-Gyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.943-946
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    • 2011
  • The electronic absorption and surface morphology evolution of two types of molecular double layer thin films, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) layer deposited on chloro[subphthalocyaninato]boron(III) (SubPc) layer, denoted as SubPc/CuPc, and vice versa, with various thicknesses were investigated using ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both types of double layer structures showed similar broadened absorption patterns in the UV-visible region that were consistent with the fitted spectra following simple linear combination of the single layer absorption spectra of the two materials. In contrast, the surface morphology of double layer structures was dependent on the order of deposition. For the CuPc/SubPc structures, surface morphology was characterized by elongated grains, which are characteristic of SubPc thin films, indicating that the morphological influence of the underlying CuPc layer on the subsequent SubPc layer was not large. For the SubPc/CuPc structures, however, the underlying SubPc layer acted as a morphological template for the subsequently deposited CuPc layer. It was also observed that the grain size of the CuPc layer varied according to the thickness of the underlying SubPc layer.