• Title/Summary/Keyword: PCBs

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Proteome in Toxicological Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (프로테오믹스를 이용한 내분비계 교란물질 환경독성 연구)

  • 김호승;계명찬
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2003
  • It is important to understand the potential human health implications of exposure to environmental chemicals that may act as hormonally active agents. It is necessary to have an understanding of how pharmaceutical and personal care products and other chemicals affect the ecosystem of our planet as well as human health. Endocrine disruption is defined as the ability of a chemical contaminating the workplace or the environment to interfere with homeostasis, development, reproduction, and/or behavior in a living organism or it's offspring. Certain classes of environmentally persistent chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and some pesticides can adversely effect the endocrine systems of aquatic life and terrestrial wildlife. Research continues to support the theory of endocrine disruption. However, endocrine disruption researches have been applied to proteomics poorly. Proteomics can be defined as the systematic analysis of proteins for their identity, quantity and function. It could increase the predictability of early drug development and identify non-invasive biomarkers of tonicity or efficacy. Proteome analysis is most commonly accomplished by the combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D/E) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) sr protein chip array and SELDI-TOF MS. Proteomics have an opportunity to play an important role in resolving the question of what role endocrine disruptors play in initiating human disease. Proteomics can also play an imfortant role in the evaluation of the risk assessment and use of risk management and risk communication tools required to address public health concerns related to notions of endocrine disruptors. Understanding the need for the proteomics and possessing knowledge of the developing biomakers used to abbess endocrine activity potential will he essential components relevant to the topic of endocrine disruptors.

Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 in Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls : Extracellular Enzymes Production and Effects of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase (Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010에 의한 폴리염화비페닐류의 생분해 : 균체 외 효소활성 및 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 영향)

  • Hong, Chang-Young;Gwak, Ki-Seob;Lee, Su-Yeon;Kim, Seon-Hong;Jeong, Han-Seob;Choi, In-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.469-480
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    • 2011
  • In this study, to determine the ligninase activity related to the PCBs degradation of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010, the protein contents and manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activities during cultivation on shallow stationary culture (SSC) medium were observed. 4 PCB congeners were selected depending on the number of chlorine substituted on biphenyl. Furthermore, to examine the effects of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, the inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was evaluated by measuring the biodegradation rate when inhibitor such as 1-aminobenzotriazole was added. The extracellular protein contents were affected by PCB congeners in culture media. The total protein in the culture medium showed the biggest differences between the samples containing 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and the control. On the other hand, MnP and laccase activity showed dominant increases within samples containing 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,3',4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was inhibited by adding inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole in low concentration. Only 2.73% of 2,3',4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl was degraed on day 1, and biodegradation of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl was inhibited as well, showing about 20% of biodegradation rate.

Conceptual Design of Multi-Functional Structure using Rectangular Grid-Stiffened Structure for Satellite (위성용 사각형 격자강화 구조의 다기능 구조체 개념설계)

  • Seo, Hyun-Suk;Jang, Tae-Seong;Rhee, Ju-Hun;Kim, Won-Seock;Hyun, Bum-Seok;Lim, Jae-Hyuk;Hwang, Do-Soon;Lee, Sang-Kon;Cho, Hee-Keun;Han, Eun-Soo;Kim, Im-Soo;Sim, Eun-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.526-534
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    • 2011
  • The MFS (Mlti-Functional Structure) concept, which integrates the electronics, thermal control and structure into a single packaging system, has been developed and applied to reduce the volume and weight of the satellite. Therefore, this MFS can eliminate the bulky chassis/frames, cables and connectors of the electronic equipment. The main point of this traditional MFS is the replacement of the electrical chassis/frames with MCMs (Multi-Chip Modules) that require much costs and efforts for developing. This paper shows the new MFS concept that effectively saves the volume and weight. The structure including the thermal control and radiation shielding elements will be designed and manufactured as the rectangular grid-stiffened structure. The rectangular grid-stiffened structure is the modification of the iso-grid structure, and provides the enough spaces for putting the general PCBs without the chassis/frames.

Design of 24-GHz 1Tx 2Rx FMCW Transceiver (24 GHz 1Tx 2Rx FMCW 송수신기 설계)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyun;Kwon, Oh-Yun;Kim, Jun-Seong;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Byung-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.758-765
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    • 2018
  • This paper presents a 24-GHz frequency-modulated continuous wave(FMCW) radar transceiver with two Rx and one Tx channels in 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS) process and implemented it on a radar system using the developed transceiver chip. The transceiver chip includes a $14{\times}$ frequency multiplier, low-noise amplifier, down-conversion mixer, and power amplifier(PA). The transmitter achieves >10 dBm output power from 23.8 to 24.36 GHz and the phase noise is -97.3 GHz/Hz at a 1-MHz offset. The receiver achieves 25.2 dB conversion gain and output $P_{1dB}$ of -31.7 dBm. The transceiver consumes 295 mW of power and occupies an area of $1.63{\times}1.6mm^2$. The radar system is fabricated on a low-loss Duroid printed circuit board(PCB) stacked on the low-cost FR4 PCBs. The chip and antenna are placed on the Duroid PCB with interconnects and bias, gain blocks and FMCW signal-generating circuitry are mounted on the FR4 PCB. The transmit antenna is a $4{\times}4$ patch array with 14.76 dBi gain and receiving antennas are two $4{\times}2$ patch antennas with a gain of 11.77 dBi. The operation of the radar is evaluated and confirmed by detecting the range and azimuthal angle of the corner reflectors.

Evaluation of Recycling Resources in Discarded Information and Communication Technology Devices (Smartphones, Laptop computers) (폐 정보통신기기(스마트폰, 노트북 PC)의 자원화 가치 분석)

  • Park, Seungsoo;Jung, Minuk;Kim, Seongmin;Han, Seongsoo;Jung, Insang;Park, Jihwan;Park, Jaikoo
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.16-29
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    • 2018
  • In this study, metal and nonmetal contents and their economic values in ICT devices such as smart phones and laptop computers were evaluated. The electronic devices made by LG and Samsung were disassembled into 5 parts, which are printed circuit board assembly, battery, display, case and other electronic components. Metal and nonmetal contents in these parts were analyzed, and their economic values were calculated via multiplying the materials' contents by metal price obtained from KOMIS or nonmetal exchange price acquired from Korean recycling markets. Finally, the materials' contents and values according to each electronic parts and electronic devices were calculated. The results showed that the value of the smartphones and laptop computers of LG are 4,449.6 KRW (28,506 KRW/kg) and 6,830.2 KRW (7,053 KRW/kg), and those of Samsung are 1,849.3 KRW (13,499 KRW/kg) and 6,667.5 KRW (4,831 KRW/kg), respectively. It was also found that most of the value was concentrated in batteries and printed circuit board assemblies. In addition, Co, Au and Cu were found to be the most valuable resources in the devices.

Study on Biochemical Pollutant Markers for Diagnosis of Marine Pollution I. Changes in Lipid Components of Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow Sea (해양오염의 진단을 위한 생화학적 오염지표에 관한 연구 I. 황해산 넙치 (Paralichthys olivaceus)의 지질성분의 변화)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dong-Woo;Moon, Young-Sil;Park, Chung-Kil;Kim, Jae-II;Yang, Dong-Beom
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1997
  • For the recent years, considerable efforts have been made to rationalize the techniques of research and monitoring of biological effects of marine pollutants such as heavy metals, polychlorinate biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphorus pesticides. This study was designed as a part of efforts to investigate the biochemical pollutant markers for diagnosis of marine pollutions by the changes in lipid components of the flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Yellow Sea of Korea. Homoglobin levels in serum of cultured and wild flounders in Yellow Sea were significantly lower (5 - 15% and 20 -25 % , respectively) than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Triglyceride (TG) contents in serum of cultured flounders in Yellow Sea were 10 - 40% higher than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol contents in serum of flounders in Yellow Sea were significantly 10-15% and 30-35% (cultured), and 10-20% (wild), respectively, higher than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Atherogenic index (AI) and T-Chol/PL rations in serum of cultured and wild flounders in Yellow sea were significantly 20-45% and 10-!5%, 6-35% and 15-35%, respectively, higher than those of wild flounder in pohang. These results suggest that near-coastal waters as well as neritic waters of the Yellow Sea might be affected by pollutant input.

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Environmental Pollutants in Streams of Andong District and Insect Immune Biomarker (안동지역 하천의 환경오염물질과 곤충면역 생체지표 분석)

  • Ryoo Keon Sang;Ko Seong-Oon;Cho Sunghwan;Lee Hwasung;Kim Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 2005
  • Samples of water, soil, and sediment were taken from 10 streams near Andong, Korea in May 2004. To assess the degree of environmental pollution of each stream, chemical pollutants such as total notrogen (T-N), total phosphorus (T-P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals, organophosphorus pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCB congeners were analyzed by standard process tests or U.S. EPA methods. In addition, biomarkers originated from insect immune systems of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were used to analysis of the environmental samples. Except Waya-chun stream showing T-N content of 9.12 mg/L, most streams were contaminated with relatively low levels of overall pollutants in terms of T-N, T-P, and COD, compared to their acceptable environmental levels designated by the Ministry of Environment. Contents of Pb and Cd in samples of each stream were much lower than environmentally permissible levels. However, several times higherconcentrations of Pb and Cd were found in locations at Mi-chun, Kilan-chun, and Hyunha-chun streams, in comparison with other streams. Diazinon, parathion, and phenthoate compounds among organophosphorus pesticides were detected as concentrations of 0.19, 0.40, and $1.13\;{\mu}g/g$, respectively, from soil sample collected in the vicinity of Mi-chun stream. On the other hand, 16 organochlorine pesticides and 12 dioxin-like PCB congeners, known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, selected in this study were not found above the limit of detection. Biomarker analyses using insect immune responses indicated that Waya-chun stream was suspected as exposure to environmental pollutants. Limitation and compensation of both environmental analysis techniques are discussed.

Prioritizing Management Ranking for Hazardous Chemicals Reflecting Aggregate Exposure (통합노출을 고려한 유해물질 관리의 우선순위 선정)

  • Jeong, Ji-Yoon;Jung, Yoo-Kyung;Hwang, Myung-Sil;Jung, Ki-Kyung;Yoon, Hae-Jung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.349-355
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we configured a system which ranks hazardous chemicals to determine their management priorities based on experts' opinions and the existing CRS (chemical ranking and scoring). Aggregate exposure of food, health functional food, oriental/herbal medicine and cosmetics have been taken into account to determine management priority. In this study, 25 hazardous chemicals were selected, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, etc. These 25 materials were ranked according to their 1) risk (exposure or hazard) indexes, 2) exposure source-based weight, and 3) public interests, which were also formed based on the existing priority ranking system. Cadmium was scored the highest (178.5) and bisphenol A the lowest (56.8). Ten materials -- cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, tar, acrylamide, benzopyrene, aluminium, benzene, and PAHs -- scored higher than 100. Eight materials -- aflatoxin, manganese, phthalate, chromium, nitrate/nitrite, ethylcarbamate, formaldehyde, and copper -- recorded scores in the range from 70 to 100. Also evaluated as potential risks were 7 materials; sulfur dioxide, ochratoxin, dioxins, PCBs, fumonisin, methyl mercury, and bisphenol A, and these materials were scored above 50. Then we compared risk index and correlation coefficient of total scores to confirm the validity of the total scores; we analyzed correlation coefficient of parameter and indicator. We discovered that the total score and weight, which has incorporated public interests, were high and statistically significant. In conclusion, the result of this study contributes to strengthening risk assessment and risk management of hazardous chemicals.

Developing a Questionnaire to Assess Exposure to Food-Borne Hazards (식품으로 인한 유해물질 노출평가를 위한 설문지 개발)

  • Shin, Sang-Ah;Choi, Seul-Ki;Kim, Hye-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Youn;Shin, Sang-Hee;Lee, Jung-Won;Yu, Soo-Hyun;Nam, Hye-Soen;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to develop a reliable dietary questionnaire to assess human exposure to food-borne hazards. Eleven food-borne hazards were chosen as a priority control list through a literature review and advisory committees. The 11 food-borne hazards were phthalate, aflatoxin, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and acrylamide. The characteristics, exposure level, and paths of these hazards were reviewed, and questionnaire items were identified to assess human exposure from the literature. A questionnaire was developed for each selected food based on its characteristics. Based on the items in the individual questionnaires, a comprehensive questionnaire, which contained demographic characteristics, job information, socioeconomic factors, health related lifestyles, and dietary behaviors, was developed. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess food-borne hazard exposure was also developed. The FFQ included frequency of food intake during the previous year, container type for purchasing and storing food, and cooking method. The questionnaire developed in this study could be applied to assess dietary factors during an exposure assessment of food-borne hazards in a large population. A validation study for the questionnaire is needed before applying it to surveys.

Development of Method for Possibility Assessment on Organic Resources for Using Raw Material of Compost (유기성자원의 퇴비원료로 활용 가능성 평가방법 개발)

  • Lim, Dong-Kyu;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Seong, Ki-Seog;So, Kyu-Ho;Shin, Jung-Du;Lee, Jeong-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to find a system for screening organic resources with 16 species, 62 samples which were selected to randomizing point from city, province and industrial areas in the whole country. Content of organic matters were $65.3%{\sim}98.0%$ in all samples so that they were largely over than 60%, raw material regulation of compost. Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were $0.7{\sim}4.8%\;and\;0.8{\sim}5.0$, they could look for effect of the nitrogen and phosphorus supply as a raw material of compost. In case of 8 elements concentrations of heavy metal, they were too high to use as raw materials of compost which were over to regulation limit in Cu, Cr, Ni, and As from fiber industry, Ni from food company and leather industry, and the others are adapt to limit levels. HEM contents fro the highest to $113mg\;kg^{-1}$ from liber industry and PAHs content were the highest to $3,462ug\;kg^{-1}$ from paper-mill manufacture. Distribution of PAHs concentiations were naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene>fluoroanthene>acenaphthene. $Microtox{(R)}\;EC_{50}$ values for bioassay were pharmaceutical company>paper-mill manufacture>industrial area sewage sludge>fiber industry>urban sewage sludge>metropolitan sewage sludge. HEM between Zn, Cu, and Ni was significant at the 99% and between Cd was significant at the 95%, Microtox between Hg and BEM significant at the 95%.