• Title, Summary, Keyword: PCBs

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Comparison of Regional Differences of PCBs Concentration Using Pine Needles and Soil (지역별 소나무잎과 토양에 침착된 PCBs 농도 비교)

  • Chun, Man-Young;Kim, Tae-Wook
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to measure the concentration of PCBs in pine needles and soil in urban (Seoul, many artificial sources of PCBs), semi-rural (Anseong, small town located below Seoul in wind direction) and rural areas (Jincheon, rarely artificial sources of PCBs) in which the artificial production amount of PCBs are different. The total PCBs concentrations in pine needles, which did not show big difference in three sampling sites, were 107.5 pg/g (urban), 94.8 pg/g (semi-rural) and 78.8 pg/g (rural) respectively. The low chlorinated PCBs were major component in pine needles and the PCBs congener concentration profile of each sampling area were similar each other, and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient, Koa, highly correlated with the PCBs concentrations in pine needles. The total PCBs concentrations in soil which did show big difference in three sampling sites, were 830.0 pg/g (urban), 314.1 pg/g (semi-rural) and 136.5 pg/g (rural) respectively. The high chlorinated PCBs were major component in soil and the PCBs congener concentration profile of each sampling area were similar each other. There was no similarity between the PCBs concentration of pine needles and those of soil at each site, because of the different mechanism of deposition and volatilization processes of PCBs. The total PCBs concentrations of 2009 became 12.9 times lower than those of 2001. The reduce rate of PCB 28 was the greatest.

A Study on the PCBs-containing Waste Treatment by High Temperature Incineration (고온소각에 의한 PCBs 함유 폐기물처리에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seong-Jung;Kim, Dong-Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2009
  • This study is for understanding the domestic possibilities of the high temperature incineration of waste containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) with the analysis of normal operation case and waste gas, fly ash, dioxin about bottom ash, Total-PCBs, Co-PCBs, and the for analysis the heavy metal leaching feature included by bottom ash and fly ash, heavy metal leaching experiment was implemented. The result shows the dioxin density of the waste gas from waste containing PCBs was $0.00699{\sim}0.00763ng-TEQ/Nm^3$, which is lower than $0.0192ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ from the normal operation case. And each Co-PCBs and total PCBs shows $0.00043{\sim}0.00112ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ and $3.06{\sim}3.87ng/m^3$ respectively. The bottom ash test result shows Dioxin 0.00225~0.00630ng-TEQ/g, Co-PCBs 0.00027~0.00082ng-TEQ/g, Total PCBs 0.9~2.6ng/g, and the fly ash shows Dioxin 0.00164~0.00344ng-TEQ/g, Co-PCBs 0.00053~0.00054ng-EQ/g, Total PCBs 0.64~0.84ng/g. The bottom ash and fly ash experiments for heavy metal leaching did not show any leaching but when it comes to the ingredients of the fly ash, Pb elements shows 31.01~237.7ppm, higher than leaching criterion. The analysis of the density of all air pollution material from the waste gas shows the lower value than permissible criterion.

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Concentration and Seasonal Variation of Particle PCBs in Air

  • Yeo Hyun-Gu;Chun Man-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.21 no.E1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2005
  • Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were monitored in Ansung-city, Kyonggi province during the 2001/2002 to characterize the concentration distribution and seasonal variation of particle polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Average concentration of particle bound PCB showed maximum value for penta-CBs and minimum value for octa-CBs. Seasonal contributions $(%\)$ of total particle PCBs showed the highest value in winter months and lowest value in summer month, This result indicated that concentration of total particle PCBs increased with decreasing temperature in the atmosphere. Therefore, particle PCBs were easily formed by the condensation of gas phase PCBs in winter months. The total particle PCBs exhibited an inverse correlation with temperature (p<0.01) which suggested that particle PCBs were easily formed by condensation of gaseous PCBs in winter months.

Gas/Particle Level and Dry Deposition Flux of Atmospheric PCBs

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Park, Ki-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2003
  • Atmospheric samples were conducted from September 2001 to July 2002 with GPS-l PUF sampler in rural site to concentration distributions of gas/particle PCBs and to calculate dry deposition flux of PCBs. $\Sigma$PCBs concentrations of gas/particle PCBs were 59.29$\pm$48.83, 6.56$\pm$6.59 pg/㎥, respectively. Gas contribution (%) of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 90% which existed gas phase in the atmosphere. The particle contribution (%) of PCB congeners increased relatively more of the less volatile congeners with the highest chlorine number. The correlation coefficients (r) between total PCBs and temperature ($^{\circ}C$) showed negative correlation in - 0.62 (p<0.0l) for particle phase, positive correlation in 0.63 (p<0.01) for gas phase. In other word, particle phase PCBs is enriched in colder weather which could be due to greater in corporation of condensed gas phase at low temperature. The calculated dry deposition of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 0.008, 0.008 $\mu\textrm{g}$ $m^{-2}$ da $y^{-l}$ which showed maximum dry deposition flux in December, minimum data in July Bs in the atmosphere. The calculated dry deposition fluxes of total PCBs were influenced by particle phase PCBs even though PCBs in the atmosphere were present primarily in the gas phase.e.

Measurement of Atmospheric Dry Deposition and Size Distribution of Particulate PCBs in 1999 at Seoul

  • Park, Seong-Suk;Shin, Hye-Joung;Yi, Seung-Muk;Kim, Yong-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.22 no.E1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2006
  • Ambient particle size distributions of PCBs and their dry deposition fluxes were measured at a site in Seoul to quantify dry deposition fluxes of PCBs and size characteristics of PCBs in the air, and to estimate ambient concentrations of gaseous PCBs and dry deposition fluxes. The dry deposition plate was used to measure dry deposition fluxes of particulate mass and PCBs and a cascade impactor and rotary impactor were used to measure ambient particle size distributions for small ($D_p<9{\mu}m$) and large ($D_p>9{\mu}m$) particles, respectively. Six sample sets were collected from April to July 1999. The fluxes of particulate total PCBs (the sum of 43 congeners) ranged from 160 to $607ng\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$. The size distribution of total PCBs was bimodal with two peaks in small particle size ($D_p{\sim}0.6\;and\;6{\mu}m$, respectively) and, thus, mass concentration being dominant in small particles. The mean particulate PCBs concentration was $6.9{\mu}g$ PCBs/g. The concentrations of PCB homologues in the gas phase were estimated based on the particle/gas partition coefficient ($K_p$) with the measured values of particulate PCBs in this study and they were comparable to those observed in other previous studies. Dry deposition fluxes were estimated by calculating dry deposition velocities.

Chemical Treatment of the PCBs-laden Transformer Insulation Oil (PCBs 함유 변압기 절연유의 화학적처리)

  • Ryoo, Keon-Sang;Choi, Jong-Ha;Choi, Jin-Whan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1499-1507
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    • 2011
  • Practical disposal of transformer insulation oil laden with PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) by a chemical treatment has been studied in field work. The transformer insulation oil containing PCBs was treated by the required amounts of PEG (polyethylene glycol) and KOH, along with different reaction conditions such as temperatures and times. The reaction of PEG with PCBs under basic condition produces arylpolyglycols, the products of nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Removal efficiencies of PCBs in insulation oil before and after chemical treatment were examined. The removal efficiency of PCBs was very low at lower temperatures of 25 and $50^{\circ}C$. Under the reaction condition of PEG 600/KOH/$100^{\circ}C$/2hr, removal efficiency of PCBs was approximately 70%, showing completely removal of PCBs containing 7~9 chlorines on biphenyl frame which appear later than PCB IUPAC Number 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaCB) in retention time of GC/ECD. However, when increasing the reaction temperature and time to $150^{\circ}C$ and 4 hours, removal efficiency of PCBs reached 99.99% without any formation of PCDDS/PCDFs during the process. Such reaction conditions were verified by several official analytical institutions. In studying the reaction of PEG with PCBs, it confirmed that the process of chemical treatment led to less chlorinated PCBs through a stepwise process with the successive elimination of chlorines.

Study on the Analysis of PCBs in Papers by the Peak Pattern Method (피크패턴법을 이용한 종이재의 PCBs 분석 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 김기명;유승석;이광호
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 1999
  • The new approach using the Peak Pattern Method was conducted for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the papers or paper products to provide certain hygienic data for the recycled papers as well as white papers. The height of the each peak, obtained from the PCBs standards, was transformed to the spectrum to compare with that of the samples. In addition to the results of the single PCBs standards, the pattern of mixed PCBs standards with the adequate concentration and ratios were obtained prior to the analysis of the paper samples. The test showed excellent repetition within 5% variation, and the recoveries of PCBs ranged from 92% to 97%. The PCBs, considered as a hazard material, were analyzed using the Peak Pattern Method from six different types of paper samples including the roll tissue. It could not find the same pattern of the PCBs peaks from all of the paper samples.

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Assessment of PCBs-containing solid wastes using official wastes test method (폐기물공정시험방법을 이용한 PCBs 함유 고상폐기물의 적용성 평가)

  • Kim, Kyeo-Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to evaluate the PCBs-containing wastes using official test method. Ninety samples of transformer oil and various solid waste were collected to assess the analytical results. In the analysis of PCBs-containing wastes, the PCBs levels were detected in the range of 7.6 mg/kg to 23.8 mg/kg for transformer oils, $0.02\sim0.54\;{\mu}g/100cm^2$ for plat solid wastes, and 0.01~0.071 mg/kg for amorphous solid waste. In the cupper wire waste of the transformer with oil concentration level of 23 mg/kg, the analytical result exceed PCBs regulation level of 0.04 mg/kg. The new proposed analytical method for PCBs containing waste can be forced to effective management of the wastes.

The Concentrations of PCBs in the Serum and Theri Predictors of Exposure n Korean Women (일부 한국 성인 여성들의 혈중 PCBs 농도 및 그 노출요인의 연구)

  • 민선영;정문호;이강숙;노영만;구정환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2000
  • PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] are halogenated aromatic compounds with the empirical formula C12H10-nCln(n=1~10), and are a mixture of possible 209 different chlorinated congeners. PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluids for capacitors, transformers, plasticizers, lubricant inks, and paint additives. once released into the environment, PCBs persist for years because they are so resistant to degradation. In addition to their high degree of lipophilicity. In 1970s, the worldwide production of PCBs seem to be still in use. The environmental load of PCBs was prohibited since 1983 in Korea. In spite of these actions, many PCBs seem to be still in use. The environmental load of PCBs will continue to be recycled through air, land, water, and the biosphere for decades to come. This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of PCBs I the serum samples of 112 women by GC/MSD(Hewlett Packard 5897 Gas Chromatography-Mass Chromatography Detector) and CG/ECD(Hewlett Packard 5890 series-II gas chromatography-Electron capture detector, U.S.A). The main results of this study were as follows; The mean and standard deviation of serum PCBs were 3.613, 0.759 ppb, respectively and median of it was 3.828 ppb. The correlation coefficients of the concentrations of 13 PCB congeners ranged from 0.7913 to 0..9985 and were significantly correlated between each items(p=0.0001). The PCB concentrations were positively associated with age(simple linear regression; R2=0.86, =0.08023, p<0.001) and with total lipids in serums(simple linear regression; R=0.7058, =0.00486, p<0.001). The age adjusted model (Y=$\beta$0+$\beta$1age+$\beta$2X) was applied for possible predictors of PCBs levels in serum. For BMI(Body Mass Index), major residential area, and fish, meat, and dairy consumption, there was no association with PCBs levels, Also there was negative association for the number of pregnancy and lactation period with PCBs levels.

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Contamination level and congener profiles of PCBs, Co-PCBs and PCDD/DFs in transformer insulation oil samples (변압기 절연유 중 PCBs, Co-PCBs 및 PCDD/PCDFs 오염수준 및 이성체 분포)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Jong-Guk;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Kim, Kyoung-Sim;Song, Byung-Joo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 2006
  • The levels of total PCBs, Co-PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the transformer insulation oil samples obtained using GC/ECD and HRGC/HRMS were ranged from N.D. to 77.3 ppm, from 0.0863 to 2.49 ppm and from N.D. to 0.00241 ppm, respectively. In terms of WHO-TEQ values, Co-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were ranged from 23.3 to 600 pgTEQ/g and from N.D. to 128 pgTEQ/g, respectively (${\Sigma}Co$-PCBs+PCDD/Fs concentration was calculated 24.4~728 pgTEQ/g). Although, the contribution of PCDD/Fs was below 12% in total TEQ concentration, it is suggested contamination of PCDD/Fs in transformer insulation oils. Among 10 samples, 4 samples showed higher concentration than 2 ppm (specific waste criterion of Korea) and Aroclor 1242, 1248, 1254 and 1260 was detected in samples as a single or mixture of Aroclor. It was shown reliable relationship between concentration of Co-PCBs and those of PCDD/Fs (p<0.003), however, was not shown between production year of transformer and concentration of PCBs. The distribution pattern of Co-PCB congeners showed that the ratios of mono-ortho substituted congeners were higher than non-ortho substituted congeners. Among that, PCB-118 congener was predominant. In addition, the OCDD congener was predominated in PCDD/Fs congeners as above 53%. Moreover, the congener pattern of Co-PCBs was similar to that of Aroclor as well as ambient air, which suggested that PCBs volatilization from transformer insulation oil affected the pattern of Co-PCBs in ambient air.