• Title, Summary, Keyword: PCBs

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Characteristics of the dry deposition fluxes and ambient particl size distributions of PCBs: The measurements on fall, 1999 (입자상 PCBs 건식침적량과 입경분포 특성: 1999년 가을 측정)

  • Shin, Hye Jung;Kim, Yong Pyo;Yi, Seung Muk
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2009
  • The dry deposition fluxes of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured along with their mass size distributions at Seoul and Incheon in fall in 1999. The dry deposition fluxes of PCBs were in the range of $16.7{\sim}62.2ng/m^2/day$. The ambient concentrations of particulate PCBs were in the range of 0.07 to $0.20ng/m^3$. Generally, the mass size distribution of particulate PCBs shows bi-modal distribution. The mass fraction of PCBs in the fine particle fraction ($D_p<2.1 {\mu}m$) was over than 55% of the total PCBs concentrations. It was found that Seoul and Incheon were not the major source of PCBs emissions in Korea. Based on the comparison with the measurement data in summer, 1999, it is likely that both the dry deposition fluxes and ambient particulate PCBs concentrations were not site-specific.

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Effects of PCB Congeners in Rodent Neuronal Cells in Culture

  • Kim, Sun-Young;Yang, Jae-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2005
  • We attempted to analyze the mechanism of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced neurotoxicity and identify the target molecules in the neuronal cells for PCBs.Since the developing neuron is particularly sensitive to PCB-induced neurotoxicity, we isolated cerebellar granule cells derived from 7-day old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and grew cells in culture for additional 7 days to mimic PND-14 conditions. Only non-coplanar PCBs at a high dose showed a significant increase of total protein kinase C (PKC) activity at phobol 12,13-dibutyrate ([$^3M$]PDBu) binding assay, indicating that non-coplanar PCBs are more neuroactive than coplanar PCBs in neuronal cells. PKC isozymes were immunoblotted with the selected monoclonal antibodies. PKC-${\alpha}$, ${\delta}$, and ε were activated with non-coplanar PCB exposure. Receptor for activated C kinase-1 (RACK-1), anchoring protein for activated PKC, was more induced with exposure to coplanar PCBs than non-coplanar PCBs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed induction of neurogranin (RC-3) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) mRNA with non-coplanar PCBs. The results indicate that these factors may be useful biomarkers for differentiating non-coplanar PCBs from coplanar PCBs. The present study demonstrated that non-coplanar PCBs are more neuroactive congeners than coplanar PCBs.

Concentration Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) in Urban Watershed (도심하천유역의 PCBs 농도 분포)

  • Kim, Hyun-Seung;Kim, Il-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.757-766
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we have examined concentration distribution and patterns of PCBs in waters, sediments and soils in an agricultural area of South Korea to investigate the relationship between PCBs sources and concentration levels. The concentration of PCBs in water samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 8.25 ug/L and the concentration of PCBs in sediment samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 76.67 ug/Kg. The concentration of PCBs in soil samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 23.51 ug/Kg. These contamination levels were far below the guideline values suggested for environmental quality assessment. The homologue patterns in samples varied from sample to sample, but isomer patterns were very similar with each other. PCB-138 and PCB-153 were predominant congeners in the soil and sediment, which were similar to the results obtained from previous studies. With these results, the assessment of potential sources of PCBs contamination in the sediments of the Nakdong river basin was performed. The principal components were extracted by Principal Component Analysis(PCA). As the result of PCA, it could be expected that PCBs in samples of this study were more affected by PCB products than combustion processes and mostly affected by already-known sources. The PCBs in the soil and sediment samples were related with commercial PCB products.

Estimation of Atmospheric PCBs Concentrations of Several Sites Using Pine Needles as Passive Air Sampler(PAS) (소나무잎을 PAS로 이용하여 지역별 대기 중 PCBs 농도 추정)

  • Chun, Man-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This study was carried out in order to estimate atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations using pine needles as a passive air sampler (PAS) in urban, semi-rural and rural regions. Methods: One-year old pine needles were collected to analyze their PCBs concentrations ($C_p$, pg/g dry) at the end of December. PCBs concentrations in ambient air ($C_a$, $pg/m^3$) were calculated with the $logK_{oa}-log(C_p/C_a)$) model. Results: PCBs concentrations in ambient air ($C_a$) were high in the order of urban, semi-rural and rural regions. The lower-chlorinated PCBs showed a higher concentration in ambient air. However, the distribution of PCBs congeners was similar in all three regions. Correlation between $C_a$ and the population density of the three regions was significant ($R^2$=0.9834, p<0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that although the production and use of PCBs was banned in the1970s, PCBs are currently being produced unintentionally by human activities.

Adsorption of PCBs in Transformer Oil on Powder Activated Carbon and Synthetic Zeolite (활성탄과 합성 제올라이트를 이용한 폐절연유 내 PCBs 흡착)

  • Chu, Heon-Jik;Choi, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.573-578
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    • 2012
  • In this study, adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil on powder activated carbon (PAC) and synthetic zeolite was evaluated. Adsorption characteristics of PCBs on the PAC and zeolite has been investigated in a batch system with respect to adsorbents amount and contact time. BET results showed 908 m2/g for PAC and 483 m2/g for zeolite. The adsorption capacity of PCBs increased with an increasing input amount of absorbent. The adsorption experimental results showed that PAC removed 90% of input PCBs in transformer oil while zeolite removed only 64%. Adsorption of PCBs to PAC and zeolite fit the Freundlich model well. The Freundlich parameter, Kf, for PAC and zeolite was 193.1 and 43.0 respectively, indicating that PAC is effect adsorbent for PCBs adsorption in transformer oil.

Health and Ecological Risk Assessment of PCBs-exposure by Regulation Guideline Change (규제기준 변화에 다른 PCBs 인체 및 생태 위해성 평가)

  • Lim, Young-Wook;Yang, Ji-Yeon;Jung, Jong-Soo;Lee, Yong-Jin;Kim, Jin-Young;Lee, Chung-Soo;Ko, Seong-Joon;Shin, Dong-Chun
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, the concentration levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (or PCBs) in the environments in Korea are estimated based on some measured data in Korea, in comparison with the data from the other countries. Even though PCBs were banned as electrical fluids in 1970s in Korea, PCBs are still detected in the environment. PCBs levels in Korea are greatly lower than those in other countries, which are gradually decreased as well. However, the measured data are not sufficient in both numbers and quality, to estimate the average PCBs levels in Korea. The regulation limit on polychlorinated biphenyls (or PCBs) is 2mg/kg (ppm), which is too low compared to 50 ppm of many other countries including U.S. With this strict regulation, there are many problems expected, for example, in the analysis of PCBs in the transformers using in the field as well as the safe treatment of PCBs. The risk assessment on the PCBs in the environment is surely necessary prior to the change in the limit. Also the PCBs concentration monitoring in the environmental media (i.e. air, water, soil and sediment) and exposure assessment will be essential for the accurate risk assessment. If the PCB-waste guideline maintain as 2 ppm after 10 years, the excess cancer risk of PCBs exposure by ambient air, drinking water and soil was $10^{-8}$. But if the guideline mitigate as 50 ppm after 10 years, the cancer risk was increased by $10^{-7}$. The ecological risk quotient by regulation change was not exceed '1'.

Residual Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) in the Sediment of the Kumho River (금호강(琴湖江) 저니토중(底泥土中) Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs)의 잔류(殘留))

  • Kim, Jung-Ho;Moon, Chul-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.272-281
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    • 1995
  • The residual Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in the sediment of the Kumho River basin were measured because the Nakdong River was considered to be affected by the environmental quality of Kumho River. PCBs in the sediment were chlorinated and converted into Decachlorinated biphenyl(DCB) which showed the single peak in the GC-ECD chromatogram. The detectable concentrations of PCBs was 0.5ng/g in the sediment. PCBs in the 21 sediment samples was of Kumho River located at 7.5km from conjunction of Nakdong River were not detected from 100 samples. 49% of samples was showed lower than 50ng/g, and 9% did more than 400ng/g. The mean of PCBs concentrations was 131ng/g. The means of COD and organic carbon were 14.5mg/g and 3.41%, respectively. The relationship between PCBs were concentration and the distance from conjunction with Nakdong River was not significant. The concentration of PCBs were varied with the depth of the sediment down to the 250cm depth. The concentrations of PCBs in the depth 0-20cm and 50-90cm were higher than the mean concentration of PCBs. Along the cross of the stream, the concentrations of PCBs were 142ng/g at the center and 126 and 131ng/g at the river sides.

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Deposition Characteristics of Atmospheric PCBs by Type of Leaves in Pine Needles (소나무 종별 대기 중 PCBs의 침착특성)

  • Shin Eun Sang;Yeo Hyun-Gu;Cho Ki-Chul;Chun Man-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2006
  • Results for the concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs) and the PCB profile with different types of leaves from four coniferous trees (pine needles) at the same sampling site are presented. Concentrations of total PCBs detected in pine needles were very similar among them regardless of their different types of leaves, which means a possibility for bio-monitoring regional contamination of PCBs. Correlation coefficients(r) of PCB congeners between pine needles were very significant (r>0.97, p<0.001), which showed that PCB congener's patterns of each pine needle were similar. Profiles of PCBs detected in pine needles showed correlation with gaseous phase PCBs in air, otherwise not with particle phase PCBs in air. Therefore, it was estimated that dry gaseous deposition was a principal pathway of PCBs accumulation in pine needles. In addition, although we analyse a different types of leaves in pine needles at the same region, they can be used to identify regional contamination patterns of PCBs for larger regions.

The Concentrations of Endocrine Disrupter (PCBs and DDE) in the Serumand Their Predictors of Exposure in Korean Women (일부 한국 성인 여성들의 혈중 내분비계 장애물질 농도 및 그 노출요인의 연구)

  • 민선영;정문호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2001
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are halogenated aromatic compounds with the empirical formula $C_{12}$ $H_{10-n}$C $l_{n}$(n=1~10), and are a mixture of possible 209 different chlorinated congeners. PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, plasticizers, lubricant inks and paint addirives. Once released into the environment, PCBs persist for years because they are so resistant to degradation. In addition to their persistence in the environment, PCBs in ecological food chains undergo biomagnification because of their high degree of lipophilicity. In 1970s, the worldwide production of PCBs was ceased and the import of PCBs was prohibited since 1983 in Korea. In spite of these actions, many PCBs seems to be still in use. The environmental load of PCBs will continue to be recycled through air, land, water, and the biosphere for decades to come. This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of PCBs in the serum samples of 112 women by GC/MSD and GC/ECD. The main results of this study were as follows. 1. PCBs were detected in all samples. The mean $\pm$SD levels of PCBs in the serum were 3.613$\pm$0.759 ppb, and median were 3.828 ppb. 2. The correlation coefficients of the concentrations of 13 PCB congeners were from minimum, 0.7913 to maximum, 0.9985, and all was significant(p=0.0001). The correlation coefficient between the concentrations of PCBs and p,p'-DDE was 0.9641(p=0.0001). 3. There was a positive association between age and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ; $R^2$=0.86, $\beta$=0.08023, p<0.001). 4. There was a positive association between total lipids in the serum and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ; $R^2$=0.7058, $\beta$=0.00486, p<0.001). 5. For possible predictors of PCBs and p,p' -DDE levels in the serum, age adjusted model (Y=$\beta$$_{0}$+$\beta$$_1$age+ $B_2$X) was applied. For BMI, major residential area, wether to eat caught fish by angling, where to eat caught fish by angling(by parents in the past), fish consumption, meat consumption, meat consumption, and dairy consumption, there was no association. For total conception frequency and lactation frequency and lactation period, there was negative association.ion.

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Air-Soil Partitioning of PCBs in Rural Area

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Park, Min-Kyu;Chun, Man-Young;Young, Sun-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.E1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2003
  • The soil concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured at 12 sites in Ansung, Kyonggi province, Korea. Correlation coefficient (r) between total PCBs and organic matter content (OM) was significant (r=0.562, p< 0.05). It suggests that organic matter may be a key factor of soil absorption of PCBs. The PCB concentrations of low chlorinated congeners with high vapor pressure were relatively abundant in air but high chlorinated congeners with low vapor pressure were mainly dominated by soil. The results indicated the influence of physicochemical properties of PCBs such as vapor pressure, octanol - air partition coefficient ( $K_{OA}$ ). The calculated soil/air fugacity quotients suggested that the soil may be a source of heavier molecular PCBs (>penta-CBs) to the atmosphere, where lighter molecular PCBs appear to be affected by a movement from air to soil, especially tetra-CBs. Therefore, PCB homologs with low vapor pressure might have been influenced by revolatilization from soil.