• Title, Summary, Keyword: PCBs

Search Result 470, Processing Time 0.032 seconds

Estimation of Air Concentrations of PCBs using Passive Air Samplers (PAS) and a Gas/particle Partition Model (Passive Air Sampler (PAS)와 기체/입자 분배모델을 이용한 대기 중 PCB 농도 산정)

  • Baek, Song-Yee;Choi, Sung-Deuk;Chang, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.23 no.6
    • /
    • pp.734-743
    • /
    • 2007
  • Polyurethane foam-disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in a southern area of Korea for three months. The target compounds were 12 coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The congener profiles measured in this study were the same as those in ambient air and emission gas from the incinerator. A gradient of the total PCBs in different regions (industrial>residential>rural) was observed, suggesting the industrial complex may be an important source of coplanar PCBs. In general, only gas-phase compounds are mainly sequestrated by PAS. In order to estimate the concentration of particle-phase PCBs, a gas/particle partition model was used. A combined result (gas+particle-phase PCBs) was compared with previous results, indicating that the level of coplanar PCBs in our study area is comparable to those in other urban sites in the world. The validation of this method for estimating the total concentration is required through additional backup studies.

Gas-Particle Partitioning of PCBs in Ambient Air, Yokohama Japan (일본 요코하마 대기 중 PCBs의 가스-입자 분배)

  • Kim Kyoung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.285-293
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was aimed at estimation of gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air. The samples were collected at urban site in Japan from March 2002 to January 2003. The concentration of total PCBs (from 4 CB to 10 CB) and TEQ (Toxic equivalent) ranged from 62 to $247\;pg/m^3$ and from 2 to $14\;fgTEQ/m^3 $, respectively. The average contribution $(\%)$ of gas phase to total PCBs concentration was above $80\%$, which suggests that in the atmosphere PCBs predominantly existed in the gas phase. The weak correlations between total PCBs concentration and temperature was found. However this result was due to a typhoon during summer and raining during sampling period. The gas-particle partition coefficient (Kp) was obtained as a function of temperature. The partition ratio of gaseous and particulate phase PCBs can be estimated for an arbitrary temperature. The plot of gas/particle partition coefficient (log Kp) vs. sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure $(log\;P_L)$ had reasonable correlations for individual samples but the slope varied among the samples (coefficients of determination for log Kp versus log $P_L$ plot were> 0.76 $(p<0.0001)$, except for 3 samples). As a result, the variations in the slope among the sampling period may be due to change of temperature, raining during sampling period and wind in this study.

Separation properties of 209 PCB congeners on capillary columns and identification of PCBs congeners in aroclor standards for source identification (오염원 해석을 위한 폴리염화비페닐류(PCBs) 209 이성체의 컬럼별 분리 특성과 Aroclor 표준품의 이성체 확인)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Kim, Kyeo-Keun;Kim, Jong-Guk
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.352-364
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was performed to search for useful separation properties and elution orders of three GC columns (DB-1, DB-5MS, SPB-Octyl) for 209 PCBs congeners using M-1668A-0.01X-SET of the AccuStandard Inc.. In addition, to confirm the quantitative peak in peak pattern method, the IUPAC Nos. of PCBs congener peaks were identified with 4 Aroclor standards (Aroclor-1242, 1248, 1254 and 1260). The separation property of dioxin-like PCBs congeners by four columns (DB-1, DB-5MS, SP-2331 and SPB-Octyl) was excellent in SP-2331. DB-1 and SPB-Octyl columns are necessary to use with a column of other types.

Analysis of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs in muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus and Carassius cuvieri) from major rivers and lakes (주요 하천 및 호수에 서식하는 붕어 (Carassius auratus and Carassius cuvieri) 근육에 축적된 2,3,7,8-치환 PCDDs, PCDFs 및 DL-PCBs 분석)

  • Jeong, Gi-Ho;Moon, Ji-Yong;Moon, Dong-Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.24 no.6
    • /
    • pp.484-492
    • /
    • 2011
  • Bioaccumulation status and distribution characteristics of PCDDs, PCDFs and DL-PCBs in cruian carp collected from the four representative sites of major river systems in Korea were investigated. The recovery rates of PCDDs and PCDFs ranged from 50.6% to 88.3%, and those of DL-PCBs ranged from 52.3% to 93.2%. The mean, median and concentration range of ${\sum}$dioxins, which represents the total concentratons of PCDDs, PCDFs and DL-PCBs accumulated in the muscle of crucian carp, were 0.39, 0.14 and 0.047-1.0 pg TEQ/g wet wt., respectively. DL-PCBs were detected above the detection limit from all the samples, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were detected from limited crucian samples. The relative contribution of DL-PCBs to ${\sum}$dioxins was remarkably larger than those for PCDDs and PCDFs. The percent contribution was 83.6% for DL-PCBs, and followed by 12.7% and 3.7% for PCDFs and PCDDs, respectively.

Destruction and Removal of PCBs in Waste Transformer Oil by a Chemical Dechlorination Process

  • Ryoo, Keon-Sang;Byun, Sang-Hyuk;Choi, Jong-Ha;Hong, Yong-Pyo;Ryu, Young-Tae;Song, Jae-Seol;Lee, Dong-Suk;Lee, Hwa-Sung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.28 no.4
    • /
    • pp.520-528
    • /
    • 2007
  • A practical and efficient disposal of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in waste transformer oil by a chemical dechlorination process has been reported. The transformer oil containing commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1242, 1254 and 1260) was treated by the required amounts of PEG 600 (polyethylene glycol 600), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and aluminum (Al), along with different reaction temperatures and times. The reaction of PEG with PCBs under basic condition produces arylpolyglycols, the products of nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The relative efficiencies of PCB treatment process were assessed in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE, %). Under the experimental conditions of PEG600/KOH/Al/100 oC/2hr, average DRE of PCBs was approximately 78%, showing completely removal of PCBs containing 7-9 chlorines on two rings of biphenyl which appear later than PCB no. 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaCB) in retention time of GC/ECD. However, when increasing the reaction temperature and time to 150 oC and 240 min, average DRE of PCBs including the most toxic PCBs (PCB no. 77, 105, 118, 123 and 169) in PCB family reached 99.99% or better, with the exception of PCB no. 5 and 8 (2,3-diCB and 2,4'-diCB). In studying the reaction of PEG with PCBs, it confirmed that the process led to less chlorinated PCBs through a stepwise process with the successive elimination of chlorines. The process also permits complete recovery of treated transformer oil through simple segregating procedures.

Estimation on the application of Reference Materials for PCBs Proficiency Testing from the transformer oil (폐절연유를 이용한 숙련도 평가용 PCBs 표준물질의 적용성 평가)

  • Kim, Woo-Il;Kwon, Myung-Hee;Jeon, Tae-Wan;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Chun, Jin-Won;Sim, Ki-Tae;Yeon, Jin-Mo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.247-254
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to produce Reference Materials (RMs) for Proficiency Testing (PT) of PCBs in waste analytical laboratories. Two RMs were prepared from used transformer oil samples and PCB free transformer oil by spiking PCBs standard solutions. The spiked PCB RMs were homogenized by mixing and settling up to 90 days. Homogenized concentration of PCBs with Arochlor 1254 (6 ppm), 1254:1260 (1:1) (5 ppm) were observed in 60 days stationary phase but Arochlor 1260 (3.5 mg/L) were observed in 90 days stationary phase. One-way ANOVA test were carried out and showed that the RMs were suitably homogenized, which can be used for proficiency testing. The Relative Standard Deviations (RSDs) of analytical results were 3.51~5.01% for the PCBs RMs in 10 replicates. The expanded uncertainty of PCBs analytical procedure were 0.26~0.49.

Estimation of Indicator PCBs Exposure in Infants via Breast-Feeding Period (수유기간에 따른 모유 중 Indicator PCBs 분석을 통한 영유아의 인체노출평가)

  • We, Sung-Ug;Yoon, Cho-Hee;Min, Byung-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-15
    • /
    • 2012
  • The levels of indicator PCBs were determined in 132 human milk samples (Colostrum, 30th days after delivery, 60th days after delivery) collected in 2006 according to World Health Organization's (WHO) protocol. In addition, concentrations of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured by the isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatograph/high resolution mass detector (HRGC/HRMS), which gave accurate and precise data for estimations of international trend and comparisons. Average daily intakes (ADIs) of all analytes were calculated. The median level of total indicator PCBs was 14 ng/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 accounted for about 65% of the sum of the indicator congeners analyzed. The concentration of the most abundant PCB 153 is positively correlated with the concentration of the sum indicator PCBs (p<0.001). In this study, concentrations of total indicator PCBs significantly decreased with increasing number of children for a mother, indicating that parity and breast-feeding period an important role in the accumulation and elimination of these compounds in lactating women. The ADI for the median of total indicator PCBs for an infant was evaluated at $0.077{\mu}g/kg{\cdot}bw/day$ from birth to 6 months of age. The present study shows that concentrations of PCB 118 primipara breast milk have decreased 25~35 since 1998, and that this trend is continuing.

Plant Terpenes and lignin as Natural Cosubstrates in Biodegradation of Polyclorinated Biphyls (PCBs) and Polucyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  • Koh, Sung-Cheol;Park, Young-In;Koo, Yoon-Mo;So, Jae-Seong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
    • /
    • v.5 no.3
    • /
    • pp.164-168
    • /
    • 2000
  • The obhective of this minireview is to examine how cometabolic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) might be af fected by plant terpenes and lignins as natural substral substrates abundant in mature. The topics covered, hence are environmental sinficance of PCBs and PAHs, nature and disribution of plant terpences and lignin, structural and metabolic similarities of the natural compounds to PCBs and PAHs, and possible roles of the natural substrates in inducing the biodegradative patathways of PCBs and PAHs

  • PDF

Development of Analytical Method for Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Air (대기 중 PCBs와 유기염소계 살충제의 정량을 위한 분석 방법 개발)

  • 최민규;여현규;김태욱;천만영;선우영
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.18 no.6
    • /
    • pp.475-485
    • /
    • 2002
  • An analytical method was investigated for the meaiiurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentrations in air samples. Procedures required for column chromatographic clean up. silicagel (stage I) and gel permeation chromatography (stage II), were discussed. Identification and quantification of PCBs and OCPs were performed using a combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/ selected ion monitoring. Recovery tests calculated from six samples are 68∼137% for PCBs and 58∼130% for OCPs except for endrin aldehyde. Instrumental detection limits determined for the PCBs and OCPs varied from 0.05 to 0.18 pg/m3 and from 0.71 to 16.82 pg/㎥, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of air samples collected at Ansung city, Kyonggi province, Korea. This method may serve as a screening protocol for the simultaneous determination of PCBs and OCPs in air.

Adsoption Removal of PCBs by Activated Carbon (활성탄에 의한 PCBs의 흡착제거)

  • Yu, Yong-Ho;Lee, Jong-Jig
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-64
    • /
    • 2006
  • In this study, adsorption characteristics of PCBs on granular activated carbon were experimentally investigated in a batch reactor and in a fixed bed reactor. Granular activated carbon removed above 98.4% of initial concentration, 1000mg/L, of PCBs. It was estabilished that the adsorption equilibrium of PCBs on granular activated carbon was more successfully fitted by Freundlich isotherm equation in the concentration range from 1 to 1000mg/L. Because Freundlich parameter, ${\beta}$ is 0.346, removall treatment of PCBs by activated carbon accounts for the fact that toxicity reduction can be achieved through this process. Appearance time of breakthrough curve is faster with the increase flow rate and inflow concentration of liquid. The utility of granular activated carbon is enhanced with the increase of bed height and with the decrease of inflow rate.